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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325324/influence-of-fatty-chain-length-and-starch-composition-on-structure-and-properties-of-fully-substituted-fatty-acid-starch-esters
#1
Audrey Vanmarcke, Lise Leroy, Gregory Stoclet, Lucie Duchatel-Crépy, Jean-Marc Lefebvre, Nicolas Joly, Valérie Gaucher
A series of almost fully substituted Fatty Acid Starch Esters (FASEs) has been obtained in a homogeneous LiCl/DMAc medium by grafting octanoyl (C8), lauroyl (C12) and palmitoyl (C16) chlorides onto 3 starch species: Amylo-Maize, Potato and Waxy Maize. Structure-property relationships of FASEs are investigated as a function of both fatty acid chain length and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch. The structural study has revealed a layered type organization in which starch chain planes are separated by fatty chains...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298535/resistant-starch-but-not-enzymatically-modified-waxy-maize-delays-development-of-diabetes-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#2
Mette Skou Hedemann, Kjeld Hermansen, Sven Pedersen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D.Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274435/octenylsuccinate-starch-spherulites-as-a-stabilizer-for-pickering-emulsions
#3
Chan Wang, Xiong Fu, Chuan-He Tang, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang
This study investigated structure and morphology of starch spherulites prepared from debranched waxy maize and waxy potato starches. Debranched waxy potato starch favored the formation of B-type crystals with longer branch chains (average chain length, 26.14), whereas A-type polymorphic aggregates were generated from debranched waxy maize under same recrystallization condition. Spherulites had smaller particle size distribution (D[3,2], ∼3.7μm), higher dissociation temperature (80-120°C) and crystallinity (80∼90%), compared to native waxy starches...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102016/mechanical-and-barrier-properties-of-maize-starch-gelatin-composite-film-effects-of-amylose-content
#4
Kun Wang, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Junsheng Ding, Shaojing Zhang, Anjun Liu
BACKGROUND: In order to obtain new reinforcing bio-fillers to improve the physicochemical properties of gelatin based film, three types of maize starches: waxy maize starch (Ap), normal starch (Ns), and high amylose starch (Al), were incorporated into the gelatin films, and their properties were investigated, focusing on the impact of amylose content. RESULTS: The thickness, opacity and roughness of gelatin films increased depending upon amylose content along with the concentration of starch...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028582/genetic-dissection-of-sorghum-grain-quality-traits-using-diverse-and-segregating-populations
#5
Richard E Boyles, Brian K Pfeiffer, Elizabeth A Cooper, Bradley L Rauh, Kelsey J Zielinski, Matthew T Myers, Zachary Brenton, William L Rooney, Stephen Kresovich
Coordinated association and linkage mapping identified 25 grain quality QTLs in multiple environments, and fine mapping of the Wx locus supports the use of high-density genetic markers in linkage mapping. There is a wide range of end-use products made from cereal grains, and these products often demand different grain characteristics. Fortunately, cereal crop species including sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] contain high phenotypic variation for traits influencing grain quality. Identifying genetic variants underlying this phenotypic variation allows plant breeders to develop genotypes with grain attributes optimized for their intended usage...
December 27, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987962/production-of-starch-nanoparticles-by-dissolution-and-non-solvent-precipitation-for-use-in-food-grade-pickering-emulsions
#6
Hisfazilah Saari, Catalina Fuentes, Malin Sjöö, Marilyn Rayner, Marie Wahlgren
The aim of this study was to investigate non-solvent precipitation of starch to produce nanoparticles that could be used in Pickering emulsions. The material used was waxy maize, modified with octenyl succinic anhydride. Different methods of non-solvent precipitation were investigated, and a method based on direct mixing of an 8% starch solution and ethanol (ratio 1:1) was found to produce the smallest particles. The particle size was measured using AFM and AF4, and was found to be in the range 100-200nm. However, both larger particles and aggregates of nanoparticles were observed...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872930/the-inhibition-effect-of-starch-nanoparticles-on-tyrosinase-activity-and-its-mechanism
#7
Jie Yang, Ranran Chang, Shengju Ge, Mei Zhao, Caifeng Liang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
The objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared from waxy maize, potato, normal corn, and tapioca starches on the activity of tyrosinase. As a main polyphenol oxidase, tyrosinase not only induces fruit and vegetable browning but also causes skin diseases by overproducing melanin. Herein, for the first time, we evaluated the inhibitory kinetics of SNPs on tyrosinase. It turned out that SNPs inhibited tyrosinase activity reversibly. The IC50 values of hollow nanoparticles, amylopectin nanoparticles, corn starch nanoparticles, and tapioca starch nanoparticles were 0...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781270/the-effects-of-entanglement-concentration-on-the-hydrodynamic-properties-of-cereal-starches
#8
Li Guo, Juanjuan Zhang, Jian Hu, Xianfeng Du, Bo Cui
BACKGROUND: The hydrodynamic properties of four cereal starches in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were investigated using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope and steady shear rheological measurements. RESULTS: The results indicated that the starch solutions showed the non-linear shape of the ηsp /c versus c curves in dilute solutions, followed by a linear increase to different extents thereafter. The intrinsic viscosity might be positively correlated with the entanglement concentration (ce )...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706095/soluble-fiber-with-high-water-binding-capacity-swelling-capacity-and-fermentability-reduces-food-intake-by-promoting-satiety-rather-than-satiation-in-rats
#9
Chengquan Tan, Hongkui Wei, Xichen Zhao, Chuanhui Xu, Yuanfei Zhou, Jian Peng
To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control...
October 2, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612833/acrylic-bone-cement-and-starch-botanical-variety-impact-on-curing-parameters-and-degradability
#10
Céline Aubrun-Fillâtre, Francine Monchau, Philippe Hivart
Acrylic bone cements are a conventional solution to heal bone defects. Starch is often added to the cement to improve its degradability and resorbability. The most used botanical variety is corn starch; few studies or applications deal with other varieties. This study focuses on classical formulations based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate but incorporating different starches: waxy maize, corn, amylo maize, wheat, pea or potato, with or without enzyme (α-amylase). A thermocouple is used to determine the curing parameters: setting time and maximal temperature...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596411/mechanical-properties-and-solubility-in-water-of-corn-starch-collagen-composite-films-effect-of-starch-type-and-concentrations
#11
Kun Wang, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye, Anjun Liu, Jingdong Xiao, Yaowei Liu, Yana Zhao
This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551745/correction-introgression-of-opaque2-into-waxy-maize-causes-extensive-biochemical-and-proteomic-changes-in-endosperm
#12
Zhiqiang Zhou, Liya Song, Xiaoxing Zhang, Xinhai Li, Na Yan, Renpei Xia, Hui Zhu, Jianfeng Weng, Zhuanfang Hao, Degui Zhang, Hongjun Yong, Mingshun Li, Shihuang Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158971.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516249/structure-of-branching-enzyme-and-amylomaltase-modified-starch-produced-from-well-defined-amylose-to-amylopectin-substrates
#13
Waraporn Sorndech, Domenico Sagnelli, Sebastian Meier, Anita M Jansson, Byung-Hoo Lee, Bruce R Hamaker, Agnès Rolland-Sabaté, Kim H Hebelstrup, Sunanta Tongta, Andreas Blennow
Thermostable branching enzyme (BE, EC 2.4.1.18) from Rhodothermus obamensis in combination with amylomaltase (AM, EC 2.4.1.25) from Thermus thermophilus was used to modify starch structure exploring potentials to extensively increase the number of branch points in starch. Amylose is an important constituent in starch and the effect of amylose on enzyme catalysis was investigated using amylose-only barley starch (AO) and waxy maize starch (WX) in well-defined ratios. All products were analysed for amylopectin chain length distribution, α-1,6 glucosidic linkages content, molar mass distribution and digestibility by using rat intestinal α-glucosidases...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507481/effects-of-salts-on-the-gelatinization-and-retrogradation-properties-of-maize-starch-and-waxy-maize-starch
#14
Wei Wang, Hongxian Zhou, Hong Yang, Siming Zhao, Youming Liu, Ru Liu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch. Experimental results showed that the salting-out or structure-making ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased the swelling power, solubility and transparency of both starches, but increased the gelatinization temperature, enthalpy, and syneresis, due to the tendency of these ions to protect the hydrogen bond links among starch molecules. On the other hand, the salting-in or structure-breaking ions, such as I(-) and SCN(-), exhibited the opposite effects...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507452/structure-and-pasting-properties-of-alkaline-treated-phosphorylated-cross-linked-waxy-maize-starches
#15
Radhiah Shukri, Yong-Cheng Shi
The objectives of this study were to determine the stability of cross-linked bonds of starch at different pH values and their effects on the pasting property of waxy maize starch cross-linked by 0.05% and 3% sodium trimetaphosphate/sodium tripolyphosphate. The cross-linked waxy maize starch (CLWMS) was slurried (40%, w/w) and subjected to alkali treatments of pH 9, 10, 11, and 12 at 40°C for 4h. The phosphorus in 3% CLWMS decreased with increasing pH and remained unchanged in 0.05% CLWMS for all pH treatments...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474654/dynamic-measurement-of-starch-granule-swelling-during-microwave-heating
#16
Johnny Casasnovas, Ramaswamy C Anantheswaran
The size of starch granules in dilute aqueous suspension was measured in-line during gelatinization in a microwave-heated, well-mixed system. The results were compared with those of a previous study conducted with conventional heating. For the starches used (common corn, waxy maize, and cross-linked waxy maize), no significant difference was found between microwave and conventional heating in terms of maximum diameter, temperature of maximum rate of diameter increase, or diameter vs. temperature behavior. These results suggest that there are no differences in the swelling behavior of common and modified maize starches between microwave and conventional heating...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474585/chemical-structures-in-pyrodextrin-determined-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#17
Yanjie Bai, Yong-Cheng Shi
Glycosidic linkages in a pyrodextrin were identified by NMR spectroscopy for the first time. Pyrodextrin was prepared by slurrying waxy maize starch at pH 3, filtering and drying at 40°C to 10-15% moisture content, then heating at 170°C for 4h. (1)H and (13)C NMR resonances of the pyrodextrin were assigned with the assistance of 2D techniques including COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC, all measured on a 500MHz instrument. During dextrinization, native waxy maize starch was hydrolyzed and extensively branched with new glycosidic linkages...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391593/introgression-of-opaque2-into-waxy-maize-causes-extensive-biochemical-and-proteomic-changes-in-endosperm
#18
Zhiqiang Zhou, Liya Song, Xiaoxing Zhang, Xinhai Li, Na Yan, Renpei Xia, Hui Zhu, Jianfeng Weng, Zhuanfang Hao, Degui Zhang, Hongjun Yong, Mingshun Li, Shihuang Zhang
Waxy maize is prevalently grown in China and other countries due to the excellent characters and economic value. However, its low content of lysine can't meet the nutritional requirements of humans and livestock. In the present study, we introgressed the opaque2 (o2) allele into waxy maize line Zhao OP-6/O2O2 by using marker-assisted selection (MAS) technique and successfully improved the lysine content and quality of waxy maize. Transcript abundance analysis indicated that the wx1 expression levels had no difference between Zhao OP-6/o2o2 and Zhao OP-6/O2O2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242868/characterization-of-genome-wide-variation-in-four-row-wax-a-waxy-maize-landrace-with-a-reduced-kernel-row-phenotype
#19
Hanmei Liu, Xuewen Wang, Bin Wei, Yongbin Wang, Yinghong Liu, Junjie Zhang, Yufeng Hu, Guowu Yu, Jian Li, Zhanbin Xu, Yubi Huang
In southwest China, some maize landraces have long been isolated geographically, and have phenotypes that differ from those of widely grown cultivars. These landraces may harbor rich genetic variation responsible for those phenotypes. Four-row Wax is one such landrace, with four rows of kernels on the cob. We resequenced the genome of Four-row Wax, obtaining 50.46 Gb sequence at 21.87× coverage, then identified and characterized 3,252,194 SNPs, 213,181 short InDels (1-5 bp) and 39,631 structural variations (greater than 5 bp)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219066/retrogradation-of-maize-starch-after-high-hydrostatic-pressure-gelation-effect-of-amylose-content-and-depressurization-rate
#20
Zhi Yang, Peter Swedlund, Qinfen Gu, Yacine Hemar, Sahraoui Chaieb
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*)...
2016: PloS One
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