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Gate control theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513706/control-over-the-magnetism-and-transition-between-high-and-low-spin-states-of-an-adatom-on-trilayer-graphene
#1
Anmin Zheng, Guoying Gao, Hai Huang, Jinhua Gao, Kailun Yao
Using density-functional theory, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of an adatom (Na, Cu and Fe) on ABA- and ABC-stacked (Bernal and rhombohedral) trilayer graphenes. In particular, we study the influence of an applied gate voltage on magnetism, as it modifies the electronic states of the trilayer graphene (TLG) as well as changes the adatom spin states. Our study performed for a choice of three different adatoms (Na, Cu, and Fe) shows that the nature of adatom-graphene bonding evolves from ionic to covalent in moving from an alkali metal (Na) to a transition metal (Cu or Fe)...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512786/a-single-molecular-and-gate-operated-with-two-orthogonal-switching-mechanisms
#2
Na Zhang, Wai-Yip Lo, Anex Jose, Zhengxu Cai, Lianwei Li, Luping Yu
Single-molecular electronics is a potential solution to nanoscale electronic devices. While simple functional single-molecule devices such as diodes, switches, and wires are well studied, complex single-molecular systems with multiple functional units are rarely investigated. Here, a single-molecule AND logic gate is constructed from a proton-switchable edge-on gated pyridinoparacyclophane unit with a light-switchable diarylethene unit. The AND gate can be controlled orthogonally by light and protonation and produce desired electrical output at room temperature...
May 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484964/spinal-circuits-transmitting-mechanical-pain-and-itch
#3
REVIEW
Bo Duan, Longzhen Cheng, Qiufu Ma
In 1905, Henry Head first suggested that transmission of pain-related protopathic information can be negatively modulated by inputs from afferents sensing innocuous touch and temperature. In 1965, Melzak and Wall proposed a more concrete gate control theory of pain that highlights the interaction between unmyelinated C fibers and myelinated A fibers in pain transmission. Here we review the current understanding of the spinal microcircuits transmitting and gating mechanical pain or itch. We also discuss how disruption of the gate control could cause pain or itch evoked by innocuous mechanical stimuli, a hallmark symptom for many chronic pain or itch patients...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458478/efficacy-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-pelvic-pain
#4
Nidhi Sharma, Kaja Rekha, Jayashree K Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: Chronic pelvic pain is prevalent in 2% of women population globally. The etiology is multifactorial. Even in the absence of pelvic pathology, there is a subgroup of women who do not respond to analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Chronic pelvic pain can be inhibited by direct inhibition of impulses in the preganglionic afferent neuron by closing the hypothetical gate in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is based on the gate control theory of abolishing the painful stimuli by providing simultaneous inputs in larger myelinated nerve fibers...
January 2017: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421749/design-of-multifunctional-nanogate-in-response-to-multiple-external-stimuli-using-amphiphilic-diblock-copolymer
#5
Kai Huang, Igal Szleifer
Nature uses the interplay between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions of disordered proteins to orchestrate complicated molecular gates such as the nuclear pore complex to control the transport of biological masses. Inspired by nature, we here theoretically show that well-defined gate shape, sensitive response to pH and salt concentration, and selectivity in cargo transport can be simultaneously achieved by grafting amphiphilic diblock copolymers made of sequence-controlled hydrophobic and ionizable monomers on the inner surface of solid-state nanopore...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368982/spinal-cord-stimulation-in-chronic-pain-mode-of-action
#6
Ricardo Vallejo, Kerry Bradley, Leonardo Kapural
OBJECTIVE: A review of the literature that presents a perspective on mechanisms of actions behind spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy for chronic pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SCS is an effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of intractable chronic pain. Its application has been mostly based on the Gate Control Theory (GCT) of pain. Computational models have been fundamental on the understanding of clinical observations and the design of therapies that provide optimal neuromodulation...
March 31, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247157/impaired-white-matter-connectivity-between-regions-containing-mirror-neurons-and-relationship-to-negative-symptoms-and-social-cognition-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#7
Yukiko Saito, Marek Kubicki, Inga Koerte, Tatsui Otsuka, Yogesh Rathi, Ofer Pasternak, Sylvain Bouix, Ryan Eckbo, Zora Kikinis, Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Tomohide Roppongi, Elisabetta Del Re, Takeshi Asami, Sang-Hyuk Lee, Sarina Karmacharya, Raquelle I Mesholam-Gately, Larry J Seidman, James Levitt, Robert W McCarley, Martha E Shenton, Margaret A Niznikiewicz
In schizophrenia, abnormalities in structural connectivity between brain regions known to contain mirror neurons and their relationship to negative symptoms related to a domain of social cognition are not well understood. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were acquired in 16 patients with first episode schizophrenia and 16 matched healthy controls. FA and Trace of the tracts interconnecting regions known to be rich in mirror neurons, i.e., anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and premotor cortex (PMC) were evaluated...
February 28, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231458/gate-control-theory-springs-a-leak
#8
Paula J S Pereira, Ethan A Lerner
Sun and colleagues (2017) find that individual Grp+ spinal interneurons can respond to and distinguish between stimuli that provoke itch or pain. The nociceptive response is limited by enkaphalin-expressing interneurons that are connected synaptically to the Grp+ neurons.
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211902/simultaneous-observation-of-particle-and-wave-behaviors-of-entangled-photons
#9
Zhong-Xiao Man, Yun-Jie Xia, Nguyen Ba An
We theoretically study wave-particle duality of two entangled photons in the spirit of quantum version of delayed-choice experiments using Hadamard gate controlled by the quantum state of an ancilla and show that the two photons may globally exhibit particle-like, wave-like or simultaneously both particle-like and wave-like behavior. We prove that the obtained results cannot be satisfactorily explained by any hidden-variable theory. We also propose an efficient and experimentally feasible scheme without using any ancilla and controlled-gates to directly (i...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176989/variations-of-thermoelectric-performance-by-electric-fields-in-bilayer-mx2-m-w-mo-x-s-se
#10
Rui-Ning Wang, Guo-Yi Dong, Shu-Fang Wang, Guang-Sheng Fu, Jiang-Long Wang
A gate electrode is usually used to controllably tune the carrier concentrations, further modulating the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient to obtain the optimum thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in two-dimensional materials. On the other hand, it is necessary to investigate how an electric field induced by a gate voltage affects the electronic structures, further determining the thermoelectric properties. Therefore, by using density functional calculations in combination with Boltzmann theory, the thermoelectric properties of bilayer MX2 (M = W, Mo; X = S, Se) with or without a 1 V nm(-1) perpendicular electric field are comparatively investigated...
February 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111668/temperature-controlled-colossal-magnetoresistance-and-perfect-spin-seebeck-effect-in-hybrid-graphene-boron-nitride-nanoribbons
#11
Lin Zhu, Ruimin Li, Kailun Yao
Thermal spin transport properties of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbon heterojunctions have been investigated using density functional theory calculations combined with the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function approach. The results showed that the perfect spin Seebeck effect and analogy negative differential thermoelectric resistance occurred in the device under a temperature difference without a gate or bias voltage. An intriguing thermally induced colossal magnetoresistance without gate regulation was also observed, which can be switched between a positive and negative value with temperature control...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#12
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear. Here we present and validate a novel decision framework for analyzing behavioral data in multialternative attention tasks...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094503/controlled-doping-in-graphene-monolayers-by-trapping-organic-molecules-at-the-graphene-substrate-interface
#13
Pawan Kumar Srivastava, Premlata Yadav, Varsha Rani, Subhasis Ghosh
We report controlled doping in graphene monolayers through charge-transfer interaction by trapping selected organic molecules between graphene and underneath substrates. Controllability has been demonstrated in terms of shifts in Raman peaks and Dirac points in graphene monolayers. Under field effect transistor geometry, a shift in the Dirac point to the negative (positive) gate voltage region gives an inherent signature of n- (p-)type doping as a consequence of charge-transfer interaction between organic molecules and graphene...
January 31, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057537/the-chloride-co-transporters-nkcc1-and-kcc2-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae
#14
Muhammad Saad Yousuf, Kasia Zubkow, Gustavo Tenorio, Bradley Kerr
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) often complain of neuropathic pain. According to the Gate Control Theory of Pain, spinal networks of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are important in modulating nociceptive inputs from the periphery. Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) generally dictate the tone of GABA/glycine inhibition by regulating intracellular chloride concentrations. In this study, we investigated the role of NKCC1 and KCC2 in neuropathic pain observed in the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model to study the pathophysiology of MS...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028236/in-operando-evidence-of-deoxygenation-in-ionic-liquid-gating-of-yba2cu3o7-x
#15
Ana M Perez-Muñoz, Pedro Schio, Roberta Poloni, Alejandro Fernandez-Martinez, Alberto Rivera-Calzada, Julio C Cezar, Eduardo Salas-Colera, German R Castro, Joseph Kinney, Carlos Leon, Jacobo Santamaria, Javier Garcia-Barriocanal, Allen M Goldman
Field-effect experiments on cuprates using ionic liquids have enabled the exploration of their rich phase diagrams [Leng X, et al. (2011) Phys Rev Lett 107(2):027001]. Conventional understanding of the electrostatic doping is in terms of modifications of the charge density to screen the electric field generated at the double layer. However, it has been recently reported that the suppression of the metal to insulator transition induced in VO2 by ionic liquid gating is due to oxygen vacancy formation rather than to electrostatic doping [Jeong J, et al...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896190/the-use-of-locally-applied-vibration-to-minimize-pain-during-fractional-co2-laser-therapy-in-living-liver-donor-scar-management
#16
Sinyoung Song, Dong Hoon Choi, Tae Suk Oh
BACKGROUND: Fractional CO2 laser is an effective treatment for scars, but most patients complain about sharp burning pain, even after the application of lidocaine ointment. This study analyzed the impact of a vibrating device to nonpharmacologically reduce the acute pain of laser treatment, in accordance with the gate control theory of pain management. METHODS: This is a prospective study performed from May 2013 through March 2014. Fifty-three patients (mean age, 26...
November 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891403/efficacy-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder
#17
Nidhi Sharma, Kaja Rekha, Krishnamurthy Jayashree Srinivasan
INTRODUCTION: Overactive Bladder (OAB) accounts for 40-70% cases of incontinence. The etiology is unknown though detrusor instability is found in urodynamic evaluation of almost all cases. Detrusor instability or hyperreflexia can be inhibited by direct inhibition of impulses in the pre-ganglionic afferent neuron or by inhibition of bladder pre-ganglionic neurons of the efferent limb of micturition reflex. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is based on the gate control theory of abolishing the local micturition reflex arc...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843683/spinal-neuromodulation-as-a-novel-surgical-option-for-failed-back-surgery-syndrome-following-rhbmp-exuberant-bony-growth-in-instrumented-lumbar-fusion-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Ramsis F Ghaly, Alexei Lissounov, Tatiana Tverdohleb, David Kohanchi, Kenneth D Candido, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) for instrumented lumbar fusion was approved in 2002, and since then has led to an increasing incidence of BMP-related neuropathic pain. These patients are usually resistant to conventional medical therapy and frequently undergo multiple surgical revisions without any pain relief. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old male was referred to the author's outpatient clinic after four lumbar surgeries did not provide satisfactory pain relief...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714115/size-tunable-synthesis-of-monolayer-mos2-nanoparticles-and-their-applications-in-non-volatile-memory-devices
#19
Jaeho Jeon, Jinhee Lee, Gwangwe Yoo, Jin-Hong Park, Geun Young Yeom, Yun Hee Jang, Sungjoo Lee
We report the CVD synthesis of a monolayer of MoS2 nanoparticles such that the nanoparticle size was controlled over the range 5-100 nm and the chemical potential of sulfur was modified, both by controlling the hydrogen flow rate during the CVD process. As the hydrogen flow rate was increased, the reaction process of sulfur changed from a "sulfiding" process to a "sulfo-reductive" process, resulting in the growth of smaller MoS2 nanoparticles on the substrates. The size control, crystalline quality, chemical configuration, and distribution uniformity of the CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 nanoparticles were confirmed...
September 29, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618609/why-acupuncture-in-pain-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Alena Ondrejkovicova, Gabriel Petrovics, Katarína Svitkova, Bibiana Bajtekova, Ondrej Bangha
Acupuncture is one of the branches of Chinese Traditional Medicine dating back almost 5 000 years. The expansion of China's trade and business relations with other Asian countries brought about the spreading of acupuncture in 7th Century. Nowadays, acupuncture is an interdisciplinary clinical field of Medicine dealing with treatment, diagnostics and prevention of mainly functional disorders, algic, allergic and addictive conditions of various etiology, localization and intensity. It draws from the millennia of experience of Oriental Medicine as well as contemporary knowledge of morphology, physiology and neurophysiology...
July 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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