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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222451/alternate-partial-root-zone-drip-irrigation-improves-water-and-nitrogen-use-efficiencies-of-sweet-waxy-maize-with-nitrogen-fertigation
#1
Fengbei Fu, Fusheng Li, Shaozhong Kang
Alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI) or fertigation has favorable effect on crop water- and nitrogen- use efficiencies (WUE and NUE). However, the advantage of combined application of ADI and nitrogen fertigation on crop WUE and NUE remains unclear. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of three irrigation methods (CDI conventional drip irrigation (both halves of pot irrigated), ADI (both halves of pot alternatively irrigated) and FDI fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation (fixed half of pot irrigated)) and five nitrogen treatments (F0 no N supplied, F1-F4 0...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146361/rheological-characterization-of-gum-and-starch-nanoparticle-blends
#2
Mariana Perez Herrera, Thava Vasanthan
Commercial interest on the application of starch nanoparticles (SNP) in food is rapidly growing. Since gums are commonly used in food processing for their texturizing functionality, it is important to understand the influence of SNP on gum rheology. λ-Carrageenan and xanthan gum were selected in this study due to their wide range of applications in food systems. SNP isolated from waxy (0% amylose) and high amylose maize (71% amylose) were used. Binary blends consisting of 0.5% (w/v) gum and different concentrations of SNP were prepared and their flow behaviors evaluated using a rheometer...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133086/role-of-entanglement-concentration-in-dynamic-viscoelasticity-and-film-forming-property-of-cereal-starches
#3
Li Guo
Entanglement concentration (ce, w/v) means the onset of overlap and interpenetration of random-coil chains in a macromolecule solution. The effects of ce on the dynamic viscoelasticity and film-forming property of cereal starches were investigated. The results showed that ce affected significantly the ratio of crystalline to amorphous regions of normal rice starch, waxy rice starch, normal maize starch and wheat starch because the absorbance ratio (1047cm(-1)/1022cm(-1)) increased more obviously at concentrations increasing from 0...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103487/preparation-and-characterization-of-starch-nanocrystals-combining-ball-milling-with-acid-hydrolysis
#4
Limin Dai, Changwei Li, Jun Zhang, Fang Cheng
Waxy maize starch was mechanically treated with a planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction analysis was employed to determine the optimal ball milling time. After ball milling, the pretreated starch was hydrolyzed with H2SO4. The hydrolysates were obtained and their relative crystallinity, morphology, and particle size were estimated by X-ray diffraction analysis, atomic force microscopy, and nanoparticle size analyzer, respectively. The results revealed that it is possible to obtain starch nanocrystals (SNCs) after a combination of ball milling and 3days of H2SO4 hydrolysis with a yield of 19...
January 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037674/structure-of-pyrodextrin-in-relation-to-its-retrogradation-properties
#5
Xiaoxian Han, Ji Kang, Yanjie Bai, Meng Xue, Yong-Cheng Shi
Pyrodextrins were prepared by heating waxy maize starch at 170°C and pH 3.0 for 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4h. Structural changes of pyrodextrins were determined by gel permeation chromatography and (1)H NMR. Gelatinization and retrogradation of pyrodextrins were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The water solubility of pyrodextrins increased from 48.9 to 99.4% as heating time increased from 0.5 to 4h. The molecular size, melting enthalpy of pyrodextrin, and the degree of retrogradation decreased as pyrodextrin solubility increased...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037668/measurement-and-characterization-of-external-oil-in-the-fried-waxy-maize-starch-granules-using-atr-ftir-and-xrd
#6
Long Chen, Yaoqi Tian, Binghua Sun, Canxin Cai, Rongrong Ma, Zhengyu Jin
Concerns regarding increased dietary oil uptake have prompted efforts to investigate the oil absorption and distribution in fried starchy foods. In the present study, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, together with a chloroform-methanol method, was used to analyze the external and internal oil contents in fried starchy samples. The micromorphology of fried starchy samples was further investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), polarized light microscope (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976638/bivariate-flow-cytometric-analysis-and-sorting-of-different-types-of-maize-starch-grains
#7
Xudong Zhang, Jiaojiao Feng, Heng Wang, Jianchu Zhu, Yuyue Zhong, Linsan Liu, Shutu Xu, Renhe Zhang, Xinghua Zhang, Jiquan Xue, Dongwei Guo
Particle-size distribution, granular structure, and composition significantly affect the physicochemical properties, rheological properties, and nutritional function of starch. Flow cytometry and flow sorting are widely considered convenient and efficient ways of classifying and separating natural biological particles or other substances into subpopulations, respectively, based on the differential response of each component to stimulation by a light beam; the results allow for the correlation analysis of parameters...
October 4, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974821/formulation-characterization-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-black-cumin-essential-oil-nanoemulsions-stabilized-by-osa-starch
#8
Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Shabbar Abbas, Hamid Majeed, Waseem Safdar, Muhammad Shamoon, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Muhammad Shoaib, Husnain Raza, Junaid Haider
Preparation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions has emerged as a subject of interest for the encapsulation of lipophilic functional ingredients to increase their stability and activity. In this study, black cumin essential oil nanoemulsions (BCO-NE) using different ratios of essential oil with canola and flax seed oils (ripening inhibitors) were formulated and stabilized with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified waxy maize starch. The nanoemulsions exhibited monomodal size distributions with mean droplet diameter below 200 nm and zeta potential above -30, indicating a strong electrostatic repulsion between the dispersed oil droplets...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962764/structural-changes-of-waxy-and-normal-maize-starches-modified-by-heat-moisture-treatment-and-their-relationship-with-starch-digestibility
#9
Yongzhi Chen, Qingyu Yang, Xiaojuan Xu, Liang Qi, Zhihong Dong, Zhigang Luo, Xuanxuan Lu, Xichun Peng
In the present study, the variations in structure of waxy and normal maize starches modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) for different treating time (3h and 9h) were investigated. HMT caused the destruction of starch granules. The (1)H NMR confirmed that glycosidic bonds were broken during HMT. The (13)C NMR result suggested that HMT caused the transformation of starch granules from double and single helical components into amorphous components. Heat-moisture treated starches exhibited higher gelatinization temperature (To, Tp and Tc), narrower gelatinization temperature range (Tc-To) and lower gelatinization enthalpy (ΔH)...
December 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960010/the-effect-of-salt-concentration-on-swelling-power-rheological-properties-and-saltiness-perception-of-waxy-normal-and-high-amylose-maize-starch
#10
Xudong Zhang, Dongwei Guo, Jiquan Xue, Stavros Yanniotis, Ioanna Mandala
The effect of salt concentration on swelling power, rheological properties and saltiness perception of waxy, normal and high amylose maize starch was investigated. The swelling power decreased with increasing salt concentration from 0% to 2.0% among all starch samples. Waxy starch showed the highest swelling power at different salt levels, while high amylose starch showed the least swelling power. The salt addition increased the gelatinization temperature of waxy starch and normal starch from 71.3 °C to 77...
September 29, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955613/microsatellite-marker-based-characterization-of-waxy-maize-inbreds-for-their-utilization-in-hybrid-breeding
#11
Elangbam Lamalakshmi Devi, Firoz Hossain, Vignesh Muthusamy, Rashmi Chhabra, Rajkumar Uttamrao Zunjare, Aanchal Baveja, Sunil Kumar Jaiswal, Rajat Goswami, Sweta Dosad
Waxy corn possesses 95-100% amylopectin, compared to 70-75% in normal maize, owing to mutation in Wx gene encoding a granule-bound starch synthase I. Amylopectin is used as an ingredient in textile, adhesive and paper industries. Further, waxy green cob is popular as breakfast item in South Asia and an important constituent of diet in north-eastern states of India as well. We developed a series of waxy inbreds from diverse exotic sources and through introgression breeding. To characterize and unravel the genetic relationships, 24 diverse waxy inbreds were analysed using 77 SSRs distributed throughout the genome...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946305/the-effect-of-high-hydrostatic-pressure-treatment-on-the-molecular-structure-of-starches-with-different-amylose-content
#12
Artur Szwengiel, Grażyna Lewandowicz, Adrian R Górecki, Wioletta Błaszczak
The effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (650MPa/9min) on molecular mass distribution, and hydrodynamic and structural parameters of amylose (maize, sorghum, Hylon VII) and amylopectin (waxy maize, amaranth) starches was studied. The starches were characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with static light scattering and refractive index detectors and by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed in molecular mass distribution of pressurized waxy maize starch...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946258/disruption-and-molecule-degradation-of-waxy-maize-starch-granules-during-high-pressure-homogenization-process
#13
Benxi Wei, Canxin Cai, Baoguo Xu, Zhengyu Jin, Yaoqi Tian
The mechanism underlying the fragmentation of waxy maize starch (WMS) granules during high-pressure homogenization (HPH) was studied and the results were interpreted in terms of granular and molecular aspects. The diameter of disrupted starch granules decreased exponentially with increasing HPH pressure, but decreased linearly with increasing of HPH cycles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a cone-like inside-out disruption pattern through the channels that resulted in separation of blocklets fragments or starch fragments...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901894/dietary-starch-types-affect-liver-nutrient-metabolism-of-finishing-pigs
#14
Chen Xie, Yanjiao Li, Jiaolong Li, Lin Zhang, Guanghong Zhou, Feng Gao
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796926/the-genetic-architecture-of-amylose-biosynthesis-in-maize-kernel
#15
Changsheng Li, Yongcai Huang, Ruidong Huang, Yongrui Wu, Wenqin Wang
Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate in maize kernel. The content of amylose and amylopectin confers unique properties in food processing and industrial application. Thus, the resurgent interest has been switched to the study of individual amylose or amylopectin rather than total starch, whereas the enzymatic machinery for amylose synthesis remains elusive. We took advantage of the phenotype of amylose content and the genotype of 9,007,194 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 454 inbred maize lines...
August 10, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734229/effects-of-dietary-starch-types-on-early-postmortem-muscle-energy-metabolism-in-finishing-pigs
#16
Y J Li, T Gao, J L Li, L Zhang, F Gao, G H Zhou
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs. Ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS), and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with the WMS diet, pigs fed the PS diet exhibited greater creatine kinase activity, higher adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate contents, lower phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine monophosphate and glycogen contents, and lower glycolytic potential (P<0...
July 12, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718948/effects-of-short-term-heat-stress-at-the-grain-formation-stage-on-physicochemical-properties-of-waxy-maize-starch
#17
Xiaotian Gu, Tianqi Huang, Mengqiu Ding, Weiping Lu, Dalei Lu
BACKGROUND: Waxy maize (Zea mays L. sinensis Kulesh) suffers short-term exposure to high temperature during grain filling in Southern China. The effects of such exposure are poorly understood. RESULTS: Starch granule size was increased by 5 d short-term heat stress (35 °C) and the increase was higher when the stress was introduced early. Heat stress increased the iodine-binding capacity of starches and no difference was observed among the three stages. Starch relative crystallinity was increased and swelling power was decreased only when heat stress was introduced early...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475953/effects-of-dietary-starch-types-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-myofibre-type-of-finishing-pigs
#18
Y J Li, J L Li, L Zhang, F Gao, G H Zhou
To investigate the effects of dietary starch types on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs, ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with WMS diet, PS diet increased the average daily gain, loin eye area, pH45 value, NMR transverse relaxation (T2)2 peak area ratio and sarcoplasmic protein solubility, decreased the feed to gain ratio, back fat, drip loss, cooking loss and T23 peak area ratio (P<0...
May 2, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469548/effects-of-dietary-fibers-with-high-water-binding-capacity-and-swelling-capacity-on-gastrointestinal-functions-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-male-rats
#19
Chengquan Tan, Hongkui Wei, Xichen Zhao, Chuanhui Xu, Jian Peng
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation of dietary soluble fibers with high water-binding capacity (WBC) and swelling capacity (SC) on gastrointestinal tract mass, physicochemical properties of digesta, gastrointestinal mean retention time (MRT), body weight, and food intake in male rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch plus guar gum (PWMS+GG), andPWMS plus xanthan gum (PWMS+XG) for three weeks...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433162/tocopheryl-acetate-release-from-microcapsules-of-waxy-maize-starch
#20
Naksit Panyoyai, Robert A Shanks, Stefan Kasapis
Diffusion coefficients are utilised to provide a realistic approach in the quantification of mass transport phenomena, which are important for the delivery of bioactivity from high-solid biopolymer systems. Following this mechanistic consideration, we employ spray drying to produce microcapsules of waxy maize starch that suspend homogeneously tocopheryl acetate. An array of physicochemical techniques including dynamic oscillation in-shear or compression mode, microDSC, WAXD, FTIR, scanning electron or optical microscopy, and UV-vis assays were utilised to relate structural properties of the macromolecular network to diffusivity of the bioactive compound...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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