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Flavia M Souza-Smith, Stephen M Ford, Liz Simon, Patricia E Molina
Repeated binge-like alcohol intoxication (RBAI) induces whole-body insulin resistance, which is predicted to increase the risk for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Previously we showed that acute alcohol intoxication increases mesenteric lymphatic permeability, perilymphatic adipose tissue (PLAT) inflammation, and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in rats. We hypothesize that mesenteric lymphatic hyperpermeability, adipose tissue inflammation and associated dysregulated adipokine expression and insulin signaling are central mechanisms underlying whole body metabolic dysregulation resulting from RBAI...
January 25, 2017: Shock
Vincenza Cifarelli, Stoyan Ivanov, Yan Xie, Ni-Huiping Son, Brian T Saunders, Terri A Pietka, Trevor M Shew, Jun Yoshino, Sinju Sundaresan, Nicholas O Davidson, Ira J Goldberg, Andrew E Gelman, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Nada A Abumrad
BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD36 has immuno-metabolic actions and is abundant in the small intestine on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. We examined the role of CD36 in gut homeostasis using mice null for CD36 (CD36KO) and with CD36 deletion specific to enterocytes (Ent-CD36KO) or endothelial cells (EC-CD36KO). METHODS: Intestinal morphology was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (EM). Intestinal inflammation was determined from neutrophil infiltration and expression of cytokines, toll-like receptors and COX-2...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Zheng Zhou, Timothy A Garrow, Xianwen Dong, Daniel N Luchini, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Compared with choline, Met enhances milk yield and feed intake, and elicits a better immuno-metabolic status in periparturient cows. It is unknown whether hepatic activity and transcription of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) are responsive to Met and choline supply. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to characterize hepatic BHMT, MTR, and CBS transcription and activity in response to Met and choline supplementation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Yancui Huang, Eunyoung Park, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt M Burton-Freeman
Strawberries, rich in anthocyanins, attenuate meal-induced postprandial increases in inflammation and oxidative stress as well as improved post-meal insulin responses. While previous studies have focused on the health effects of strawberry consumption ingested with a meal, this study aimed to determine if consuming strawberries at alternative times near a meal would influence meal-induced oxidative-immuno-metabolic outcomes. Fourteen overweight healthy adults participated in a 3-arm, single-blinded, crossover clinical trial delivering a strawberry drink at 1 of 3 different time points: 2 hours before a standard meal, with the meal, or 2 hours after the meal...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
Nada A Abumrad, Ira J Goldberg
CD36 is a multifunctional immuno-metabolic receptor with many ligands. One of its physiological functions in the heart is the high-affinity uptake of long-chain fatty acids (FAs) from albumin and triglyceride rich lipoproteins. CD36 deletion markedly reduces myocardial FA uptake in rodents and humans. The protein is expressed on endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes and at both sites is likely to contribute to FA uptake by the myocardium. CD36 also transduces intracellular signaling events that influence how the FA is utilized and mediate metabolic effects of FA in the heart...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sandra Heller, Chloe Cable, Harrison Penrose, Rania Makboul, Debjani Biswas, Maleen Cabe, Susan E Crawford, Suzana D Savkovic
Intestinal inflammation has been recently characterized by the dysregulation of lipids as metabolic and energy sources, revealing a novel feature of its pathophysiology. Because intracellular lipids, stored in dynamic lipid droplets (LDs), provide energy for cellular needs, we investigated whether they play a role in intestinal inflammation. In the inflamed intestine of mice, elevated LDs were found in colonic and infiltrating immune cells as shown by staining for the LD coat protein PLIN2 and for lipids with BODIPY...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
B M M Antunes, S U Cayres, F S Lira, R A Fernandes
Metabolic alterations and cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, are associated with lifestyle modifications, particularly the increase of physical inactivity and poor eating habits, which contribute to one of the main causes of death in modern times. Cardiovascular diseases are positively correlated with several illnesses, such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and these disorders are known to contribute to changes in immune cells, cytokines and metabolism. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of lipid plaques and fibrous tissue (atheroma) in the artery walls and this process is related to the oxidation of LDL-c (low density lipoprotein) and the formation of a particle, termed LDLox, which can generate toxic injury to the vessel wall...
2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Ryan J Arsenault, Brett Trost, Michael H Kogut
The use of species-specific peptide arrays for the study of animal kinomes has a proven track record of success. This technique has been used in a variety of species for the study of host-pathogen interactions and metabolism. Species-specific peptide arrays have been designed previously for use with chicken but a turkey array has never been attempted. In addition, arrays designed around individual cellular functions have been designed and utilized, but cross-function immuno-metabolic arrays have not been considered previously...
2014: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
David Patsouris, Peter Qi, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Mile Stanojcic, Peter Chen, Alexandra Parousis, Saeid Amini-Nik, Marc G Jeschke
Burn is accompanied by long-lasting immuno-metabolic alterations referred to as hypermetabolism that are characterized by a considerable increase in resting energy expenditure and substantial whole-body catabolism. In burned patients, the length and magnitude of the hypermetabolic state is the highest of all patients and associated with profoundly increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in hypermetabolism are essentially unknown. We hypothesized that the adipose tissue plays a central role for the induction and persistence of hypermetabolism post-burn injury...
November 24, 2015: Cell Reports
Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Aounallah Mouna, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cecile Tremblay, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Mohamed El-Far, Julien van Grevenynghe
HIV-1 infection results in long-lasting activation of the immune system including elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokines, and bacterial product release from gut into blood and tissue compartments, which are not fully restored by antiretroviral therapies. HIV-1 has also developed numerous strategies via viral regulatory proteins to hijack cell molecular mechanisms to enhance its own replication and dissemination. Here, we reviewed the relationship between viral proteins, immune activation/inflammation, and deregulated metabolism occurring in HIV-1-infected patients that ultimately dampens the protective innate and adaptive arms of immunity...
December 2015: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Rasheed Ahmad, Puthiyaveetil Kochumon Shihab, Reeby Thomas, Munera Alghanim, Amal Hasan, Sardar Sindhu, Kazem Behbehani
BACKGROUND: The emerging role of TLR2/4 as immuno-metabolic receptors points to key involvement of TLR/IL-1R/MyD88 pathway in obesity/type-2 diabetes (T2D). IL1R-associated kinase (IRAK)-1 is a critical adapter protein (serine/threonine kinase) of this signaling pathway. The changes in adipose tissue expression of IRAK-1 in obesity/T2D remain unclear. We determined modulations in IRAK-1 gene/protein expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissues from lean, overweight and obese individuals with or without T2D...
2015: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
B Cousin, L Casteilla, P Laharrague, E Luche, A Lorsignol, V Cuminetti, J Paupert
The field of immunometabolism has come a long way in the past decade, leading to the emergence of a new role for white adipose tissue (WAT) that is now recognized to stand at the junction of immune and metabolic regulations. Interestingly, a crucial role of the abundant and heterogeneous immune population present in WAT has been proposed in the induction and development of metabolic diseases. Although a large body of data focused on mature immune cells, only few scattered studies are dedicated to leukocyte production, and the activity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these pathological states...
May 2016: Biochimie
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj, Kishanda Vyboh, Wei Cao, Ido Kema, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian
Tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway is associated with a wide variety of pathophysiological processes, of which tumor tolerance and immune dysfunction in several chronic viral infections including HIV are well known. The kynurenine pathway is at the crossroads of metabolism and immunity and plays an important role in inflammation while also playing an opposing role in the control of acute and chronic infections. In this review we have summarized findings from recent studies reporting modulation of tryptophan degrading the kynurenine pathway in the context of HIV infection...
April 2015: AIDS Reviews
Iqra Hameed, Shariq R Masoodi, Shahnaz A Mir, Mudasar Nabi, Khalid Ghazanfar, Bashir A Ganai
Diabetes mellitus is increasing at an alarming rate and has become a global challenge. Insulin resistance in target tissues and a relative deficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells are the major features of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Chronic low-grade inflammation in T2D has given an impetus to the field of immuno-metabolism linking inflammation to insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Many factors advocate a causal link between metabolic stress and inflammation. Numerous cellular factors trigger inflammatory signalling cascades, and as a result T2D is at the moment considered an inflammatory disorder triggered by disordered metabolism...
May 15, 2015: World Journal of Diabetes
Pietro B Carrieri, Fortunata Carbone, Francesco Perna, Dario Bruzzese, Claudia La Rocca, Mario Galgani, Silvana Montella, Maria Petracca, Ciro Florio, Giorgia T Maniscalco, Daniele L A Spitaleri, Gerardo Iuliano, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Marida Della Corte, Simona Bonavita, Giuseppe Matarese
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of glatiramer acetate (GA) on the modulation of immune cell subpopulations and serum levels of multiple immune/metabolic markers in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) to understand whether the treatment with GA could induce a specific change in the immunometabolic asset of patients with RRMS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed an extensive peripheral blood immunophenotyping and measured serum levels of several parameters involved in the pathogenesis of RRMS and also relevant in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and obesity such as leptin, soluble leptin-receptor (sLep-R), myeloperoxidase (MPO), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40-L), soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor (sTNF-R), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), soluble Inter-Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), in 20 naïve-to-treatment RRMS patients and 20 healthy controls...
September 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj, Kishanda Vyboh, Wei Cao, Ido Kema, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian
Tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway is associated with a wide variety of pathophysiological processes, of which tumor tolerance and immune dysfunction in several chronic viral infections including HIV are well known. The kynurenine pathway is at the crossroads of metabolism and immunity and plays an important role in inflammation while also playing an opposing role in the control of acute and chronic infections. In this review we have summarized findings from recent studies reporting modulation of tryptophan degrading the kynurenine pathway in the context of HIV infection...
May 6, 2015: AIDS Reviews
M Jawad Khan, Carolina B Jacometo, Mario Vailati Riboni, Erminio Trevisi, Daniel E Graugnard, Marcio N Corrêa, Juan J Loor
The prepartal dietary energy level is tightly correlated with the degree of tissue mobilization that the animal experiences around parturition (giving birth). To better understand the link between the dry period dietary energy management and the inflammatory status around parturition, 12 multiparous Holstein cows were fed for the entire dry period either a high-wheat straw/lower-energy diet to supply at least 100% of the calculated net energy for lactation (NEL) (control, CON) or a higher-energy diet to supply >140% of NEL (overfed, OVE)...
September 2015: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Jonathan R Brestoff, David Artis
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent disease worldwide. While genetic and environmental factors are known to regulate the development of obesity and associated metabolic diseases, emerging studies indicate that innate and adaptive immune cell responses in adipose tissue have critical roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. In the lean state, type 2 cytokine-associated immune cell responses predominate in white adipose tissue and protect against weight gain and insulin resistance through direct effects on adipocytes and elicitation of beige adipose...
March 26, 2015: Cell
Mieczysław Litwin, Janusz Feber, Anna Niemirska, Jacek Michałkiewicz
There is an increasing amount of data indicating that primary hypertension (PH) is not only a hemodynamic phenomenon but also a complex syndrome involving abnormal fat tissue distribution, over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), metabolic abnormalities, and activation of the immune system. In children, PH usually presents with a typical phenotype of disturbed body composition, accelerated biological maturity, and subtle immunological and metabolic abnormalities. This stage of the disease is potentially reversible...
February 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Mark A Exley, Laura Hand, Donal O'Shea, Lydia Lynch
Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. Alongside its major role in energy storage, WAT is an important endocrine organ, producing many bioactive molecules, termed adipokines, which not only serve as regulators of systemic metabolism, but also possess immunoregulatory properties. Furthermore, WAT contains a unique immune cell repertoire, including an accumulation of leukocytes that are rare in other locations...
November 2014: Journal of Endocrinology
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