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Kantian ethics

Philippe Svandra
In this article, the purpose is less praising Paul Ricoeur's work than enlightening how the reader may actually find some practical, even operative help in this philosophical thought. This is particularly true regarding the fields of medicine and care. Paul Ricœur is now worldwide renowned as a major philosophical figure of the 20th century, and with books such as "Oneself as another", he occupies a very peculiar place at the crossroads of phenomenology and hermeneutics. Through both these philosophical traditions, Paul Ricœur offers some narrative ethics which may greatly sustain caregivers in their reflexion...
March 2016: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
Philippa Byers
Kantian moral concepts concerning respect for human dignity have played a central role in articulating ethical guidelines for medical practice and research, and for articulating some central positions within bioethical debates more generally. The most common of these Kantian moral concepts is the obligation to respect the dignity of patients and of human research subjects as autonomous, self-determining individuals. This article describes Kant's conceptual distinction between dignity and autonomy as values, and draws on the work of several contemporary Kantian philosophers who employ the distinction to make sense of some common moral intuitions, feelings, and norms...
February 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Mehmet Aközer, Emel Aközer
A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics...
November 27, 2015: Science and Engineering Ethics
Carlos Alberto López Jaramillo, Jorge Carlos Holguín Lew
INTRODUCTION: Autonomy has become a key concept in bioethics. Onora O'neill is perhaps the most representative author and researcher in the philosophical and bioethical fields regrding the concept of autonomy. OBJECT: To review the concept of autonomy in Onora O'Neill's work so as to understand its relevance in current bioethics. METHOD: The concept of bioethics is reviewed in relation to three fundamental quesions: 1) Which are the main limitations of the individualistic conception of autonomy? 2) How to understand the relations between trust and autonomy together with their implications? and 3) Which are the implications of principled autonomy for aspects such as doctor-patient relationship and informed consent...
March 2013: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Bernard Baertschi, Marcel Gyger
Mice count morally because they can be harmed. This raises a moral issue in animal experimentation. Three main ethical attitudes towards animals are reviewed here. The Kantian view denies moral value to animals because they lack reason. The second view, by Singer, considers animals as sentient creatures (i.e., able to suffer). Finally, Regan considers that animals are subjects of their own life; they are autonomous and therefore have moral rights. Singer is a reformist and allows animal experimentation under certain conditions...
2011: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Agustin Malón
This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children. The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters. It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible...
May 2015: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Richard C Playford, Tom Roberts, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: The aims of this paper are to discuss three different ethical frameworks; to briefly consider some of the philosophical positions concerning the nature of personhood. Clear consideration of these issues demonstrates the complexity of decision making in persisting disorders of consciousness. METHOD: Three different ethical frameworks, Kantian deontology, act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism, are described and three different accounts of personhood are presented and analysed...
2015: Disability and Rehabilitation
Michael Cholbi
Thanks to recent scholarship, Kant is no longer seen as the dogmatic opponent of suicide that he appears to be at first glance. However, some interpreters have recently argued for a Kantian view of the morality of suicide with surprising, even radical, implications. More specifically, they have argued that Kantianism (1) requires that those with dementia or other rationality-eroding conditions end their lives before their condition results in their loss of identity as moral agents and (2) requires subjecting the fully demented or those confronting future dementia to non-voluntary euthanasia...
August 2015: Journal of Medical Ethics
C Castagnola, A Faix
Circumcision dates back to ancient times, nowadays, this ritual is practiced mainly in the context of Jewish and Muslim religions. The purpose of this article is to give urologists elements of reflection on the act according to the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. According to a Kantian vision, priority should be given to the respect and wishes of the individuals. In contrast, for the utilitarian theory, circumcision can be justified by a contribution to the happiness of the majority of community members at the expense of a given few...
December 2014: Progrès en Urologie
Jahnavi Misra
This essay examines debates over alternative ethical formulations that break from the Kantian model through contemporary fiction--Kiran Desai's The Inheritance of Loss (2006), Kazuo Ishiguro's Never Let Me Go (2005) and Zadie Smith's On Beauty (2005). The essay returns to the theory, the ethics of care, put forward by Carol Gilligan in In a Different Voice (1982), which has regained significance in the context of questions surrounding care in contemporary ethical thinking. While the three novels are concerned with ideas of care, beauty, justice and the tyranny of the mainstream, this essay examines particular themes in particular texts which suggest that ideas with otherwise subversive potential--like care or beauty or justice--lose their radicalism when they are incorporated within the impersonal, masculinist mainstream...
September 2014: Journal of Medical Humanities
Tom L Beauchamp, Victoria Wobber
Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of which is specified here in terms of conditions of understanding, intention, and self-control...
April 2014: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Lynn A Jansen, Steven Wall
Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept...
December 2013: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Matthias Bormuth
The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work...
2013: Psychopathology
Soroush Dabbagh, Kiarash Aramesh
Euthanasia is one of the controversial topics in current medical ethics. Among the six well-known types of euthanasia, passive voluntary euthanasia (PVE) seems to be more plausible in comparison with other types, from the moral point of view. According to the Kantian framework, ethical features come from 'reason'. Maxims are formulated as categorical imperative which has three different versions. Moreover, the second version of categorical imperative which is dubbed 'principle of ends' is associated with human dignity...
2009: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
C Torrance, I Mansell, C Wilson
INTRODUCTION: This study explored the views of nursing lecturers concerning the use of patients in nursing education, particularly in light of the development of additional learning opportunities such as clinical simulation. METHODS: Focus group interviews involving 19 educators from one school of nursing in the United Kingdom were held. An interview schedule was developed by the study team from the findings of a focused literature review of the area. The focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed into NVivo (version 8) for analysis and identification of emergent themes...
November 2012: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Dennis R Cooley
Standard arguments for a duty to die or to commit suicide generally rely upon contractarian or other form of justice or the Principle of Beneficence. Even though some of these arguments might appear deontological, there is an explicit or implicit consequentialist common thread in all of them in which utility of some sort is maximized only through the taking of one's own life. Hence, most arguments for a suicide duty are consequentialist in nature. There are a number of relatively unexplored deontological arguments that make plausible cases for the mandatory taking of one's own life...
September 2013: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Stuart J Murray, Dave Holmes
Working within the tradition of continental philosophy, this article argues in favour of a phenomenological understanding of language as a crucial component of bioethical inquiry. The authors challenge the 'commonsense' view of language, in which thinking appears as prior to speaking, and speech the straightforward vehicle of pre-existing thoughts. Drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1908-1961) phenomenology of language, the authors claim that thinking takes place in and through the spoken word, in and through embodied language...
July 2013: Bioethics
Rafaela Hillerbrand, Martin Peterson
The debate over the civilian use of nuclear power is highly polarised. We argue that a reasonable response to this deep disagreement is to maintain that advocates of both camps should modify their positions. According to the analysis we propose, nuclear power is neither entirely right nor entirely wrong, but rather right and wrong to some degree. We are aware that this non-binary analysis of nuclear power is controversial from a theoretical point of view. Utilitarians, Kantians, and other moral theorists make sharp, binary distinctions between right and wrong acts...
June 2014: Science and Engineering Ethics
Richard Dean
The stigmatization of some groups of people, whether for some characteristic they possess or some behavior they engage in, will initially strike most of us as wrong. For many years, academic work in public health, which focused mainly on the stigmatization of HIV-positive individuals, reinforced this natural reaction to stigmatization, by pointing out the negative health effects of stigmatization. But more recently, the apparent success of anti-smoking campaigns which employ stigmatization of smokers has raised questions about whether stigmatization may sometimes be justified, because of its positive effects on public health...
October 2014: Bioethics
Małgorzata Rajtar
The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system...
December 2013: Social Science & Medicine
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