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Pearls before swine

Pearl M Swe, Martha Zakrzewski, Andrew Kelly, Lutz Krause, Katja Fischer
BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite...
2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shiona K Glass-Kaastra, David L Pearl, Richard Reid-Smith, Beverly McEwen, Durda Slavic, Jim Fairles, Scott A McEwen
The objective of this work was to describe trends in multiple-class antimicrobial resistance present in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine 1998-2010. Temporal changes in multiple-class resistance varied by the pathogens examined; significant yearly changes were apparent for the E. coli and P. multocida data. Although not present in the E. coli data, significant increases in multiple-class resistance within P. multocida isolates occurred from 2003 to 2005, coinciding with the expected increase in antimicrobials used to treat clinical signs of Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) before it was confirmed...
February 1, 2014: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Robert C Marvit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2010: Hawaii Medical Journal
Cal Gutkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2009: Canadian Family Physician M├ędecin de Famille Canadien
Jeffrey M Pearl, David M Plank, Kelly M McLean, Connie J Wagner, Jodie Y Duffy
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids can reduce myocardial dysfunction associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and circulatory arrest. The hypothesis was that maintenance of cardiac function after CPB with methylprednisolone therapy results, in part, from preservation of myocyte calcium cycling. METHODS: Piglets (5-7 kg) underwent CPB and 120 min of hypothermic circulatory arrest with (CPB-GC) or without (CPB) methylprednisolone (30 mgkg(-1)) administered 6h before and at CPB...
May 15, 2011: Journal of Surgical Research
J Bromberg, J Gill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2009: American Journal of Transplantation
Jodie Y Duffy, Kelly M McLean, Jefferson M Lyons, Adam J Czaikowski, Connie J Wagner, Jeffrey M Pearl
OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis is that partial nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibition can alleviate cardiopulmonary dysfunction associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (CPB/DHCA) in a pediatric model. DESIGN: Animal case study. SUBJECTS: Two-week-old piglets (5-7 kg). INTERVENTIONS: Piglets received 100 microg/kg of SN50, a peptide inhibitor of NF-kappaB translocation and activation, 1 hour before CPB...
February 2009: Critical Care Medicine
Prakash K Pandalai, Kelly M McLean, Christian F Bulcao, Jodie Y Duffy, Karen M D'Souza, Walter H Merrill, Jeffrey M Pearl, Shahab A Akhter
OBJECTIVE: Beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization through activation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 is an important mechanism of early cardiac dysfunction after brain death. We hypothesized that acute beta-blockade can prevent myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization after brain death through attenuation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 activity, resulting in improved cardiac function. METHODS: Adult pigs underwent either sham operation, induction of brain death, or treatment with esmolol (beta-blockade) for 30 minutes before and 45 minutes after brain death (n = 8 per group)...
April 2008: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Kelly M McLean, Prakash K Pandalai, Jeffrey M Pearl, Christian F Bulcao, Jefferson M Lyons, Connie J Wagner, Shahab A Akhter, Jodie Y Duffy
BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction after brain death decreases the already limited number of potential donors for cardiac transplantation. Acute beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) desensitization after the brain death-associated catecholamine surge is an important mechanism. We hypothesized that acute betaAR antagonism could improve myocardial function after brain death by preserving betaAR signaling. METHODS: Pigs were randomly assigned to three study groups (n = 5): sham; brain death; and brain death with betaAR antagonist (200 microg/kg/min esmolol), 30 minutes before brain death until 45 minutes after brain death...
May 2007: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
J Kyle Anderson, Meredith Baker, Omar Jaffers, Margaret S Pearle, Guy L Lindberg, Jeffrey A Cadeddu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase staining has been used to confirm cell viability or death after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tissue. The time course over which NADH staining status converts from viable to non-viable after a lethal insult has not been defined for renal RFA, but the change may not be immediate. Our objective was to assess porcine renal tissue for viability using NADH diaphorase staining at various times after RFA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven pigs underwent monopolar RFA of both kidneys followed by needle biopsy of the ablation zone before and immediately after ablation and at 15-minute intervals thereafter...
February 2007: Journal of Endourology
Kelly M McLean, Jodie Y Duffy, Prakash K Pandalai, Jefferson M Lyons, Christian F Bulcao, Connie J Wagner, Shahab A Akhter, Jeffrey M Pearl
BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction after brain death (BD) limits donors for cardiac transplantation. Glucocorticoids ameliorate brain death-induced donor heart dysfunction. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid therapy alleviates myocardial depression through altering the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators via the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/inhibitor of kappaB-alpha (IkappaBalpha) pathway and/or by preserving beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) signaling in the heart...
January 2007: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Jefferson M Lyons, Jeffrey M Pearl, Kelly M McLean, Shahab A Akhter, Connie J Wagner, Prakash K Pandalai, Jodie Y Duffy
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury and subsequent brain death (BD) account for nearly half of all organ donors, yet only 33% of available hearts are transplanted. Alterations in multiple physiologic pathways after BD can lead to cardiac dysfunction and exclusion from transplantation. Triple hormone resuscitation with methylprednisolone, thyroid hormone and vasopressin has had inconsistent results in the effort to reduce cardiac dysfunction associated with BD, but individual analysis of these agents is limited...
December 2005: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Robert A Kaiser, Jefferson M Lyons, Jodie Y Duffy, Connie J Wagner, Kelly M McLean, Timothy P O'Neill, Jeffrey M Pearl, Jeffery D Molkentin
The MAPK family member p38 is activated in the heart after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the cardioprotective vs. proapoptotic effects associated with p38 activation in the heart after I/R injury remain unresolved. Another issue to consider is that the majority of past studies have employed the rodent as a model for assessing p38's role in cardiac injury vs. protection, while the potential regulatory role in a large animal model is even more uncertain. Here we performed a parallel study in the mouse and pig to directly compare the extent of cardiac injury after I/R at baseline or with the selective p38 inhibitor SB-239063...
December 2005: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Chris van Weel, Walter W Rosser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2005: Family Practice
Jodie Y Duffy, Steven M Schwartz, Jefferson M Lyons, Jason H Bell, Connie J Wagner, Basilia Zingarelli, Jeffrey M Pearl
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children can result in cardiopulmonary dysfunction through ischemia and reperfusion injury. Pulmonary hypertension and injury are particularly common and morbid complications of neonatal cardiac surgery. Inhibition of calpain, a cysteine protease, has been shown to inhibit reperfusion injury in adult organ systems. The hypothesis is that calpain inhibition can alleviate the cardiopulmonary dysfunction seen in immature animals following ischemia and reperfusion with cardiopulmonary bypass...
March 2005: Critical Care Medicine
Jeffrey M Pearl, Steven M Schwartz, David P Nelson, Connie J Wagner, Jefferson M Lyons, Steven M Bauer, Jodie Y Duffy
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids during cardiopulmonary bypass benefit pediatric patients undergoing repair of congenital heart defects and are routine therapy, but underlying mechanisms have not been fully examined. The hypothesis was that glucocorticoids could improve cardiopulmonary recovery after cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. METHODS: Crossbred piglets (5 to 7 kg) were cooled with cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by 120-min deep hypothermic circulatory arrest...
March 2004: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Jodie Y Duffy, David P Nelson, Steven M Schwartz, Connie J Wagner, Steven M Bauer, Jefferson M Lyons, Jerri L McNamara, Jeffrey M Pearl
OBJECTIVE: The hypotheses were that glucocorticoid administration could improve ventricular recovery by reducing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-induced inflammatory response and that presurgical administration might be more effective than intraoperative dosing. DESIGN: Animal case study. SUBJECTS: Crossbred piglets (5-7 kg). INTERVENTIONS: Piglets were cooled with CPB, followed by 120 mins of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA)...
January 2004: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Steven M Schwartz, JodieE Y Duffy, Jeffrey M Pearl, Semin Goins, Connie J Wagner, David P Nelson
Degradation of troponin I (TnI) by calpain occurs with myocardial stunning in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Glucocorticoids attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, but their effect on TnI degradation is unknown. A piglet model was used to test the hypotheses that cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) are associated with TnI degradation and that TnI alterations could be prevented by glucocorticoid treatment. Piglets were cooled to 18 degrees C, subjected to 2 h of circulatory arrest, rewarmed to 37 degrees C, and allowed to recover for 2 h...
July 2003: Pediatric Research
Matthew T Gettman, Yair Lotan, Guy Lindberg, Cheryl A Napper, John Hoopman, Margaret S Pearle, Jeffrey A Cadeddu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of interstitial laser coagulation (ILC), applied via a laparoscopic approach, with and without hilar occlusion in the porcine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In nine female farm pigs, bilateral renal mobilization was performed via a transperitoneal laparoscopic approach. Using a 600- micro m bare-tip silicon diode laser fiber inserted 0.5 cm into the lower pole of each kidney, diode laser energy (wavelength 805 nm) was applied for 15 minutes at 6 W...
October 2002: Journal of Endourology
Thomas G Smith, Matthew Gettman, Guy Lindberg, Cheryl Napper, Margaret S Pearle, Jeffrey A Cadeddu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate an alternative technique using an onlay patch of porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) allograft to bridge a ureteral defect. For ureteral strictures that fail endourologic management, few options are available for minimally invasive repair or reconstruction. Although laparoscopic interposition of a tubularized allograft of porcine SIS has great promise, animal studies have yielded mixed results. METHODS: In 9 anesthetized female pigs, cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography were performed, and a ureteral stent was placed...
November 2002: Urology
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