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"gate control theory of pain"

Andreas Venhorst, Dominic Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion...
August 23, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Bo Duan, Longzhen Cheng, Qiufu Ma
In 1905, Henry Head first suggested that transmission of pain-related protopathic information can be negatively modulated by inputs from afferents sensing innocuous touch and temperature. In 1965, Melzak and Wall proposed a more concrete gate control theory of pain that highlights the interaction between unmyelinated C fibers and myelinated A fibers in pain transmission. Here we review the current understanding of the spinal microcircuits transmitting and gating mechanical pain or itch. We also discuss how disruption of the gate control could cause pain or itch evoked by innocuous mechanical stimuli, a hallmark symptom for many chronic pain or itch patients...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Muhammad Saad Yousuf, Kasia Zubkow, Gustavo Tenorio, Bradley Kerr
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) often complain of neuropathic pain. According to the Gate Control Theory of Pain, spinal networks of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are important in modulating nociceptive inputs from the periphery. Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) generally dictate the tone of GABA/glycine inhibition by regulating intracellular chloride concentrations. In this study, we investigated the role of NKCC1 and KCC2 in neuropathic pain observed in the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model to study the pathophysiology of MS...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
Sinyoung Song, Dong Hoon Choi, Tae Suk Oh
BACKGROUND: Fractional CO2 laser is an effective treatment for scars, but most patients complain about sharp burning pain, even after the application of lidocaine ointment. This study analyzed the impact of a vibrating device to nonpharmacologically reduce the acute pain of laser treatment, in accordance with the gate control theory of pain management. METHODS: This is a prospective study performed from May 2013 through March 2014. Fifty-three patients (mean age, 26...
November 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Francisco Javier Ropero Peláez, Shirley Taniguchi
The gate control theory of pain proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 is revisited through two mechanisms of neuronal regulation: NMDA synaptic plasticity and intrinsic plasticity. The Melzack and Wall circuit was slightly modified by using strictly excitatory nociceptive afferents (in the original arrangement, nociceptive afferents were considered excitatory when they project to central transmission neurons and inhibitory when projecting to substantia gelatinosa). The results of our neurocomputational model are consistent with biological ones in that nociceptive signals are blocked on their way to the brain every time a tactile stimulus is given at the same locus where the pain was produced...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Hiroaki Kuwahara, Rei Ogawa
OBJECTIVE: In general, needling and injection are painful procedures, especially when the face is the target. Although local anesthetics (cream or tape) can be used to reduce the pain, they are not sufficiently effective. It has been suggested that vibration can reduce pain. The aim of this case study was to determine whether application of a vibration device to an area adjacent to the facial target area to be injected/needled would relieve pain. METHODS: Consecutive women scheduled to undergo facial injection with hyaluronic acid or botulinum toxin were recruited...
2016: Eplasty
Rolf-Detlef Treede
The "gate control theory of pain" of 1965 became famous for integrating clinical observations and the understanding of spinal dorsal horn circuitry at that time into a testable model. Although it became rapidly clear that spinal circuitry is much more complex than that proposed by Melzack and Wall, their prediction of the clinical efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and spinal cord stimulation has left an important clinical legacy also 50 years later. In the meantime, it has been recognized that the sensitivity of the nociceptive system can be decreased or increased and that this "gain control" can occur at peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal levels...
June 2016: Pain
Joel Katz, Brittany N Rosenbloom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Ricardo Cárdenas Fernández
The gate control theory of pain, introduced by Melzack and Wall in 1965, led the way in pain research during the second half of the 20th century. Eventually, the observation of pain-related phenomena which the theory could not satisfactorily explain propelled Melzack to develop a new concept, the neuromatrix, which considers as participants in the pain transmission and modulation system, certain brain areas not traditionally associated with the pain experience. This concept places equal importance on the sensory, affective and cognitive aspects of pain, helping the advancement of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in different clinical pain conditions...
June 2015: Investigación Clínica
Nancy Dekki Shalaly, Eduardo Aneiros, Michael Blank, Johan Mueller, Eva Nyman, Michael Blind, Michael A Dabrowski, Christin V Andersson, Kristian Sandberg
According to the gate control theory of pain, the glycine receptors (GlyRs) are putative targets for development of therapeutic analgesics. A possible approach for novel analgesics is to develop a positive modulator of the glycine-activated Cl(-) channels. Unfortunately, there has been limited success in developing drug-like small molecules to study the impact of agonists or positive modulators on GlyRs. Eight RNA aptamers with low nanomolar affinity to GlyRα1 were generated, and their pharmacological properties analyzed...
October 2015: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Edmund Foster, Hendrik Wildner, Laetitia Tudeau, Sabine Haueter, William T Ralvenius, Monika Jegen, Helge Johannssen, Ladina Hösli, Karen Haenraets, Alexander Ghanem, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Michael Bösl, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer
The gate control theory of pain proposes that inhibitory neurons of the spinal dorsal horn exert critical control over the relay of nociceptive signals to higher brain areas. Here we investigated how the glycinergic subpopulation of these neurons contributes to modality-specific pain and itch processing. We generated a GlyT2::Cre transgenic mouse line suitable for virus-mediated retrograde tracing studies and for spatially precise ablation, silencing, and activation of glycinergic neurons. We found that these neurons receive sensory input mainly from myelinated primary sensory neurons and that their local toxin-mediated ablation or silencing induces localized mechanical, heat, and cold hyperalgesia; spontaneous flinching behavior; and excessive licking and biting directed toward the corresponding skin territory...
March 18, 2015: Neuron
Sukhyanti Kerai, Kirti Nath Saxena, Bharti Taneja, Lalit Sehrawat
The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as non-pharmacological therapeutic modality is increasing. The types of TENS used clinically are conventional TENS, acupuncture TENS and intense TENS. Their working is believed to be based on gate control theory of pain and activation of endogenous opioids. TENS has been used in anaesthesia for treatment of post-operative analgesia, post-operative nausea vomiting and labour analgesia. Evidence to support analgesic efficacy of TENS is ambiguous. A systematic search of literature on PubMed and Cochrane Library from July 2012 to January 2014 identified a total of eight clinical trials investigating post-operative analgesic effects of TENS including a total of 442 patients...
July 2014: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Krishna Kumar, Mariam Abbas, Syed Rizvi
SUMMARY Pain is a complex behavior process, the anatomy and physiology of which is not completely understood, and is subject to continuous exploration and research. Following on the heels of Melzack and Wall's gate control theory of pain (1965), Shealey et al., in 1967, were the first to implant stimulation electrodes over the dorsal columns in an attempt to provide relief for patients with chronic, intractable pain. Since then, significant strides in both the technological and therapeutic sides have facilitated the evolution of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the management of a variety of pain pathologies...
March 2012: Pain Management
Krishna Kumar, Syed Rizvi
Neuromodulation is based on the revolutionary concept that paresthesia-inducing electrical stimulation could be analgesic. Its historical basis emanates from Melzack and Wall's gate control theory of pain proposed in 1965. Neuromodulation has given us ready access to the systems of pain modulation and helped mature the understanding of the pathophysiology of pain. Physiologic studies highlight the complex ascending influence of neurostimulation on sensory processing. However, the present understanding of pain is rudimentary and evidence that neuromodulation works is modest...
January 2014: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Lisa Renee Miller, Annmarie Cano, Lee H Wurm
UNLABELLED: The current study tested whether a therapeutic assessment improved pain and well-being in couples facing chronic pain. Couples (N = 47) in which 1 spouse had chronic pain completed surveys about pain, mood, marital satisfaction, and empathy, followed by an interview and an assessment session to which they were randomly assigned: a tailored assessment of their marriage and pain coping that incorporated motivational interviewing strategies, or a control condition that included education about the gate control theory of pain...
May 2013: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Massieh Moayedi, Karen D Davis
Several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain the physiological basis of pain, although none yet completely accounts for all aspects of pain perception. Here, we provide a historical overview of the major contributions, ideas, and competing theories of pain from ancient civilizations to Melzack and Wall's Gate Control Theory of Pain.
January 2013: Journal of Neurophysiology
Thorsten Bartsch, Peter J Goadsby
The effect of peripheral neurostimulation has traditionally been attributed to the activation of non-noxious afferent nerve fibers (Aβ-fibers) thought to modulate Aδ and C-fiber-mediated nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord, compatible with the 'gate control theory of pain'. The concept has been extended since its initial description and more recent experimental evidence suggests that the analgesic effects of peripheral nerve stimulation in pain states such as in chronic headache require an interplay of multiple influences...
2011: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Amir Hashem Shahidi Bonjar
BACKGROUND: Neurologically, it is proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g. using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration- can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "Gate-control" theory of Melzack and Wall. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Syringe Micro Vibrator is a new design being introduced for the first time in the field of Dentistry. This device is a promising breakthrough in pain and anxiety management and may deliver solution for clinicians plagued with patient pain phobia...
2011: Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research
Maneesh Shrivastav, Shailesh Musley
The therapy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is based on producing an electrical field on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord that blocks only neuropathic pain (ie, pain from damage to the nervous system). Most SCS devices deliver a biphasic pulse consisting of a pair of equal amplitude pulses with opposite polarity. SCS therapy is based on the gate control theory of pain and has been used for the treatment of diverse conditions of neuropathic pain, including complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). In addition to CRPS, SCS is helpful in patients with failed back surgery syndrome, degenerative disk disease, and in patients with peripheral neuropathies...
2009: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jean E Cobb, Lindsey L Cohen
OBJECTIVES: Vaccinations protect children against deadly diseases and approximately 30 immunizations are recommended for children by 6 years of age. However, immunization injections cause negative short-term and long-term consequences for children. The Gate Control Theory of pain suggests that physical interventions (eg, rubbing the site) may be helpful, but they are not well validated for children's acute pain. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of the ShotBlocker, a physical intervention designed to decrease children's injection pain...
November 2009: Clinical Journal of Pain
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