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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713788/acute-drug-effects-on-habitual-and-non-habitual-responding-in-crossed-high-alcohol-preferring-mice
#1
Christa A Houck, Nicholas J Grahame
RATIONALE: Drug reward plays a central role in acquiring drug-seeking behavior. However, subjects may continue using drugs despite negative consequences because self-administration becomes habitual, and divorced from outcome values. Although a history of drug and alcohol use expedite habit acquisition, and in spite of the fact that self-administration leads to intoxication, the acute effects of drugs on habitual responding are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to observe how acute ethanol and amphetamine affect the balance between habitual and goal-directed behavior, as measured by a fluid-reinforced operant conditioning task...
April 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704853/postmortem-blood-alcohol-content-among-late-middle-aged-and-older-suicide-decedents-associations-with-suicide-precipitating-risk-factors-means-and-other-drug-toxicology
#2
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: This study examined blood alcohol content (BAC) among suicide decedents aged 50+ and its associations with suicide precipitating/risk factors, means, and other drug toxicology. METHODS: The National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005-2015, provided data (N = 56,118 for all suicide decedents and N = 29,115 with alcohol test results). We used logistic regression models, with BAC > 0.0 (BAC positive) and BAC > = 0.08 (intoxication) as the dependent variables...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701148/quantification-of-methamphetamine-%C3%A2-shabu%C3%A2-in-biological-matrices-to-detect-prenatal-exposure-a-case-report-and-a-literature-review
#3
Pilar Jarque, Antonia Roca, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce, B Bernardino Barcelo, Julia Klein
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine misuse represents an increasing global public health problem. Its consumption during pregnancy becomes a relevant issue, since it has clinical consequences for the child's health and the pregnant woman. Despite this, there are only few data in the literature that include analytical results in the matrices used to detect prenatal exposure. OBJECTIVES: 1) Present a case report of prenatal methamphetamine exposure with toxicological analytical confirmation in biological matrices; and 2) Perform a compilation of prenatal methamphetamine exposure studies and case reports which include toxicological analytical results...
April 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684296/alcohol-and-drug-intoxications-in-adolescents-admitted-to-paediatric-wards-in-the-czech-republic-5-year-retrospective-study-2006-2010
#4
Pavel Kabíček, Jiří Kobr, Lumír Šašek, Zita Obdržálková, Ludmila Svitálková, Věra Hůrková, Jiří Zeman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to establish frequency, severity and circumstances of alcohol and drug intoxications in adolescents admitted to inpatient wards in the Czech Republic. METHODS: Chief physician of each participating ward (or their designated deputy) searched the patient records for required information. The data was then statistically processed. RESULTS: Thirty inpatient paediatric wards participated in the study (27 district wards and 3 university hospital wards), amounting to more than a third of all paediatric wards in the country...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554274/dibutylone-bk-dmbdb-intoxications-quantitative-confirmations-and-metabolism-in-authentic-biological-specimens
#5
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549032/drug-sensitive-reward-in-crayfish-exploring-the-neural-basis-of-addiction-with-automated-learning-paradigms
#6
REVIEW
Robert Huber, Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel, Thomas I Nathaniel, Sayali Gore, Udita Datta, Rohan Bhimani, Jules B Panksepp, Jaak Panksepp, Moira J van Staaden
Results of recent work from our labs and those of others have broadened perspectives on addiction beyond a human-specific, cognitive phenomenon. Addictive plant alkaloids are defensive compounds which have arisen to counter herbivory. With insects the true targets of the coevolutionary arms race, humans may be little more than collateral damage when impacted by 'human' drugs of abuse. The present paper summarizes recent contributions, with a primary focus on our own research in crayfish, where we characterize the behavioral and neural consequences resulting from chronic and acute exposure to psychostimulant and addictive drugs...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516786/alcohol-and-drug-use-among-staff-at-licensed-premises-in-norway
#7
Kristin Buvik, Elin K Bye, Johanna Gripenberg
AIMS: There is increased concern about the use of alcohol and illicit drugs in nightlife settings. Most studies of substance use in nightlife settings are from the patrons' perspective, which leaves an understudied population - the nightclub staff. The aim of this paper is to study self-reported alcohol and substance use among staff at licensed premises in Norway: types of illicit drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among patrons. METHODS: A survey was conducted at server-training courses in 20 different cities in Norway during 2015...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516555/methamphetamine-psychosis-insights-from-the-past
#8
Rebecca McKetin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To review early case reports and experimental inductions of amphetamine and methamphetamine psychosis, prior to the prohibition of these drugs, to gain a better understanding of the nature and aetiology of methamphetamine psychosis. METHODS: Papers considered were historical case reports and case series of psychosis relating to the use and misuse of prescription amphetamine, focusing upon papers by Young & Scoville (1938), Connell (1958), and three subsequent experimental studies published in the early 1970s (Griffith 1972, Angrist & Gershon 1970 and Bell 1973), where psychosis was induced in volunteers using high-dose amphetamine and methamphetamine...
March 8, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404633/-bonzai-lead-and-bath-salt-poisoning-with-new-and-old-drugs-synthetic-amphetamines-cathinones-cannabinoids-and-opioids-an-overview
#9
REVIEW
J Strube, A Schaper
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the number of serious poisonings and deaths after the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). These are usually bought online: sometimes legally, often illegally or "in the grey area". OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of different NPS. Legal status concerning the New Psychoactive Substances Act (NpSG). Risk assessment of several substance groups, possible complications of acute poisonings, therapeutic recommendations...
February 5, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#10
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
February 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194289/lack-of-detection-of-new-amphetamine-like-drugs-using-conventional-urinary-immunoassays
#11
Anja Begeman, Eric J F Franssen
BACKGROUND: The number of reports of serious adverse effects and intoxication after the use of the new drug 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) increases. At the Emergency Department of the OLVG-Oost Hospital in Amsterdam, an on-site drug test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen, is available to assist in a rapid diagnosis. In less urgent cases, an EMIT II Plus immunoassay is used to determine semiquantitatively the presence of drugs of abuse (DOA). The antibodies in these immunoassays are designed to detect classic DOA and its urinary metabolites...
February 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030166/mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-use-in-humans-the-twisted-sisters
#12
REVIEW
Laurent Karila, Geneviève Lafaye, Amandine Scocard, Olivier Cottencin, Amine Benyamina
The new psychoactive substances phenomenon continues to represent a considerable public health challenge. Synthetic cathinones are β-keto amphetamine analogues, also known as legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts. These drugs have surfaced as a popular alternative to other illicit drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine, due to their potent psychostimulant and empathogenic effects. Pyrovalerone cathinones (a-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct group of designer cathinones, such as MDPV...
October 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985320/multiple-drug-toxicity-involving-novel-psychoactive-substances-3-fluorophenmetrazine-and-u-47700
#13
Kayla N Ellefsen, Elizabeth A Taylor, Paul Simmons, Vickie Willoughby, Brad J Hall
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a stimulant-like novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and fluorinated analog of phenmetrazine that has recently appeared on the recreational drug market, with limited published information. Likewise, the synthetic opioid U-47700 has gained popularity among recreational drug users and is frequently detected in postmortem casework. We present the case history, autopsy and toxicological findings of a fatality involving the designer drugs 3-FPM and U-47700 for the first time in the literature...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978661/studies-on-para-methoxymethamphetamine-pmma-metabolite-pattern-and-influence-of-cyp2d6-genetics-in-human-liver-microsomes-and-authentic-samples-from-fatal-pmma-intoxications
#14
Merete Vevelstad, Elisabeth Leere Oiestad, Elisabeth Nerem, Marianne Arnestad, Inger Lise Bogen
Para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) has caused numerous fatal poisonings worldwide and appears to be more toxic than other ring-substituted amphetamines. Systemic metabolism is suggested to be important for PMMA neurotoxicity, possibly through activation of minor catechol metabolites to neurotoxic conjugates. The aim of this study was to examine the metabolism of PMMA in humans, and for this purpose we used human liver microsomes (HLM) and blood samples from three cases of fatal PMMA intoxication. We also examined the impact of CYP2D6 genetics on PMMA metabolism using genotyped HLM isolated from CYP2D6 poor, population average and ultrarapid metabolizers...
October 4, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975809/cross-reactivity-of-selected-benzofurans-with-commercial-amphetamine-and-ecstasy-immunoassays-in-urine
#15
Isabel Gomila, Concepción Moranta, Loreto Quesada, Yolanda Pastor, Macarena Dastis, Albert Torrents, Miguel Ángel Elorza, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Bernardino Barceló
AIM: The aim of this study was to perform a cross-reactivity investigation of six benzofurans with immunoassays (IAs) screening tests for amphetamines and ecstasy in urine samples. METHODS: The following benzofuranes were investigated: 5-(2-Methylaminopropyl)Benzofuran (5-MAPB), 5-(2-methylaminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (5-MAPDB), 5-(2-Aminopropyl)-Benzofuran (5-APB), 5-(2-Aminopropyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (5-APDB), 5-(2-Ethylaminopropyl)Benzofuran (5-EAPB) and 5-(2-Aminoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (5-AEDB)...
November 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957720/application-of-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-determination-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-in-blood-and-urine
#16
Mateusz Kacper Woźniak, Marek Wiergowski, Justyna Aszyk, Paweł Kubica, Jacek Namieśnik, Marek Biziuk
Amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) are the most popular amphetamine-type stimulants. The use of these substances is a serious societal problem worldwide. In this study, a method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the six aforementioned amphetamine derivatives in blood and urine...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840991/evaluation-of-the-triage-tox-drug-screen-assay-for-detection-of-11-drugs-of-abuse-and-therapeutic-drugs
#17
Hae In Bang, Mi Ae Jang, Yong Wha Lee
The demand for rapid and broad clinical toxicology screens is on the rise. Recently, a new rapid toxicology screening test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen (Alere Inc., USA), which can simultaneously detect 11 drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs with an instrument-read cartridge, was developed. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of this new on-site immunoassay using 105 urine specimens; the results were compared with those obtained by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS)...
November 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830121/drugged-driving-in-wisconsin-oral-fluid-versus-blood
#18
Lorrine D Edwards, Katherine L Smith, Theodore Savage
A pilot project was conducted in Dane County, Wisconsin, to evaluate the frequency of individuals driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Evidentiary blood specimens, collected from subjects arrested for Operating While Intoxicated (OWI), were compared to oral fluid (OF) results obtained with the Alere DDS2®, a handheld screening device. The project objectives were to evaluate (i) the Alere DDS2® for use by police officers in the field, (ii) the frequency of individuals DUID and drugs combined with alcohol among OWI cases, (iii) the differences between detecting drugs in OF and in blood, and (iv) the effect of the laboratory drug testing cancellation policy (LCP) when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds 0...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828702/-intoxication-with-psychotropic-drugs
#19
R Bellmann, M Joannidis
Psychotropic drugs are medications that are indicated for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Attempted suicide is the major reason for intoxication but inadvertent overdosing may also occur. Other psychotropic agents are taken because of their stimulating and hallucinogenic effects and many have a high addictive potential. Poisoning is usually due to accidental overdosing. For treatment of benzodiazepine and opioid intoxication, flumazenil and naloxone, respectively, are used as specific antagonists. For intoxication by tricyclic antidepressants, sodium bicarbonate is the treatment of choice...
September 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#20
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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