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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647919/role-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure
#1
REVIEW
Frederik H Verbrugge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the evidence on cardiovascular risks and benefits of glucose-lowering drugs in diabetic patients, with a particular focus on the role of sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and their promising potential as a heart failure treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has emerged as the first glucose-lowering drug to lower cardiovascular mortality in diabetes with an unprecedented 38% relative risk reduction...
June 24, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647844/digital-health-technologies-to-promote-lifestyle-change-and-adherence
#2
REVIEW
Numan Khan, Francoise A Marvel, Jane Wang, Seth S Martin
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with an estimated 17.5 million deaths annually, or 31% of all global deaths, according to the World Health Organization. The majority of these deaths are preventable by addressing lifestyle modification (i.e., smoking cessation, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) and promoting medication adherence. At present, initiatives to develop cost-effective modalities to support self-management, lifestyle modification, and medication adherence are a leading priority...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647774/automatic-identification-of-coronary-tree-anatomy-in-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#3
Qing Cao, Alexander Broersen, Michiel A de Graaf, Pieter H Kitslaar, Guanyu Yang, Arthur J Scholte, Boudewijn P F Lelieveldt, Johan H C Reiber, Jouke Dijkstra
An automatic coronary artery tree labeling algorithm is described to identify the anatomical segments of the extracted centerlines from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images. This method will facilitate the automatic lesion reporting and risk stratification of cardiovascular disease. Three-dimensional (3D) models for both right dominant (RD) and left dominant (LD) coronary circulations were built. All labels in the model were matched with their possible candidates in the extracted tree to find the optimal labeling result...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647688/antihypertensive-medication-adherence-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-among-older-adults-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Quanhe Yang, Anping Chang, Matthew D Ritchey, Fleetwood Loustalot
BACKGROUND: Antihypertension medication (antihypertensive) adherence lowers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); few studies have examined this association among older adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed this association among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 66 to 79 years who were newly diagnosed with hypertension and initiated on antihypertensives in 2008-2009 (n=155 597). We calculated proportion of days covered (PDC) during follow-up, using proportional subdistribution hazard models, to examine association between antihypertensive adherence and a composite CVD outcomes, including first incident of fatal/nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and heart failure...
June 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647412/real-world-data-to-assess-changes-in-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-predicted-cardiovascular-risk-after-ezetimibe-discontinuation-post-reporting-of-the-ezetimibe-and-simvastatin-in-hypercholesterolemia-enhances-atherosclerosis-regression-trial
#5
Harold E Bays, Mehul D Patel, Panagiotis Mavros, Dena R Ramey, Joanne E Tomassini, Andrew M Tershakovec, Carl A Baxter
BACKGROUND: The 2008 Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) study demonstrated ezetimibe + simvastatin vs simvastatin alone had a neutral effect on the surrogate endpoint of carotid intima-media thickness. Subsequent media portrayal of the study prompted ezetimibe discontinuation in many patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of ENHANCE reporting on ezetimibe discontinuation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) changes, and potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647406/unstable-angina-in-the-era-of-cardiac-troponin-assays-with-improved-sensitivity-a-clinical-dilemma
#6
K M Eggers, T Jernberg, B Lindahl
INTRODUCTION: There is an expectation that with the adoption of more sensitive cardiac troponin (cTn) assays, unstable angina would become a rarity. However, recent data from the SWEDEHEART registry demonstrated that 15% of patients admitted with non ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) still were regarded having unstable angina. We aimed to further investigate the clinical characteristics and outcome of these patients. METHODS: Retrospective registry-based analysis (SWEDEHEART) including 3204 unstable patients, 18,194 non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients and 977 controls without acute cardiovascular disease...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646806/potential-of-probiotics-in-hypercholesterolemia-a-review-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-findings
#7
Smriti Sharma, Seema Puri, Anura V Kurpad
Context • Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major public health problem in developing and developed countries. Elevated cholesterol levels, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and the emergence of CHD, have been positively correlated in many clinical and epidemiological studies. The health benefits of probiotics have received a great deal of attention, including their blood cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Objective • The research team intended to determine the current state of research examining the effects of various probiotic strains on lipid profiles, including measures in serum of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646476/the-relationship-between-circulating-adiponectin-leptin-and-vaspin-with-bone-mineral-density-bmd-arterial-calcification-and-stiffness-a-cross-sectional-study-in-post-menopausal-women
#8
N Tanna, K Patel, A E Moore, D Dulnoan, S Edwards, G Hampson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between circulating adiponectin, leptin and vaspin with bone mineral density (BMD), arterial stiffness and vascular calcification in post-menopausal women. We hypothesised that adipokines produced by adipose tissue may be mediators of bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and explain, in part, the observed association between osteoporosis and CVD. DESIGN: We studied 386 ambulant community dwelling postmenopausal women aged (mean [SD] 61 [6...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646427/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-infected-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#9
Yan Xuan, Yue Gao, Hao Huang, Xiaoxuan Wang, Yu Cai, Qing Xian Luan
Tanshinone IIA (TSA), a pharmacologically active component isolated from Danshen, may prevent cardiovascular diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-adipogenic effects. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontal pathogen, may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we studied the effects of TSA on atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice with P. gingivalis infection. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were randomized to (a) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (b) P. gingivalis, and (c) P...
June 23, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646237/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-relation-to-future-hearing-impairment-findings-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#10
Camille Lassale, G David Batty, Andrew Steptoe, Paola Zaninotto
Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) is associated with cardiovascular disease, itself a risk factor for hearing impairment, and, in animal studies, molecular evidence suggests a role for IGF-1 in hearing function. However, the link between IGF-1 and the occurrence of hearing impairment is untested in population-based studies of humans. A total of 4390 participants aged ≥50 y (mean [SD] age 64.2 [8.0] years at baseline, 55% women) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing provided serum levels of IGF-1 in 2008 and again in 2012...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645983/the-effect-of-magnesium-supplementation-on-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-randomised-clinical-trial-magical-ckd-essential-study-design-and-rationale
#11
Iain Bressendorff, Ditte Hansen, Morten Schou, Charlotte Kragelund, Lisbet Brandi
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, which is thought to be caused by increased propensity towards vascular calcification (VC). Magnesium (Mg) inhibits phosphate-induced VC in vitro and in animal models and serum Mg is inversely associated with cardiovascular mortality in predialysis CKD and in end-stage renal disease. This paper will describe the design and rationale of a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial, which will investigate whether oral Mg supplementation can prevent the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in subjects with predialysis CKD...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645949/double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-independent-and-synergistic-effect-of-spirulina-maxima-with-exercise-isese-on-general-fitness-lipid-profile-and-redox-status-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-study-protocol
#12
Marco Antonio Hernández-Lepe, José Alberto López-Díaz, Laura Alejandra de la Rosa, Rosa Patricia Hernández-Torres, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Marco Antonio Juarez-Oropeza, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Rene Urquidez-Romero, Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez
INTRODUCTION: In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645730/the-relation-of-digital-vascular-function-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-african-americans-using-digital-tonometry-the-jackson-heart-study
#13
Eric E McClendon, Solomon K Musani, Tandaw E Samdarshi, Sushant Khaire, Donny Stokes, Naomi M Hamburg, Koby Sheffy, Gary F Mitchell, Herman R Taylor, Emelia J Benjamin, Ervin R Fox
Digital vascular tone and function, as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), are associated with cardiovascular risk and events in non-Hispanic whites. There are limited data on relations between PAT and cardiovascular risk in African-Americans. PAT was performed on a subset of Jackson Heart Study participants using a fingertip tonometry device. Resting digital vascular tone was assessed as baseline pulse amplitude. Hyperemic vascular response to 5 minutes of ischemia was expressed as the PAT ratio (hyperemic/baseline amplitude ratio)...
June 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645652/androgen-inhibits-key-atherosclerotic-processes-by-directly-activating-adtrp-transcription
#14
Chunyan Luo, Elisabeth Pook, Bo Tang, Weiyi Zhang, Sisi Li, Kirsten Leineweber, Shing-Hu Cheung, Qiuyun Chen, Martin Bechem, Jing-Shan Hu, Volker Laux, Qing Kenneth Wang
Low androgen levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), thrombosis and myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that androgen has a protective role. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Our genome-wide association study identified the ADTRP gene encoding the androgen-dependent TFPI regulating protein as a susceptibility gene for CAD and MI. The expression level of ADTRP was regulated by androgen, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular mechanism by which androgen regulates ADTRP expression and tested the hypothesis that androgen plays a protective role in cardiovascular disease by activating ADTRP expression...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645496/determining-the-best-percent-predicted-equation-for-estimated-vo2-peak-by-a-1-km-moderate-perceptually-regulated-treadmill-walk-to-predict-mortality-in-outpatients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Giovanni Grazzi, Gianni Mazzoni, Jonathan Myers, Luciano Codecà, Giovanni Pasanisi, Simona Mandini, Massimo Piepoli, Stefano Volpato, Francesco Conconi, Giorgio Chiaranda
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic ability of established percent-predicted equations of peak oxygen consumption (%PRED) estimated by a moderate submaximal walking test in a large cohort of outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). DESIGN: Population-based prospective study. METHODS: A total of 1442 male patients aged 25-85 years at baseline, underwent a moderate perceptually-regulated (11-13 on the 6-20 Borg scale) treadmill walk (1k-TWT) for peak oxygen consumption estimation (VO2 peak)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645467/citreoviridin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-in-hepatocytes-through-inhibiting-ppar-%C3%AE-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#16
Chang Feng, Dandan Li, Liping Jiang, Xiaofang Liu, Qiujuan Li, Chengyan Geng, Xiance Sun, Guang Yang, Xiaofeng Yao, Min Chen
Citreoviridin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillum citreonigrum, Aspergillus terreus and Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum. CIT occurs naturally in moldy rice and corn. CIT is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in the general population. Alteration in hepatic lipid metabolism is a pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis. However the effect and the underlying mechanism of CIT on hepatic lipid metabolism are largely unknown. In this study, we reported that CIT induced triglyceride accumulation in mice liver and human liver HepG2 cells as shown in oil red O staining...
June 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645284/healthcare-expenditure-on-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-australians-at-high-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Blake Angell, Tracey-Lea Laba, Tom Lung, Alex Brown, Sandra Eades, Tim Usherwood, David Peiris, Laurent Billot, Graham Hillis, Ruth Webster, Andrew Tonkin, Christopher Reid, Barbara Molanus, Natasha Rafter, Alan Cass, Anushka Patel, Stephen Jan
BACKGROUND: In spite of bearing a heavier burden of death, disease and disability, there is mixed evidence as to whether Indigenous Australians utilise more or less healthcare services than other Australians given their elevated risk level. This study analyses the Medicare expenditure and its predictors in a cohort of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians at high risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The healthcare expenditure of participants of the Kanyini Guidelines Adherence with the Polypill (GAP) pragmatic randomised controlled trial was modelled using linear regression methods...
June 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#18
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645252/statin-use-reduces-cardiovascular-events-and-all-cause-mortality-amongst-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-5-year-cohort-study
#19
Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Anca Ka Chun Chan, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
BACKGROUND: The benefit of statin on the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) among Chinese patients in primary care is not clear nor fully implemented in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the benefit of statin on the overall cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Uncomplicated diabetic patients with baseline low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) > 2.6 mmol/L and without statin use before baseline in 2010 were followed-up for 5 years for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality...
June 24, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645222/dietary-fat-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-recent-controversies-and-advances
#20
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
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