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Gate control theory

Laura Silies, Estefania Gonzalez Solveyra, Igal Szleifer, Annette Andrieu-Brunsen
Nanopores play a decisive role in different technologies from oil production, separation, and sensing to drug delivery or catalysis and energy conversion. In recent years, abilities to functionalize nanopores have advanced significantly. Thereby, nanopores functionalized with polyelectrolytes or responsive polymers show fascinating transport properties, such as gated or gradually controlled ionic permselectivity. Nonetheless, understanding the influence of external parameters such as ion type or concentration on nanopore performance, and thus on the mentioned applications, remains a challenge but is crucial for applications...
May 8, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bhakti K Patel, Blair N Wendlandt, Krysta S Wolfe, Shruti B Patel, Elizabeth Doman, Anne S Pohlman, Jesse B Hall, John P Kress
BACKGROUND: Lidocaine is used to alleviate procedural pain, but paradoxically increases pain during injection. Pain perception can be modulated by non-noxious stimuli such as temperature or touch according to the gate control theory of pain. We postulated that lidocaine dripped onto the skin prior to injection would cool or touch the skin surface to reduce pain perception from the procedure. METHODS: We conducted a randomized clinical trial of patients referred to the procedure service from February 2011 thru March 2015...
April 23, 2018: Chest
Jun Beom Kim, Jinshu Li, Yongsuk Choi, Dongmok Whang, Euyheon Hwang, Jeong Ho Cho
We investigate the electric transport in a graphene-organic dye hybrid and the formation of p-n junctions. In the conventional approach, graphene p-n junctions are produced by using multiple electrostatic gates or local chemical doping, which produce different types of carriers in graphene. Instead of using multiple gates or typical chemical doping, a different approach to fabricate p-n junctions is proposed. The approach is based on optical gating of the photosensitive dye molecules; this method can produce a well-defined sharp junction...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
G Gronchi, S Righi, L Pierguidi, F Giovannelli, I Murasecco, M P Viggiano
The positivity effect in the elderly consists of an attentional preference for positive information as well as avoidance of negative information. Extant theories predict either that the positivity effect depends on controlled attentional processes (socio-emotional selectivity theory), or on an automatic gating selection mechanism (dynamic integration theory). This study examined the role of automatic and controlled attention in the positivity effect. Two dot-probe tasks (with the duration of the stimuli lasting 100 ms and 500 ms, respectively) were employed to compare the attentional bias of 35 elderly people to that of 35 young adults...
April 2018: Acta Psychologica
Xiaoou Zhang, Wen-Yu Shan, Di Xiao
We show that the exciton optical selection rule in gapped chiral fermion systems is governed by their winding number w, a topological quantity of the Bloch bands. Specifically, in a C_{N}-invariant chiral fermion system, the angular momentum of bright exciton states is given by w±1+nN with n being an integer. We demonstrate our theory by proposing two chiral fermion systems capable of hosting dark s-like excitons: gapped surface states of a topological crystalline insulator with C_{4} rotational symmetry and biased 3R-stacked MoS_{2} bilayers...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Andrei D Sdrulla, Yun Guan, Srinivasa N Raja
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a minimally invasive therapy used for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. SCS is a safe and effective alternative to medications such as opioids, and multiple randomized controlled studies have demonstrated efficacy for difficult-to-treat neuropathic conditions such as failed back surgery syndrome. Conventional SCS is believed mediate pain relief via activation of dorsal column Aβ fibers, resulting in variable effects on sensory and pain thresholds, and measurable alterations in higher order cortical processing...
March 11, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Srimanta Pakhira, Kevin P Lucht, Jose L Mendoza-Cortes
Bilayer graphene (BLG) is a semiconductor whose band gap and properties can be tuned by various methods such as doping or applying gate voltage. Here, we show how to tune electronic properties of BLG by intercalation of transition metal (TM) atoms between two monolayer graphene (MLG) using a novel dispersion-corrected first-principle density functional theory (DFT) approach. We intercalated V, Nb, and Ta atoms between two MLG. We found that the symmetry, the spin, and the concentration of TM atoms in BLG-intercalated materials are the important parameters to control and to obtain a Dirac cone in their band structures...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Julie Bonapace, Guy-Paul Gagné, Nils Chaillet, Raymonde Gagnon, Emmanuelle Hébert, Sarah Buckley
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence relating to nonpharmacological approaches in the management of pain during labour and delivery. To formulate recommendations for the usage of nonpharmacological approaches to pain management. OPTIONS: Nonpharmacological methods available for pain management during labour and delivery exist. These should be included in the counselling and care of women. EVIDENCE: PubMed and Medline were searched for articles in French and English on subjects related to "breastfeeding," "pain," "epidural," "anaesthesia," "analgesia," "labour," "labor," and combined with "gate control theory," "alternative therapies," "massage," "position," "mobility," "TENS," "bathing," "DNIC," "acupuncture," "acupressure," "sterile water injection," "higher center," "control mind," "cognitive structuring," "holistic health," "complementary therapy(ies)," "breathing," "relaxation," "mental imagery," "visualization," "mind focusing," "hypnosis," "auto-hypnosis," "sophrology," "mind and body interventions," "music," "odors," "biofeedback," "Lamaze," "Bonapace," "prenatal training," "gymnastic," "chanting," "haptonomy," "environment," "transcutaneous electrical stimulus-stimulation," "antenatal education," "support," "continuous support," "psychosocial support," "psychosomatic medicine," "supportive care," "companion," "intrapartum care," "nurse," "midwife(ves)," "father," "doula," "caregiver," " hormones," "oxytocin," "endorphin," "prolactin," "catecholamine," "adrenaline," and "noradrenaline" from 1990 to December 2015...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Cansu Arslan Turan, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Rohat Ak, Kemal Aygun, Ali Sahiner, Engin Sumer, Adnan Somay, Ozge Ecmel Onur
Although the mechanism of action is not well known, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that, ILE probably separates the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high-dose free fatty acids activating the voltage-gated calcium channels in the myocytes. In this study, effects of ILE treatment on digoxin overdose were searched in an animal model in terms of cardiac side effects and survival...
February 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Philip Kiær Ahring, Vivian Wan Yu Liao, Thomas Balle
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the Cys-loop receptor family and are vital for normal mammalian brain function. Cys-loop receptors are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels formed from five identical or homologous subunits oriented around a central ion-conducting pore, which result in homomeric or heteromeric receptors, respectively. Within a given Cys-loop receptor family, many different heteromeric receptors can assemble from a common set of subunits, and understanding the properties of these heteromeric receptors is crucial for the continuing quest to generate novel treatments for human diseases...
January 30, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
N M Gergs, S A Bender, R A Duine, D Schuricht
We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Önder Gül, Hao Zhang, Jouri D S Bommer, Michiel W A de Moor, Diana Car, Sébastien R Plissard, Erik P A M Bakkers, Attila Geresdi, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Leo P Kouwenhoven
Majorana modes are zero-energy excitations of a topological superconductor that exhibit non-Abelian statistics1-3 . Following proposals for their detection in a semiconductor nanowire coupled to an s-wave superconductor4,5 , several tunnelling experiments reported characteristic Majorana signatures6-11 . Reducing disorder has been a prime challenge for these experiments because disorder can mimic the zero-energy signatures of Majoranas12-16 , and renders the topological properties inaccessible17-20 . Here, we show characteristic Majorana signatures in InSb nanowire devices exhibiting clear ballistic transport properties...
March 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Michał Oszmaniec, Zoltán Zimborás
For numerous applications of quantum theory it is desirable to be able to apply arbitrary unitary operations on a given quantum system. However, in particular situations only a subset of unitary operations is easily accessible. This raises the question of what additional unitary gates should be added to a given gate set in order to attain physical universality, i.e., to be able to perform arbitrary unitary transformation on the relevant Hilbert space. In this work, we study this problem for three paradigmatic cases of naturally occurring restricted gate sets: (A) particle-number preserving bosonic linear optics, (B) particle-number preserving fermionic linear optics, and (C) general (not necessarily particle-number preserving) fermionic linear optics...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Claire L Hobday, Thomas D Bennett, David Fairen-Jimenez, Alexander J Graham, Carole A Morrison, David R Allan, Tina Düren, Stephen A Moggach
Many zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are promising candidates for use in separation technologies. Comprising large cavities interconnected by small windows they can be used, at least in principle, as molecular sieves where molecules smaller than the window size are able to diffuse into the material while larger molecules are rejected. However, "swing effect" or "gate opening" phenomena resulting in an enlargement of the windows have proven to be detrimental. Here, we present the first systematic experimental and computational study of the effect of chemical functionalization of the imidazole linker on the framework dynamics...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Teresa Ruiz-Herrero, Kévin Alessandri, Basile V Gurchenkov, Pierre Nassoy, L Mahadevan
Hollow vesicular tissues of various sizes and shapes arise in biological organs such as ears, guts, hearts, brains and even entire organisms. Regulating their size and shape is crucial for their function. Although chemical signaling has been thought to play a role in the regulation of cellular processes that feed into larger scales, it is increasingly recognized that mechanical forces are involved in the modulation of size and shape at larger length scales. Motivated by a variety of examples of tissue cyst formation and size control that show simultaneous growth and size oscillations, we create a minimal theoretical framework for the growth and dynamics of a soft, fluid-permeable, spherical shell...
December 1, 2017: Development
Xiaodong Zhou, Wanxiang Feng, Fei Li, Yugui Yao
Blue phosphorene (BP) and gray arsenene (GA), consisting of phosphorus and arsenic atoms in two-dimensional (2D) low-buckled honeycomb lattices, respectively, have received great interest because of their excellent electronic and optoelectronic performances. Here, using first-principles density functional theory, we investigate magneto-optical (MO) Kerr and Faraday effects in BP and GA under hole doping. Ferromagnetic ground states are found in hole-doped monolayer and bilayer BP and GA due to the Stoner electronic instability, which originates from the van Hove singularity of the density of states at the valence band edge...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
Jun Hong Park, Atresh Sanne, Yuzheng Guo, Matin Amani, Kehao Zhang, Hema C P Movva, Joshua A Robinson, Ali Javey, John Robertson, Sanjay K Banerjee, Andrew C Kummel
Integration of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) into next-generation semiconductor platforms has been limited due to a lack of effective passivation techniques for defects in TMDs. The formation of an organic-inorganic van der Waals interface between a monolayer (ML) of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) and a ML of MoS2 is investigated as a defect passivation method. A strong negative charge transfer from MoS2 to TiOPc molecules is observed in scanning tunneling microscopy. As a result of the formation of a van der Waals interface, the I ON / I OFF in back-gated MoS2 transistors increases by more than two orders of magnitude, whereas the degradation in the photoluminescence signal is suppressed...
October 2017: Science Advances
Rafael Roa, Won Kyu Kim, Matej Kanduč, Joachim Dzubiella, Stefano Angioletti-Uberti
We describe a general theory for surface-catalyzed bimolecular reactions in responsive nanoreactors, catalytically active nanoparticles coated by a stimuli-responsive "gating" shell, whose permeability controls the activity of the process. We address two archetypal scenarios encountered in this system: the first, where two species diffusing from a bulk solution react at the catalyst's surface, and the second, where only one of the reactants diffuses from the bulk while the other is produced at the nanoparticle surface, e...
September 1, 2017: ACS Catalysis
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion...
August 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Yulin Feng, Kailiang Zhang, Hui Li, Fang Wang, Baozeng Zhou, Mingxu Fang, Weichao Wang, Jun Wei, H S Philip Wong
The surface potential (SP) variations in mono and multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are visualized in situ and detected using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) in different humidity conditions for the first time. N-type doping, which originates from the SiO2 substrate, is discovered in the exfoliated MoS2 and is accompanied by a screening length of five layers. The influence of water, which serves as an environmental gating for MoS2, is investigated by controlling the relative humidities (RHs) in the environmental chamber...
June 30, 2017: Nanotechnology
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