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Gate control theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664874/in-situ-visualization-and-detection-of-surface-potential-variation-of-mono-and-multilayer-mos2-under-different-humidities-using-kelvin-probe-force-microscopy
#1
Yulin Feng, Kailiang Zhang, Hui Li, Fang Wang, Baozeng Zhou, Mingxu Fang, Weichao Wang, Jun Wei, H S Philip Wong
The surface potential (SP) variations in mono and multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are visualized in situ and detected using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) in different humidity conditions for the first time. N-type doping, which originates from the SiO2 substrate, is discovered in the exfoliated MoS2 and is accompanied by a screening length of five layers. The influence of water, which serves as an environmental gating for MoS2, is investigated by controlling the relative humidities (RHs) in the environmental chamber...
June 30, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649988/iron-mediated-soil-carbon-response-to-water-table-decline-in-an-alpine-wetland
#2
Yiyun Wang, Hao Wang, Jin-Sheng He, Xiaojuan Feng
The tremendous reservoir of soil organic carbon (SOC) in wetlands is being threatened by water-table decline (WTD) globally. However, the SOC response to WTD remains highly uncertain. Here we examine the under-investigated role of iron (Fe) in mediating soil enzyme activity and lignin stabilization in a mesocosm WTD experiment in an alpine wetland. In contrast to the classic 'enzyme latch' theory, phenol oxidative activity is mainly controlled by ferrous iron [Fe(II)] and declines with WTD, leading to an accumulation of dissolvable aromatics and a reduced activity of hydrolytic enzyme...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639401/van-der-waals-epitaxial-growth-of-atomic-layered-hfs2-crystals-for-ultrasensitive-near-infrared-phototransistors
#3
Lei Fu, Feng Wang, Bin Wu, Nian Wu, Wei Huang, Hanlin Wang, Chuanhong Jin, Lin Zhuang, Jun He, Lei Fu, Yunqi Liu
As a member of the group IVB transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family, hafnium disulfide (HfS2 ) is recently predicted to exhibit higher carrier mobility and higher tunneling current density than group VIB (Mo and W) TMDs. However, the synthesis of high-quality HfS2 crystals, sparsely reported, has greatly hindered the development of this new field. Here, a facile strategy for controlled synthesis of high-quality atomic layered HfS2 crystals by van der Waals epitaxy is reported. Density functional theory calculations are applied to elucidate the systematic epitaxial growth process of the S-edge and Hf-edge...
June 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628278/interfacial-charge-engineering-in-ferroelectric-controlled-mott-transistors
#4
Xuegang Chen, Xin Zhang, Mark A Koten, Hanghui Chen, Zhiyong Xiao, Le Zhang, Jeffrey E Shield, Peter A Dowben, Xia Hong
Heteroepitaxial coupling at complex oxide interfaces presents a powerful tool for engineering the charge degree of freedom in strongly correlated materials, which can be utilized to achieve tailored functionalities that are inaccessible in the bulk form. Here, the charge-transfer effect between two strongly correlated oxides, Sm0.5 Nd0.5 NiO3 (SNNO) and La0.67 Sr0.33 MnO3 (LSMO), is exploited to realize a giant enhancement of the ferroelectric field effect in a prototype Mott field-effect transistor. By switching the polarization field of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate, nonvolatile resistance modulation in the Mott transistors with single-layer SNNO and bilayer SNNO/LSMO channels is induced...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568898/conventional-and-novel-spinal-stimulation-algorithms-hypothetical-mechanisms-of-action-and-comments-on-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Bengt Linderoth, Robert D Foreman
OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) emerged as a direct clinical spin-off from the Gate Control Theory from 1965. Over the last decade, several new modes of SCS have appeared. This review discusses these novel techniques and their hypothetical mechanisms of action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A recent literature search on SCS coupled with the most recent data from poster presentations and congress lectures have been used to illustrate new hypothetical ways of modulating pain...
August 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567006/lateral-entorhinal-cortex-lesions-impair-local-spatial-frameworks
#6
Maneesh V Kuruvilla, James A Ainge
A prominent theory in the neurobiology of memory processing is that episodic memory is supported by contextually gated spatial representations in the hippocampus formed by combining spatial information from medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) with non-spatial information from lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). However, there is a growing body of evidence from lesion and single-unit recording studies in rodents suggesting that LEC might have a role in encoding space, particularly the current and previous locations of objects within the local environment...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566756/layer-dependent-semiconductor-metal-transition-of-sno-si-001-heterostructure-and-device-application
#7
Chengcheng Xiao, Fang Wang, Yao Wang, Shengyuan A Yang, Jianzhong Jiang, Ming Yang, Yunhao Lu, Shijie Wang, Yuanping Feng
As the downscaling of electronic devices continues, the problems of leakage currents and heat dissipation become more and more serious. To address these issues, new materials and new structures are explored. Here, we propose an interesting heterostructure made of ultrathin SnO layers on Si(001) surface. Our first-principle calculations show that a single layer of SnO on Si(001) surface is a semiconductor, but a bilayer SnO on the same surface is metallic. This metal-semiconductor dichotomy allows construction of single-2D-material-based electronic devices with low contact resistance and low leakage currents...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513706/control-over-the-magnetism-and-transition-between-high-and-low-spin-states-of-an-adatom-on-trilayer-graphene
#8
Anmin Zheng, Guoying Gao, Hai Huang, Jinhua Gao, Kailun Yao
Using density-functional theory, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of an adatom (Na, Cu and Fe) on ABA- and ABC-stacked (Bernal and rhombohedral) trilayer graphenes. In particular, we study the influence of an applied gate voltage on magnetism, as it modifies the electronic states of the trilayer graphene (TLG) as well as changes the adatom spin states. Our study performed for a choice of three different adatoms (Na, Cu, and Fe) shows that the nature of adatom-graphene bonding evolves from ionic to covalent in moving from an alkali metal (Na) to a transition metal (Cu or Fe)...
May 31, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512786/a-single-molecular-and-gate-operated-with-two-orthogonal-switching-mechanisms
#9
Na Zhang, Wai-Yip Lo, Anex Jose, Zhengxu Cai, Lianwei Li, Luping Yu
Single-molecular electronics is a potential solution to nanoscale electronic devices. While simple functional single-molecule devices such as diodes, switches, and wires are well studied, complex single-molecular systems with multiple functional units are rarely investigated. Here, a single-molecule AND logic gate is constructed from a proton-switchable edge-on gated pyridinoparacyclophane unit with a light-switchable diarylethene unit. The AND gate can be controlled orthogonally by light and protonation and produce desired electrical output at room temperature...
May 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484964/spinal-circuits-transmitting-mechanical-pain-and-itch
#10
REVIEW
Bo Duan, Longzhen Cheng, Qiufu Ma
In 1905, Henry Head first suggested that transmission of pain-related protopathic information can be negatively modulated by inputs from afferents sensing innocuous touch and temperature. In 1965, Melzak and Wall proposed a more concrete gate control theory of pain that highlights the interaction between unmyelinated C fibers and myelinated A fibers in pain transmission. Here we review the current understanding of the spinal microcircuits transmitting and gating mechanical pain or itch. We also discuss how disruption of the gate control could cause pain or itch evoked by innocuous mechanical stimuli, a hallmark symptom for many chronic pain or itch patients...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458478/efficacy-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-pelvic-pain
#11
Nidhi Sharma, Kaja Rekha, Jayashree K Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: Chronic pelvic pain is prevalent in 2% of women population globally. The etiology is multifactorial. Even in the absence of pelvic pathology, there is a subgroup of women who do not respond to analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Chronic pelvic pain can be inhibited by direct inhibition of impulses in the preganglionic afferent neuron by closing the hypothetical gate in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is based on the gate control theory of abolishing the painful stimuli by providing simultaneous inputs in larger myelinated nerve fibers...
January 2017: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421749/design-of-multifunctional-nanogate-in-response-to-multiple-external-stimuli-using-amphiphilic-diblock-copolymer
#12
Kai Huang, Igal Szleifer
Nature uses the interplay between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions of disordered proteins to orchestrate complicated molecular gates such as the nuclear pore complex to control the transport of biological masses. Inspired by nature, we here theoretically show that well-defined gate shape, sensitive response to pH and salt concentration, and selectivity in cargo transport can be simultaneously achieved by grafting amphiphilic diblock copolymers made of sequence-controlled hydrophobic and ionizable monomers on the inner surface of solid-state nanopore...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368982/spinal-cord-stimulation-in-chronic-pain-mode-of-action
#13
Ricardo Vallejo, Kerry Bradley, Leonardo Kapural
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. OBJECTIVE: A review of the literature that presents a perspective on mechanisms of actions behind spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy for chronic pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SCS is an effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of intractable chronic pain. Its application has been mostly based on the gate control theory of pain. Computational models have been fundamental on the understanding of clinical observations and the design of therapies that provide optimal neuromodulation...
July 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247157/impaired-white-matter-connectivity-between-regions-containing-mirror-neurons-and-relationship-to-negative-symptoms-and-social-cognition-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#14
Yukiko Saito, Marek Kubicki, Inga Koerte, Tatsui Otsuka, Yogesh Rathi, Ofer Pasternak, Sylvain Bouix, Ryan Eckbo, Zora Kikinis, Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Tomohide Roppongi, Elisabetta Del Re, Takeshi Asami, Sang-Hyuk Lee, Sarina Karmacharya, Raquelle I Mesholam-Gately, Larry J Seidman, James Levitt, Robert W McCarley, Martha E Shenton, Margaret A Niznikiewicz
In schizophrenia, abnormalities in structural connectivity between brain regions known to contain mirror neurons and their relationship to negative symptoms related to a domain of social cognition are not well understood. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were acquired in 16 patients with first episode schizophrenia and 16 matched healthy controls. FA and Trace of the tracts interconnecting regions known to be rich in mirror neurons, i.e., anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and premotor cortex (PMC) were evaluated...
February 28, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231458/gate-control-theory-springs-a-leak
#15
Paula J S Pereira, Ethan A Lerner
Sun and colleagues (2017) find that individual Grp+ spinal interneurons can respond to and distinguish between stimuli that provoke itch or pain. The nociceptive response is limited by enkaphalin-expressing interneurons that are connected synaptically to the Grp+ neurons.
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211902/simultaneous-observation-of-particle-and-wave-behaviors-of-entangled-photons
#16
Zhong-Xiao Man, Yun-Jie Xia, Nguyen Ba An
We theoretically study wave-particle duality of two entangled photons in the spirit of quantum version of delayed-choice experiments using Hadamard gate controlled by the quantum state of an ancilla and show that the two photons may globally exhibit particle-like, wave-like or simultaneously both particle-like and wave-like behavior. We prove that the obtained results cannot be satisfactorily explained by any hidden-variable theory. We also propose an efficient and experimentally feasible scheme without using any ancilla and controlled-gates to directly (i...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176989/variations-of-thermoelectric-performance-by-electric-fields-in-bilayer-mx2-m-w-mo-x-s-se
#17
Rui-Ning Wang, Guo-Yi Dong, Shu-Fang Wang, Guang-Sheng Fu, Jiang-Long Wang
A gate electrode is usually used to controllably tune the carrier concentrations, further modulating the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient to obtain the optimum thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in two-dimensional materials. On the other hand, it is necessary to investigate how an electric field induced by a gate voltage affects the electronic structures, further determining the thermoelectric properties. Therefore, by using density functional calculations in combination with Boltzmann theory, the thermoelectric properties of bilayer MX2 (M = W, Mo; X = S, Se) with or without a 1 V nm(-1) perpendicular electric field are comparatively investigated...
February 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111668/temperature-controlled-colossal-magnetoresistance-and-perfect-spin-seebeck-effect-in-hybrid-graphene-boron-nitride-nanoribbons
#18
Lin Zhu, Ruimin Li, Kailun Yao
Thermal spin transport properties of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbon heterojunctions have been investigated using density functional theory calculations combined with the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function approach. The results showed that the perfect spin Seebeck effect and analogy negative differential thermoelectric resistance occurred in the device under a temperature difference without a gate or bias voltage. An intriguing thermally induced colossal magnetoresistance without gate regulation was also observed, which can be switched between a positive and negative value with temperature control...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#19
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear. Here we present and validate a novel decision framework for analyzing behavioral data in multialternative attention tasks...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094503/controlled-doping-in-graphene-monolayers-by-trapping-organic-molecules-at-the-graphene-substrate-interface
#20
Pawan Kumar Srivastava, Premlata Yadav, Varsha Rani, Subhasis Ghosh
We report controlled doping in graphene monolayers through charge-transfer interaction by trapping selected organic molecules between graphene and underneath substrates. Controllability has been demonstrated in terms of shifts in Raman peaks and Dirac points in graphene monolayers. Under field effect transistor geometry, a shift in the Dirac point to the negative (positive) gate voltage region gives an inherent signature of n- (p-)type doping as a consequence of charge-transfer interaction between organic molecules and graphene...
January 31, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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