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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915413/resource-partitioning-by-evergreen-and-deciduous-species-in-a-tropical-dry-forest
#1
Juan C Álvarez-Yépiz, Alberto Búrquez, Angelina Martínez-Yrízar, Mark Teece, Enrico A Yépez, Martin Dovciak
Niche differentiation can lead to coexistence of plant species by partitioning limiting resources. Light partitioning promotes niche differentiation in tropical humid forests, but it is unclear how niche partitioning occurs in tropical dry forests where both light and soil resources can be limiting. We studied the adult niche of four dominant evergreen (cycad, palm) and drought-deciduous (legume, oak) species co-occurring along environmental gradients. We analyzed light intensity and soil fertility effects on key functional traits related to plant carbon and water economy, how these traits determine species' functional strategies, and how these strategies relate to relative species abundance and spatial patterns...
December 3, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915075/building-the-case-for-a-novel-teleost-model-of-non-breeding-aggression-and-its-neuroendocrine-control
#2
Laura Quintana, Lucía Zubizarreta, Cecilia Jalabert, Gervasio Batista, Rossana Perrone, Ana Silva
In vertebrates, aggression has been traditionally associated with high levels of circulating androgens in breeding males. Nevertheless, the centrality of androgens as primary modulators of aggression is being reconsidered in at least in two particular cases: 1) territorial aggression outside the breeding season, and 2) aggression by females. We are developing the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum, as a novel, advantageous model system to address these two alternative forms of aggression. This species displays a short, escalated contest, after which a clear hierarchical status emerges...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915067/the-feasibility-and-effects-of-acupuncture-in-an-adolescent-nordic-ski-population
#3
Kristin L Garlanger, William H Fredericks, Alexander Do, Brent A Bauer, Edward R Laskowski
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the use and effectiveness of acupuncture in adults post exercise have been well documented. Fewer studies involving acupuncture have been completed in the adolescent athlete population. To our knowledge there are no published studies that investigate the use of acupuncture in adolescent athletes within their field of play. OBJECTIVE: To primarily assess the feasibility of performing acupuncture in adolescent Nordic skiers within their athletic environment, and secondarily to measure the effect of acupuncture on muscle soreness and sense of well-being...
November 30, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914868/determination-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-urine-samples-indicates-frequent-dietary-exposure-to-aflatoxin-b1-in-the-bangladeshi-population
#4
Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Khaled Hossain, Gisela H Degen
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a hepatocarcinogen and highly toxic mycotoxin, is a contaminant of food commodities, especially in hot and humid climates that favour the growth of aflatoxin-producing fungi. As data on AFB1 contamination of food and feed in Bangladesh are scarce, we conducted an initial screening by ELISA on the occurrence of the metabolite and biomarker aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in urines from Bangladesh which indicated frequent exposure. This finding led us to conduct a follow-up study where we applied a more sensitive method (IAC clean-up and HPLC-FD analysis) to determine AFM1 concentrations in a larger set of urine samples...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914853/monitoring-the-fitness-of-antiviral-resistant-influenza-strains-during-an-epidemic-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#5
Kathy Leung, Marc Lipsitch, Kwok Yung Yuen, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Antivirals (eg, oseltamivir) are important for mitigating influenza epidemics. In 2007, an oseltamivir-resistant influenza seasonal A H1N1 strain emerged and spread to global fixation within 1 year. This event showed that antiviral-resistant (AVR) strains can be intrinsically more transmissible than their contemporaneous antiviral-sensitive (AVS) counterpart. Surveillance of AVR fitness is therefore essential. Our objective was to develop a simple method for estimating AVR fitness from surveillance data...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914815/findings-from-an-online-survey-assessing-the-burden-and-management-of-seasonal-allergic-rhinoconjunctivitis-in-us-patients
#6
Eli O Meltzer, Judith Rosen Farrar, Cary Sennett
BACKGROUND: Seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SARC) affects ≥16% of the US population annually. Telephone and in-office surveys have demonstrated negative effects of allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms on sleep, daily activities, productivity, concentration, and emotions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the patient-perceived burden of SARC in relation to newer treatments, increased access to treatments, and changing management protocols. METHODS: An online survey of symptom experience, impact on daily life, and management was conducted in US respondents who suffer (or whose child suffers) from SARC symptoms...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914776/seasonal-variability-of-equilibrium-factor-and-unattached-fractions-of-radon-and-thoron-in-different-regions-of-punjab-india
#7
Komal Saini, Parminder Singh, Prabhjot Singh, B S Bajwa, B K Sahoo
A survey was conducted to estimate equilibrium factor and unattached fractions of radon and thoron in different regions of Punjab state, India. Pin hole based twin cup dosimeters and direct progeny sensor techniques have been utilized for estimation of concentration level of radon, thoron and their progenies. Equilibrium factor calculated from radon, thoron and their progenies concentration has been found to vary from 0.15 to 0.80 and 0.008 to 0.101 with an average value of 0.44 and 0.036 for radon and thoron respectively...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914743/sequential-immunization-with-consensus-influenza-hemagglutinins-raises-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies-against-various-heterologous-ha-strains
#8
Hui Zhou, Yang Huang, Songhua Yuan, Yuanyuan Li, Shuyan Wu, Jianqing Xu, Rui Huang
Seasonal and emerging epidemics caused by influenza virus remain as a public health concern and an economic burden. The weak immunogenicity of conserved epitopes on hemagglutinin that induces broad protective immune responses is the main obstacle to the development of universal vaccines. In the present report, we designed the cross-subtypic sequential vaccination strategy and evaluated its neutralizing antibody (nAb) activity by pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The results clearly indicated that compared with traditional vaccines strategy, the cross-subtypic sequential immunization could significantly induce a broad serum cross-reactive nAb response in mice as well as against homologous strains, and provide protection from heterologous virus PR8 (H1N1) challenge...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914742/influenza-virus-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytoxicity-induced-by-vaccination-or-natural-infection
#9
Rory D de Vries, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Mark Pronk, Erwin de Bruin, Geert Leroux-Roels, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Rob S van Binnendijk, Florian Krammer, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Influenza viruses are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infection, however due to antigenic drift of the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA), annual influenza virus vaccination is required. In addition to seasonal viruses, certain (avian) influenza A viruses of other subtypes, like H5N1 or H7N9, cause sporadic zoonotic infections. Therefore, the availability of game-changing novel vaccines that induce "universal" immune responses to a wide variety of influenza A virus subtypes is highly desirable...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914645/comparison-of-diverse-estimation-methods-for-personal-exposure-to-air-pollutants-and-associations-with-allergic-symptoms-the-allergy-gene-environment-link-angel-study
#10
Young-Min Kim, Jihyun Kim, Youngshin Han, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Inbo Oh, Gwi-Nam Bae, Jae Young Lee, Chang-Heok Kim, SungChul Seo, Su Ryeon Noh, Kangmo Ahn
We estimated the exposure to ambient air pollutants and analyzed the associations with allergic diseases. We enrolled 177 children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 70 asthmatic adults living in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and followed for 17months between August 2013 and December 2014. Parents or patients recorded symptom scores on a daily basis. Exposure to particulate matter with a diameter <10μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated in four different ways in each individual, using the AQ1 (measurements from the nearest air quality monitoring station to residential houses), AQ2 (measurements modified from AQ1 with the indoor level of air pollutants and time activity of each individual), AQ1-DI, and AQ2-DI (measurements modified from AQ1 and AQ2, respectively, with daily inhalation intakes of air pollutants)...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914642/chemical-and-physical-properties-of-biomass-burning-aerosols-and-their-ccn-activity-a-case-study-in-beijing-china
#11
Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914641/reduction-of-neonicotinoid-insecticide-residues-in-prairie-wetlands-by-common-wetland-plants
#12
Anson R Main, Jessica Fehr, Karsten Liber, John V Headley, Kerry M Peru, Christy A Morrissey
Neonicotinoid insecticides are frequently detected in wetlands during the early to mid-growing period of the Canadian Prairie cropping season. These detections also overlap with the growth of macrophytes that commonly surround agricultural wetlands which we hypothesized may reduce neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands. We sampled 20 agricultural wetlands and 11 macrophyte species in central Saskatchewan, Canada, over eight weeks to investigate whether macrophytes were capable of reducing movement of neonicotinoids from cultivated fields and/or reducing concentrations in surface water by accumulating insecticide residues into their tissues...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914638/planting-richness-affects-the-recovery-of-vegetation-and-soil-processes-in-constructed-wetlands-following-disturbance
#13
Mary M Means, Changwoo Ahn, Gregory B Noe
The resilience of constructed wetland ecosystems to severe disturbance, such as a mass herbivory eat-out or soil disturbance, remains poorly understood. In this study, we use a controlled mesocosm experiment to examine how original planting diversity affects the ability of constructed freshwater wetlands to recover structurally and functionally after a disturbance (i.e., aboveground harvesting and soil coring). We assessed if the planting richness of macrophyte species influences recovery of constructed wetlands one year after a disturbance...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914437/humpback-whale-generated-ambient-noise-levels-provide-insight-into-singers-spatial-densities
#14
Kerri D Seger, Aaron M Thode, Jorge Urbán-R, Pamela Martínez-Loustalot, M Esther Jiménez-López, Diana López-Arzate
Baleen whale vocal activity can be the dominant underwater ambient noise source for certain locations and seasons. Previous wind-driven ambient-noise formulations have been adjusted to model ambient noise levels generated by random distributions of singing humpback whales in ocean waveguides and have been combined to a single model. This theoretical model predicts that changes in ambient noise levels with respect to fractional changes in singer population (defined as the noise "sensitivity") are relatively unaffected by the source level distributions and song spectra of individual humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913957/chemical-characterization-of-rainwater-at-a-high-altitude-site-nainital-in-the-central-himalayas-india
#15
Deewan Singh Bisht, A K Srivastava, H Joshi, K Ram, N Singh, M Naja, M K Srivastava, S Tiwari
The present study investigates the chemical composition of rainwater (RW) from a high-altitude site "Nainital" (1958 m above msl) in the central Himalaya region, to understand the influence of local, regional, and long-range transport of pollutants. A total of 55 (2 in pre-monsoon and 53 in monsoon) RW samples were collected during the study period (June-September 2012) and were analyzed for major anions and cations using an ion chromatograph. The pH of precipitation events ranged from 4.95 to 6.50 (average 5...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913257/prodynorphin-and-kappa-opioid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-brain-relates-to-social-status-and-behavior-in-male-european-starlings
#16
Lauren V Riters, Melissa A Cordes, Sharon A Stevenson
Numerous animal species display behavioral changes in response to changes in social status or territory possession. For example, in male European starlings only males that acquire nesting sites display high rates of sexual and agonistic behavior. Past studies show that mu and delta opioid receptors regulate behaviors associated with social ascension or defeat. Opioids also act at kappa receptors, with dynorphin binding with the highest affinity; however, the role of these opioids in social behavior has not been well studied...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913067/the-financial-impact-of-clinic-no-show-rates-in-an-academic-pediatric-otolaryngology-practice
#17
Zhen Huang, Mariam Ashraf, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Pamela Mudd
PURPOSE: To investigate determinants of no-show rates in an academic pediatric otolaryngology practice including appointment time, age, sex, new patient status, payer mix, and median household income by zip code. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of clinic no-show rates and patient demographics in a free standing children's hospital and affiliated outpatient clinics across eight providers in a one-year period. RESULTS: Analysis shows that the overall no-show rate across all providers was 15% with the highest rate of 19% in the zip code with the lowest median income...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913026/assessing-membrane-fouling-and-the-performance-of-pilot-scale-membrane-bioreactor-mbr-to-treat-real-municipal-wastewater-during-winter-season-in-nordic-regions
#18
Khum Gurung, Mohamed Chaker Ncibi, Mika Sillanpää
In this study, the performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat real municipal wastewater was assessed at low temperatures (7 to 20°C) in Nordic regions. First, the effect of low temperatures on membrane fouling was evaluated by monitoring trans-membrane pressure. A significant membrane fouling was observed when the sludge temperature inside the MBR unit was below 10°C with a 75% permeability drop, thus indicating high deterioration of the membrane performance at low temperatures. Moreover, increasing values of sludge volume index (SVI) during low temperatures showed high deterioration of sludge settleability...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913025/mapping-monthly-rainfall-erosivity-in-europe
#19
Cristiano Ballabio, Pasquale Borrelli, Jonathan Spinoni, Katrin Meusburger, Silas Michaelides, Santiago Beguería, Andreas Klik, Sašo Petan, Miloslav Janeček, Preben Olsen, Juha Aalto, Mónika Lakatos, Anna Rymszewicz, Alexandru Dumitrescu, Melita Perčec Tadić, Nazzareno Diodato, Julia Kostalova, Svetla Rousseva, Kazimierz Banasik, Christine Alewell, Panos Panagos
Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part of Britain and Ireland) in May and the highest values are registered during summer months...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913018/potential-impact-of-flowback-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-agricultural-soil-quality-metal-metalloid-bioaccessibility-microtox-bioassay-and-enzyme-activities
#20
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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