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psychiatric complications of dementia

J Lagarde, M Sarazin
Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) in its behavioral variant (bvFTD) is probably one of the conditions that best illustrates the links between psychiatry and neurology. It is indeed admitted that between a third and half of patients with this condition, especially in early-onset forms, receive an initial diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and are then referred to a psychiatric ward. BvFTD can thus be considered a neurological disorder with a psychiatric presentation...
October 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
Giampaolo Bernini, Domenico Tricò
Cushing's Syndrome (CS) is associated with a specific spectrum of dementia-like symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, anxiety and mania, and neurocognitive alterations, like impairment of memory and concentration. This pattern of clinical complications, which significantly impair the health-related quality of life of CS patients, is sometimes referred to as "steroid dementia syndrome" (SDS). The SDS is the result of anatomical and functional anomalies in brain areas involved in the processing of emotion and cognition, which are only partially restored after the biochemical remission of the disease...
2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
John W Yaxley, Geoffrey D Coughlin, Suzanne K Chambers, Stefano Occhipinti, Hema Samaratunga, Leah Zajdlewicz, Nigel Dunglison, Rob Carter, Scott Williams, Diane J Payton, Joanna Perry-Keene, Martin F Lavin, Robert A Gardiner
BACKGROUND: The absence of trial data comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and open radical retropubic prostatectomy is a crucial knowledge gap in uro-oncology. We aimed to compare these two approaches in terms of functional and oncological outcomes and report the early postoperative outcomes at 12 weeks. METHOD: In this randomised controlled phase 3 study, men who had newly diagnosed clinically localised prostate cancer and who had chosen surgery as their treatment approach, were able to read and speak English, had no previous history of head injury, dementia, or psychiatric illness or no other concurrent cancer, had an estimated life expectancy of 10 years or more, and were aged between 35 years and 70 years were eligible and recruited from the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (Brisbane, QLD)...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
N Malek, M R Baker, C Mann, J Greene
Dementia is a global health problem with a huge impact on the lives of those afflicted. There are several distinct diseases that are classified under the umbrella term "dementia" ranging from neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease to chronic infections of the central nervous system such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a rare complication of measles virus infection in childhood. Clinical features, neuropsychological profiles and imaging characteristics of the various dementia syndromes can be sufficiently distinct to distinguish them from one another...
July 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Laura Frances Santoso, Emily E Erkkinen, Anindita Deb, Carlos Adon
A 38-year-old Dominican woman presented at an infectious disease clinic in Santo Domingo, with subacute dementia and psychomotor slowing. Based on physical findings and laboratory results, she was diagnosed with AIDS and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). She subsequently began combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Psychiatric complications later emerged: the patient developed suicidal ideation and her partner expressed homicidal thoughts. After extensive interviewing, it was revealed that the patient had known her HIV-positive serostatus for years...
April 20, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Heidemarie Abrahamian, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Angelika Rießland-Seifert, Peter Fasching, Christoph Ebenbichler, Peter Hofmann, Hermann Toplak
Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications...
April 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Emanuele Focà, Paola Magro, Davide Motta, Silvia Compostella, Salvatore Casari, Andrea Bonito, Nigritella Brianese, Alice Ferraresi, Paola Rodari, Maria Chiara Pezzoli, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Francesco Castelli
Neurocognitive disorders are emerging, probably underestimated, complications in HIV-infected people. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive profiles of newly detected HIV-infected patients. We performed an observational retrospective single-cohort study. Illiterates and patients with neurologic symptoms or previous psychiatric diagnosis were excluded. Neuropsychological profiles were assessed using a validated battery of neuropsychological tests. We included 206 patients; with males representing the majority of them (85%)...
March 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ettore Beghi
Epilepsy is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, their causes and complications. The incidence, prevalence and mortality of epilepsy vary with age, place and time contributing to a variable extent to the burden of the disease. Diagnostic misclassification may have strong impact on personal and societal reflections of the disease in light of its clinical manifestations and the need for chronic treatment. Epilepsy accounts for a significant proportion of the world's disease burden ranking fourth after tension-type headache, migraine and Alzheimer disease...
May 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Yoshinori Haraguchi, Yoshito Mizoguchi, Tomoyuki Noguchi, Takeo Arai, Junko Fukuyama, Takahiro A Kato, Toshiro Kawashima, Akira Monji
Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder, especially in older people. Loss of brain volume and neurocognitive impairment of varying degrees has been demonstrated in patients with CS. However, there is a large difference between the median age of presentation of CS and that of Alzheimer's disease. We herein report a case of a patient with Alzheimer's disease complicated by elderly-onset CS who had undergone surgical treatment for adrenal hyperplasia. Surgical correction of hypercortisolism seems to have slowed the progression of brain volume loss and cognitive dysfunction and improved psychiatric symptoms such as visual hallucination, restlessness, and psychomotor excitement...
September 15, 2015: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
E Oikonomou, Th Paparrigopoulos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease affecting 1-2% of the population over 60. Although diagnosed by its characteristic motor manifestations, PD may be preceded, and is frequently accompanied, by a wide range of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. These symptoms are often more debilitating than its motor complications and it is nowadays appreciated that they can be an important cause of excess disability in PD, frequently necessitating hospitalization and institutionalization...
April 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Ingrid M Daey Ouwens, C Elisabeth Lens, Aernoud T L Fiolet, Alewijn Ott, Peter J Koehler, Willem M A Verhoeven
General paralysis of the insane (GPI) or dementia paralytica was once a fatal complication of syphilitic infection and a major reason for psychiatric hospitalization. Nowadays, physicians consider GPI to be exceptional. It should be noted, however, that syphilis re-emerged worldwide at the turn of the 20th to 21st century and a revival of GPI can, therefore, be expected. Advanced diagnosis is crucial in that treatment in the early, inflammatory phase is warranted before irreversible tissue damage occurs. Therefore, a renewed clinical awareness of the broad spectrum of psychiatric and neurologic signs and symptoms of GPI is needed...
2015: European Neurology
Chulho Kim, Jong-Hee Sohn, Min Uk Jang, Sung-Hun Kim, Moon-Gi Choi, Ohk-Hyun Ryu, Sungwha Lee, Hui-Chul Choi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diabetes is associated with cognitive decline as well as the development of dementia. Although mean blood glucose levels are typically used to assess the status of diabetic patients, glucose variability is also involved in the manifestation of macro- and microvascular complications in this population. Thus, the present study sought to determine whether visit-to-visit glucose variability contributes to cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The present study assessed 68 patients with type 2 diabetes using several validated neuropsychological measures...
2015: PloS One
Vanessa Fleury, François Vingerhoets, Judit Horvath, Pierre Pollak, Pierre Burkhard
Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET) and dystonia can benefit from deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS is considered when symptoms are disabling despite optimal medical therapy. Contraindications include dementia, uncontrolled psychiatric disease and/or comorbid conditions with potential for evolution. Targets are the subthalamic nucleus for PD, the ventral intermediate nucleus for ET and the globus pallidus internus for dystonia. The beneficial effet of DBS has been well documented for symptom control...
April 29, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
Lidiane S Campos, Rachel P Guimarães, Luiza G Piovesana, Paula C de Azevedo, Leonilda M B Santos, Anelyssa D'Abreu
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the clinical and demographics aspects that may contribute to cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHOD: All patients answered a structured standardized clinical questionnaire. Two movement disorders specialists performed the following scale: Unified Parkinson's disease rating score (UPDRS), the modified Hoehn and Yahr staging, Schwab and England Scale, SCOPA cognition (SCOPA-COG), SCOPA-Psychiatric complications (SCOPA-PC) and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS)...
May 2015: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Shraddha Naik, Akshaya N Shetti, A V Nadkarni, Bhuvna Ahuja
Huntington's chorea (HC) is a rare hereditary disorder of the nervous system. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder and is characterized by progressive chorea, dementia, and psychiatric disturbances. There are only a few case reports regarding the anesthetic management of a patient with HC and the best anesthetic technique is yet to be established for those patients which are at higher risk of perioperative complications. We report the anesthetic management of a 64-year-old patient with HC admitted for cataract surgery...
January 2015: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Eduardo De la Cruz-Cano, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate, Emilio Reyes-Ramos, Thelma Beatriz Gonzalez-Castro, Isela Juarez-Castro, Maria Lilia López-Narváez, Ana Fresan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent conditions throughout the world and have significant impact on health outcomes. It has been estimated that diabetes mellitus type 2 affects about 246 million people in the world; nevertheless, incidence varies among countries. There is evidence that depression is associated with a poor metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that present other health problems (such as hypertension and obesity). The aim of this study protocol is to determine if obesity increases the risk for depression in patient with diabetes type 2...
2015: F1000Research
M A Kutlubaev
Acute and chronic cognitive impairments quite often complicate visceral diseases. In this connection, it is important for a therapist to know brief scales to screen for cognitive impairments. Tests, such as a six-component screener, a short orientation-memory-concentration test, a short portable mental status questionnaire, Hodkinson's abbreviated mental test (AMT) (AMT-4 and AMT-10), a clock drawing test, and 4 'A's Test (4AT) may be used for the primary assessment of cognitive functions. Mini-Mental Status Examination may be further used if dementia is suspected; the Montreal Cognitive Assessment may be applied to identify moderate cognitive impairments...
2014: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Paul Sacco, George Jay Unick, Faika Zanjani, Elizabeth A S Camlin
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of depression in older adults has been increasing over the last 20 years and is associated with economic costs in the form of treatment utilization and caregiving, including inpatient hospitalization. Comorbid alcohol diagnoses may serve as a complicating factor in inpatient admissions and may lead to overutilization of care and greater economic cost. This study sought to isolate the comorbidity effect of alcohol among older adult hospital admissions for depression...
2015: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Nicole Eady, Ken Courtenay, André Strydom
Given medical and social advances, the life expectancy of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) has increased dramatically, leading to a generation of older individuals with such disabilities. This review focuses on the pharmacological treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in older adults with ID. Older adults with ID often present with medical co-morbidities and mental health issues. Medication management of behavioral and psychiatric problems is complicated by a higher risk for adverse events, lack of decision-making capacity, and complex care networks...
February 2015: Drugs & Aging
Calum D Moulton, Sergi G Costafreda, Paul Horton, Khalida Ismail, Cynthia H Y Fu
Diabetes is associated with macrovascular and microvascular complications and is a major risk factor for neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as dementia and depression. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have distinct etiologies and pathophysiological effects while sharing a common endpoint of persistent hyperglycemia. Neuroimaging studies in T1DM have revealed reductions in numerous regions, including the parahippocampal and occipital regions, while in T2DM there have been numerous reports of hippocampal atrophy...
December 2015: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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