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Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
In Part II of this work we present the results of the downscaled offline Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) model, included in the "Technology Driver Model" (TDM) approach to future U.S. air quality projections (2046-2050) compared to a current-year period (2001-2005), and the interplay between future emission and climate changes. By 2046-2050, there are widespread decreases in future concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx  = NO + NO2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Christof Lanzerstorfer
The concentration of heavy metals in urban road-deposited sediments (RDS) can be used as an indicator for environmental pollution. Thus, their occurrence has been studied in whole road dust samples as well as in size fractions obtained by sieving. Because of the limitations of size separation by sieving little information is available about heavy metal concentrations in the road dust size fractions <20 μm. In this study air classification was applied for separation of dust size fractions smaller than 20 μm from RDS collected at different times during the year...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Abbey E Wilson, Darrell L Sparks, Katrina K Knott, Andrew J Kouba, Scott Willard, Ashli Brown
Male giant pandas identify female sexual receptivity through the detection of olfactory cues in estrous urine. However, it is yet unknown which specific days of the female estrous cycle may provoke male sexual-social responses and a physiological readiness to mate. We hypothesized that female urine from specific days of the estrous cycle will be positively associated with specific changes in male behaviors, urinary semiochemical production, and steroidogenic activity. Experimental simultaneous choice trials were conducted in captivity with four male giant pandas during the spring breeding season and during fall...
April 11, 2018: Theriogenology
Yue Shi, Wenjiang Huang, Yingying Dong, Dailiang Peng, Qiong Zheng, Puyun Yang
Landscape structure and vegetation coverage are important habitat conditions for Oriental Migratory Locust infestation in East Asia. Characterizing the landscape's dynamics of locust habitat is meaningful for reducing the occupation of locusts and limiting potential risks. To better understand causes and consequences of landscape pattern and locust habitat, it is not enough to simply detect locust habitat of each year. Rather, landcover transitions causing the change of locust habitat area must also be explored...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Guiying Li, Huan Yang, Taicheng An, Yujuan Lu
Safe drinking water is essential for the wellbeing of people around the world. In this work, the occurrence, distribution, and elimination of four groups of antibiotics including fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, chloramphenicols and macrolides (21 antibiotics total), were studied in two drinking water treatment plants during the wet and dry seasons. In the drinking water source (river), the most abundant group was fluoroquinolones. In contrast, chloramphenicols were all under the limitation of detection. Total concentration of all investigated antibiotics was higher in dissolved phase (62-3...
April 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Josh M Colston, Tahmeed Ahmed, Cloupas Mahopo, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret Kosek, Francisco de Sousa Junior, Prakash Sunder Shrestha, Erling Svensen, Ali Turab, Benjamin Zaitchik
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal and time series analyses are needed to characterize the associations between hydrometeorological parameters and health outcomes. Earth Observation (EO) climate data products derived from satellites and global model-based reanalysis have the potential to be used as surrogates in situations and locations where weather-station based observations are inadequate or incomplete. However, these products often lack direct evaluation at specific sites of epidemiological interest...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Xianqiang Tang, Min Wu, Rui Li
The transportation and sedimentation of particulate phosphorus (PP) in a huge reservoir such as the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) are closely related to the phosphorus distribution characteristics and nutritional status of the water body. In this study, the PP distribution, sedimentation, and bioavailability in the mainstream section of the TGR were investigated through a field survey, indoor simulated settlement experiment, and historical data analysis. The results indicated that PP was the major component of the total phosphorus (TP) and that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) trapped nearly 76...
April 11, 2018: Water Research
Naruhito Otani, Masayuki Shima, Takashi Ueda, Kaoru Ichiki, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Yoshio Takesue, Kenta Honjo, Natsuko Yoshida, Sayo Kawata, Toshiomi Okuno
Despite established guidelines for population-level assessments of immunity after vaccination, standard methods for individual-level analyses have not been established, limiting the ability to optimize vaccination strategies within a particular season. In this study, we evaluated changes in cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with respect to the number of influenza vaccine doses. In particular, the influenza vaccine was administered to 21 adults during the 2015-2016 season. IFN-γ production induced by the influenza vaccine antigens [A (H1N1), A (H3N2), B (Yamagata lineage), and B (Victoria lineage)] increased after the first dose of vaccination in 11, 10, 10, and 11 subjects, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
M J Dickson, C L Hager, A Al-Shaibi, P Q Thomas, L H Baumgard, J W Ross, A F Keating
Environmental conditions that impede heat dissipation and increase body temperature cause heat stress (HS). The study objective was to evaluate impacts of HS on the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. Post-pubertal gilts (126.0 ± 21.6 kg) were orally administered altrenogest to synchronize estrus, and subjected to either 5 d of thermal neutral (TN; 20.3 ± 0.5°C; n = 6) or cyclical HS (25.4 - 31.9°C; n = 6) conditions during the follicular phase preceding behavioral estrus. On d 5, blood samples were obtained, gilts were euthanized, and ovaries collected...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Anup Bastola, Jeffrey A Davis
The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), has emerged as a major stink bug pest of soybean in Louisiana during the last decade. In the spring, this species is usually found in leguminous hosts where populations can build up before migrating to soybean fields in the summer. However, studies looking at the preference of this species to the potential spring leguminous hosts under the natural conditions are lacking. Field studies were conducted in different geographical locations of Louisiana from 2013 to 2015 to evaluate preference of P...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dariusz Nowakowski
Transverse lines, called Harris Lines (HL), osteological markers of recovery from growth arrest episodes, are visible in radiograms of recent and Pleistocene fossil bones. Since on the one hand they mark stressful episodes in life, and on the other are mainly used to trace health fluctuations in prehistoric human communities, I used a cave bear population to check if the processes that could affect the specie' condition were in any way reflected in the bone structure. 392 bear bones from Bear Cave in Kletno (collection: Department of Palaeozoology, University of Wrocław), dated as 32 100 ±1300 to >49 000 years BP, were radiologically examined...
2018: PloS One
Brian A McKinley, Sara N Olson, Kimberley B Ritter, Dustin W Herb, Steven D Karlen, Fachuang Lu, John Ralph, William L Rooney, John E Mullet
This study was conducted to document the extent and basis of compositional variation of shoot biomass of the energy Sorghum bicolor hybrid TX08001 during development under field conditions. TX08001 is capable of accumulating ~40 Mg/ha of dry biomass under good growing conditions and this genotype allocates ~80% of its shoot biomass to stems. After 150 days of growth TX08001 stems had a fresh/dry weight ratio of ~3:1 and soluble biomass accounted for ~30% of stem biomass. A panel of diverse energy sorghum genotypes varied ~6-fold in the ratio of stem structural to soluble biomass after 150 days of growth...
2018: PloS One
Cheng You, Dennis K J Lin, S Stanley Young
In environmental epidemiology, it is often encountered that multiple time series data with a long-term trend, including seasonality, cannot be fully adjusted by the observed covariates. The long-term trend is difficult to separate from abnormal short-term signals of interest. This paper addresses how to estimate the long-term trend in order to recover short-term signals. Our case study demonstrates that the current spline smoothing methods can result in significant positive and negative cross-correlations from the same dataset, depending on how the smoothing parameters are chosen...
2018: PloS One
Padraic J Phibbs, Ben Jones, Gregory Roe, Dale B Read, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Jonathon Weakley, Andrew Rock, Kevin Till
Phibbs, PJ, Jones, B, Roe, G, Read, DB, Darrall-Jones, J, Weakley, J, Rock, A, and Till, K. Organized chaos in late specialization team sports: weekly training loads of elite adolescent rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1316-1323, 2018-The aim of this study was to quantify the mean weekly training load (TL) of elite adolescent rugby union players participating in multiple teams and examine the differences between playing positions. Twenty elite male adolescent rugby union players (17.4 ± 0.7 years) were recruited from a regional academy and categorized by playing position: forwards (n = 10) and backs (n = 10)...
May 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
I González-Ponce, F M Leo, R Jiménez, D Sánchez-Oliva, H Sarmento, A Figueiredo, T García-Calvo
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching competency and team conflict, at individual and team levels, over the season. The participants were professional female and male soccer players, who participated in the First and Second Division. A longitudinal study was performed. At Time 1, the sample of participants consisted of 581 soccer players aged between 15 and 39 years. At Time 2, 549 players were recruited from the original sample aged between 15 and 37 years. Finally, at Time 3, the sample comprised 576 players aged between 15 and 37 years...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
John T McCrone, Robert J Woods, Emily T Martin, Ryan E Malosh, Arnold S Monto, Adam S Lauring
The evolutionary dynamics of influenza virus ultimately derive from processes that take place within and between infected individuals. Here we define influenza virus dynamics in human hosts through sequencing of 249 specimens from 200 individuals collected over 6290 person-seasons of observation. Because these viruses were collected from individuals in a prospective community-based cohort, they are broadly representative of natural infections with seasonal viruses. Consistent with a neutral model of evolution, sequence data from 49 serially sampled individuals illustrated the dynamic turnover of synonymous and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants and provided little evidence for positive selection of antigenic variants...
April 23, 2018: ELife
Li Luo, Jing Ren, Fengyi Zhang, Wei Zhang, Chunyang Li, Zhixin Qiu, Debin Huang
Length of hospital stay (LOS) of asthma can be a reflection of the disease burden faced by patients, and it is also sensitive to air pollution. This study aims at estimating and validating the effects of air pollution and readmission on the LOS for those who have asthma, considering their readmission history, minimum temperature, and threshold effects of air pollutants. In addition, sex, age, and season were also constructed for stratification to achieve more precise and specific results. The results show that no significant effects of PM2...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Drashti Patel, Renee Gismondi, Ali Alsaffar, Sonia M Tiquia-Arashiro
Waters draining into a lake carry with them much of the suspended sediment that is transported by rivers and streams from the local drainage basin. The organic matter processing in the sediments is executed by heterotrophic microbial communities, whose activities may vary spatially and temporally. Thus, to capture and evaluate some of these variabilities in the sediments, we sampled six sites: three from St. Clair River (SC1, SC2, and SC3) and three from Lake St. Clair in spring, summer, fall and winter of 2016...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Gaël Alvarez, Tanvir Shahzad, Laurence Andanson, Michael Bahn, Matthew D Wallenstein, Sébastien Fontaine
Most current models of soil C dynamics predict that climate warming will accelerate soil C mineralization, resulting in a long-term CO2 release and positive feedback to global warming. However, ecosystem warming experiments show that CO2 loss from warmed soils declines to control levels within a few years. Here, we explore the temperature-dependence of enzymatic conversion of polymerised soil organic C (SOC) into assimilable compounds, which is presumed the rate-limiting step of SOC mineralization. Combining literature review, modelling and enzyme assays, we studied the effect of temperature on activity of enzymes considering their thermal inactivation and catalytic activity...
April 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
C Backes, A Religi, L Moccozet, L Vuilleumier, D Vernez, J-L Bulliard
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses received by individuals are highly influenced by behavioural and environmental factors. This study aimed at quantifying hats' sun protection effectiveness in various exposure conditions, by predicting UVR exposure doses and their anatomical distributions. METHODS: A well-defined three-dimensional head morphology and four hat styles (a cap, a helmet, a middle- and a wide-brimmed hat) were added to a previously published model...
April 23, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
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