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amphetamine intoxication

Roger W Byard, James Donkin, Robert Vink
The effects of D-amphetamine on outcome after blunt craniocerebral trauma are characterized and the potential legal implications discussed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was induced under general anesthesia in adult, male Sprague Dawley rats using the impact acceleration model. At 10 min prior to injury, D-amphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline vehicle was administered subcutaneously; animals were subsequently assessed over a 7-day period post-trauma for motor outcome using a rotarod device. D-amphetamine treated animals performed significantly better (p < 0...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Anna Hiro Noda, Ulrich Schu, Tanja Maier, Susanne Knake, Felix Rosenow
Bupropion, an amphetamine-like dual mechanism drug, is approved and increasingly used for the treatment of major depression, and its use is associated with a dose-dependent risk of epileptic seizures. Suicide attempts are frequent in major depression and often an overdose of the drugs available is ingested. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the clinical course, including EEG and neurological symptoms, as well as treatment and prognosis of bupropion intoxication. We report on the clinical and EEG course of a women who ingested 27 g of bupropion in a suicide attempt...
February 27, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Martina Jochum, Joachim Oeding, Denise Lackner, Hannes Lienhart
This case presents the clinical treatment of a patient with severe MDMA intoxication. The history of stimulating psychotropic substances is presented as well as the modes of action of current party drugs. Data from the Austrian Drug Report indicate a tendency away from "hard drugs" towards the consumption of cannabis and amphetamine derivates. The lethal outcome in our case demonstrates the risk potential of these substances and underlines the necessity of aggressive resuscitation efforts.
February 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Che-Se Tung, Shang-Tang Chang, Chuen-Lin Huang, Nai-Kuei Huang
Amphetamine (AMPH) is a commonly abused psychostimulant that induces neuronal cell death/degeneration in humans and experimental animals. Although multiple neurotoxic mechanisms of AMPH have been intensively investigated, the interplay between these mechanisms has remained elusive. In this study, we used a rat model of AMPH-induced long-lasting striatal dopamine (DA) depletion and identified mechanisms of neurotoxicity, energy failure, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with nicotinamide (NAM, a co-factor for the electron transport chain) blocked AMPH-induced free radical formation, energy failure, and striatal DA decrease...
February 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Stephen J deRoux, William A Dunn
"Bath salts" are synthetic derivatives of cathinones, compounds found in the leaves of Catha edulis, which possesses amphetamine-like properties. At the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner, we conducted a 3-year retrospective analysis of deaths in which cathinones were detected. Two categories emerged; those in which cathinones were a contributory cause of death (15 cases) and those in which they were an incidental finding (15 cases). Of the former group, 13 were associated with additional intoxicants; two deaths were attributed solely to cathinone intoxication, both survived 10 h: a man whose postmortem blood methylone concentration was 0...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
F Betzler, A Heinz, S Köhler
Background: Synthetic drug use and abuse are on the rise. Governmental institutions report a shift in consumption from natural drugs to synthetic drugs, and show an increase in confiscation, particularly of methamphetamine and newly identified psychoactive substances. In addition, the media report an alarming increase in the rate of consumption and casualties resulting from the use of drugs such as "crystal meth" and warn against a flood of this and other designer drugs from eastern European countries. Objectives: The present article gives an overview of current popular and widely used synthetic drugs, both classical substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA) and new psychoactive substances ("designer drugs", "legal highs")...
November 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Douglas Senna Engelke, Renato Filev, Luiz E Mello, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior
Addiction is a multifactorial disease that comprises physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. Addict subjects have intense plasticity in cortical and limbic circuits during intoxication, abstinence or even in drug seeking behavior. Locomotor sensitization is a classic animal model of drug addiction that mimics the changes that occur in the transition from drug use to drug addiction. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of contextual associative processes in this task. However, whether the mechanisms of sensitization are maintained and precise over the time remain an open question...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Eun-Joo Shin, Duy-Khanh Dang, Hai-Quyen Tran, Yunsung Nam, Ji Hoon Jeong, Young Hun Lee, Kyung Tae Park, Yong Sup Lee, Choon-Gon Jang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) is a para-ring-substituted amphetamine derivative sold worldwide as an illegal psychotropic drug. Although PMMA use has been reported to lead to severe intoxication and even death, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which PMMA exerts its neurotoxic effects. Here we found that PMMA treatment resulted in phosphorylation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) and subsequent mitochondrial translocation of cleaved PKCδ. PMMA-induced oxidative stress was more pronounced in mitochondria than in the cytosol...
September 10, 2016: Neurochemistry International
S Fogel, F Lesage, G Cheron
INTRODUCTION: In France, the use of illicit drugs is increasing and therefore accidental poisoning may occur in infants and children. We report on a case of ecstasy poisoning in an infant who presented with atypical neurological symptoms. CASE REPORT: An 11-month-old infant suddenly developed agitation with eye rolling and unreactive bilateral mydriasis. All neurologic causes were excluded. The search for toxicants revealed an intoxication with an amphetamine and MDMA...
August 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Erica Bakota, Crystal Arndt, Amelia A Romoser, Stephen K Wilson
We present in this case report a validated method for accurate quantitative analysis of 3-methoxy phencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) to determine postmortem blood concentrations of this PCP analog. A 29-year-old male with a history of illicit drug use was found unresponsive in his bed with a bag of white powder next to him. Resuscitation efforts were unsuccessful and the individual was pronounced dead 9 minutes after arrival to the hospital. Initial ELISA screening suggested the presence of PCP in the decedent's blood...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Simone Cappelletti, Mariarosaria Aromatario, Edoardo Bottoni, Paola Antonella Fiore, Marco Straccamore, Federica Umani Ronchi, Guido Maria De Mari, Costantino Ciallella
Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole...
May 2016: Legal Medicine
C Bréhin, C Cessans, C Monchaud, M Lavit, C Majorel, I Claudet
UNLABELLED: We report a case of a pseudo encephalitis presentation of pediatric intoxication - Case report - a 7 year-old girl was admitted to our pediatric emergency unit after she developed sudden agitation, visual and tactile hallucinations. She was febrile (38.3 °C). She had not experienced any recent head trauma, infection or toxic ingestion; she did not take any medication for ADD. Her physical exam revealed tachycardia, normal pupils, reflexes and normal plantar responses. Laboratory investigations (complete blood count, basic metabolic panel, plasma lactate level, ammonia level) produced normal results...
May 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
M Gracey
Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view...
January 1998: Addiction Biology
Maria João Valente, Ana Margarida Araújo, Renata Silva, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Márcia Carvalho
Synthetic cathinones have emerged in recreational drug markets as legal alternatives for classical amphetamines. Though currently banned in several countries, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one of the most commonly abused cathinone derivatives worldwide. We have recently reported the potential of MDPV to induce hepatocellular damage, but the underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxicity remain to be elucidated. Similar to amphetamines, a prominent toxic effect of acute intoxications by MDPV is hyperthermia...
August 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Piotr Adamowicz, Joanna Gieroń, Dominika Gil, Wojciech Lechowicz, Agnieszka Skulska, Bogdan Tokarczyk
New psychoactive substances (NPS) pose a challenge for forensic and clinical toxicologists, as well as for legislators. We present our findings from cases where NPS have been detected in biological material. During the three-year period 2012-2014 we found NPS in 112 cases (out of 1058 analyzed), with 75 cases in 2014 alone. The prevalence of all NPS (15.1-17.6%) was similar to amphetamine alone that was detected in 15.1-16.5% of cases. The new drugs found belonged to the following classes: cathinones (88%), synthetic cannabinoids (5%), phenethylamines (3%), piperazines and piperidines (3%), arylalkylamines (1%) and other (1%)...
January 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
F P Busardò, C Kyriakou, S Napoletano, E Marinelli, S Zaami
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused of due to their psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects, similar to those of cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), amphetamines and methamphetamines. Mephedrone is a cathinone analogue (4-methyl aromatic analogue of methcathinone) that was reported to be implicated in several fatalities in the media across Europe, but only a few have actually resulted in mephedrone cited as the cause of death. In this paper, we aim to systematically review analytically confirmed cases of mephedrone-related fatalities...
October 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Kirsten Wiese Simonsen, Dorte J Christoffersen, Jytte Banner, Kristian Linnet, Ljubica V Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in 2012 were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 188 fatal intoxications were recorded. The median age increased from 37.5 in 2007 to 41.5 in 2012...
October 2015: Danish Medical Journal
Kirsten Wöllner, Sarah Stockhausen, Frank Mußhoff, Burkhard Madea
Synthetic amphetamines such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) have become recreational drugs in German discotheques because of their euphoric and mood-brightening effects. However, their consumption involves considerable risks, which may even be lethal under certain circumstances. A 19-year-old man was taken to a university hospital for suspected intoxication with a narcotic drug, where he died the next day. As cause of death "fulminant liver failure" was diagnosed. In blood from the femoral vein, MDMA was found in a concentration of 4...
January 2015: Archiv Für Kriminologie
M Ćwiklińska, G Teresiński, G Buszewicz
INTRODUCTION: The available legal regulations in Poland do not define the concentration thresholds enabling to differentiate between the states of "after-use" versus "under the influence" of a drug, as it is in the case of alcohol. The aim of the study was to analyse jurisdiction in cases regarding the evaluation of the effects of intoxicating agents and ethanol-like intoxicants and to identify ambiguities and gaps in the applicable regulations leading to problems in preparing expert opinions...
2015: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
David Baumeister, Luis M Tojo, Derek K Tracy
There has been growing clinical, public, and media awareness and concern about the availability and potential harmfulness of so-called 'legal highs', which are more appropriately called new or novel psychoactive substances (NPS). A cat-and-mouse process has emerged wherein unknown chemists and laboratories are producing new, and as yet nonproscribed, compounds for human consumption; and as soon as they are banned, which they inevitably are, slightly modified analogues are produced to circumvent new laws. This rapidly changing environment, 81 new substances were identified in 2013 alone, has led to confusion for clinicians, psychopharmacologists, and the public at large...
April 2015: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
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