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Nephrosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596204/malignant-hypertension-as-a-rare-cause-of-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#1
Guramrinder Thind, Karthik Kailasam
Malignant hypertension can occasionally be associated with microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. A 38-year-old male presented with nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and oliguria for 2 weeks. He was diagnosed with hypertensive emergency with cardiac and renal dysfunction. Interestingly, further workup was diagnostic for the presence of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA): haemoglobin =12.7 g/dL, indirect bilirubin =2.0 mg/dL, haptoglobin ≤6 mg/dL, platelet count =121 000/μL and schistocytes on peripheral smear...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425160/causes-of-nephrotic-syndrome-and-nephrotic-range-proteinuria-are-different-in-adult-chinese-patients-a-single-centre-study-over-33%C3%A2-years
#2
Jack Kit-Chung Ng, Terry King-Wing Ma, Fernand Mac-Moune Lai, Kai Ming Chow, Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan, Chi Bon Leung, Philip Kam-To Li, Cheuk Chun Szeto
BACKGROUND: The reported causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) varied between different countries. Less is known about the causes of nephrotic-range proteinuria (NPU). METHODS: In this single-centre, retrospective study of adult patients who underwent renal biopsy between 1983-2015 in a tertiary referral hospital in Hong Kong, we aimed to evaluate the underlying causes of NS and NPU. We also determined the distribution of histopathological diagnoses with regard to the age subgroups and time periods RESULTS: Among 7,456 patients who underwent renal biopsy, 982 and 838 patients had NS and NPU, respectively...
April 20, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397388/risk-of-thyroid-cancer-among-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#3
Cari M Kitahara, Elizabeth L Yanik, Paul W Ladenson, Brenda Y Hernandez, Charles F Lynch, Karen S Pawlish, Eric A Engels
Solid organ transplant recipients have an elevated incidence of thyroid cancer. We evaluated a wide range of potential risk factors in a cohort of 229,300 U.S. solid organ transplant recipients linked with 15 stage/regional cancer registries (1987-2012). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, transplanted organ, year of transplant, and time since transplant. Hazards ratios (HRs) for death and/or graft failure were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, transplanted organ, and year of transplant...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355395/obesity-and-kidney-disease
#4
Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Ana Carla Sobral Novaes Bentes, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher, Sheila Maria Alvim de Matos
Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162133/restricted-nutrition-induced-low-birth-weight-low-number-of-nephrons-and-glomerular-mesangium-injury-in-japanese-quail
#5
H Nishimura, E Yaoita, M Nameta, K Yamaguchi, M Sato, C Ihoriya, L Zhao, H Kawachi, T Sasaki, Y Ikezumi, Y Ouchi, N Kashihara, T Yamamoto
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8-10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place...
June 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143966/renal-aging-causes-and-consequences
#6
REVIEW
Eoin D O'Sullivan, Jeremy Hughes, David A Ferenbach
Individuals age >65 years old are the fastest expanding population demographic throughout the developed world. Consequently, more aged patients than before are receiving diagnoses of impaired renal function and nephrosclerosis-age-associated histologic changes in the kidneys. Recent studies have shown that the aged kidney undergoes a range of structural changes and has altered transcriptomic, hemodynamic, and physiologic behavior at rest and in response to renal insults. These changes impair the ability of the kidney to withstand and recover from injury, contributing to the high susceptibility of the aged population to AKI and their increased propensity to develop subsequent progressive CKD...
February 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097824/mechanisms-of-metabolic-memory-and-renal-hypoxia-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Yosuke Hirakawa, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Masaomi Nangaku
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The definition of DKD is under discussion. Although the term DKD was originally defined as 'kidney disease specific to diabetes,' DKD frequently means chronic kidney disease with diabetes mellitus and includes not only classical diabetic nephropathy, but also kidney dysfunction as a result of nephrosclerosis and other causes. Metabolic memory plays a crucial role in the progression of various complications of diabetes, including DKD. The mechanisms of metabolic memory in DKD are supposed to include advanced glycation end-products, deoxyribonucleic acid methylation, histone modifications and non-coding ribonucleic acid including micro ribonucleic acid...
May 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987415/characteristics-circumstances-and-pathology-of-sudden-or-unnatural-deaths-of-cases-with-evidence-of-pathological-hoarding
#8
Shane Darke, Johan Duflou
The study aimed to determine the characteristics and circumstances of cases sudden or unnatural death (n = 61) with evidence of pathological hoarding, their major organ pathology and toxicology. The mean age was 65·8 yrs (a mean of 16.1 years of potential life lost), 62·3% were male, and 28·2% were obese. 95·1% lived alone, and 96·7% died in their residence, with no medical intervention. In all cases severe squalor and extensive hoarding were noted. The direct cause of death was attributed to disease in 75·4%, heart disease being a significant factor in 52·5%...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986662/a-pathogenic-role-of-complement-in-arterial-hypertension-and-hypertensive-end-organ-damage
#9
Ulrich O Wenzel, Marlies Bode, Jörg Köhl, Heimo Ehmke
The self-amplifying cascade of messenger and effector molecules of the complement system serves as a powerful danger sensing system that protects the host from a hostile microbial environment, while maintaining proper tissue and organ function through effective clearance of altered or dying cells. As an important effector arm of innate immunity it plays also important roles in the regulation of adaptive immunity. Innate and adaptive immune response have been identified as crucial players in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and hypertensive end organ damage...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957414/current-characteristics-of-dialysis-therapy-in-korea-2015-registry-data-focusing-on-elderly-patients
#10
REVIEW
Dong-Chan Jin, Sung-Ro Yun, Seoung Woo Lee, Sang-Woong Han, Won Kim, Jongha Park
Because of increases in the elderly population and diabetic patients, the proportion of elderly among dialysis patients has rapidly increased during the last decades. The mortality and morbidity of these elderly dialysis patients are obviously much higher than those of young patients, but large analytic studies about elderly dialysis patients' characteristics have rarely been published. The registry committee of the Korean Society of Nephrology has collected data about dialysis therapy in Korea through an Internet online registry program and analyzed the characteristics...
December 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957413/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-iga-nephropathy-in-japan
#11
REVIEW
Yasuhiko Tomino
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem that affects millions of people from all racial and ethnic groups. Although CKD is not one specific disease, it is a comprehensive syndrome that includes IgA nephropathy. As reported by the Japanese Society of Nephrology, 13.0 million people have CKD. In Japan, major causes of end-stage kidney disease are type 2 diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, especially IgA nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and polycystic kidney disease...
December 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919127/-deceased-donor-kidney-transplantation-from-a-liver-transplantation-recipient
#12
Shuhei Koike, Takashi Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki Okada, Shinsuke Shibuya, Kaoru Sakai, Yukari Tanaka, Shusuke Akamatsu, Hiromitsu Negoro, Naoki Terada, Toshinari Yamasaki, Yoshiyuki Matsui, Takahiro Inoue, Tomomi Kamba, Yumi Umeya, Toshimi Kaido, Osamu Ogawa
We report a 40-year-old man with end-stage renal disease due to IgA nephropathy who underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation. The donor was diagnosed to be brain-dead due to cerebral hemorrhage after her second liver transplantation for non-viral liver cirrhosis. Intraoperative 1-hour biopsy of the graft kidney revealed moderate global glomerular sclerosis (22%) and interstitial fibrosis (40%) consistent with underlying nephrosclerosis or calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity. Although hemodialysis was needed until the graft began functioning several days after the kidney transplantation, the postoperative clinical course thereafter was uneventful and the graft functioned well with stable serum creatinine levels around 2...
October 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827846/age-related-renal-microvascular-changes-evaluation-by-three-dimensional-digital-imaging-of-the-human-renal-microcirculation-using-virtual-microscopy
#13
Noriko Uesugi, Yoshihito Shimazu, Kazunori Kikuchi, Michio Nagata
The renal microvasculature is targeted during aging, sometimes producing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Overdiagnosis of CKD in older persons is concerning. To prevent it, a new concept of "healthy aging" is arising from a healthy renal donor study. We investigated the renal microcirculatory changes of three older persons and compared them with that of one patient with nephrosclerosis using a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique that we previously developed. This method uses a virtual slide system and paraffin-embedded serial sections of surgical material that was double-immunostained by anti-CD34 and anti-α smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibodies for detecting endothelial cells and medial smooth muscle cells, respectively...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784849/hyperuricemia-as-a-predictive-marker-for-progression-of-nephrosclerosis-clinical-assessment-of-prognostic-factors-in-biopsy-proven-arterial-arteriolar-nephrosclerosis
#14
Kumiko Momoki, Hiroshi Kataoka, Takahito Moriyama, Toshio Mochizuki, Kosaku Nitta
AIM: The influence of serum urate on kidney disease is attracting attention, but the effects of uric acid (UA) on nephrosclerosis have not been elucidated. METHODS: We reviewed data from 45 patients diagnosed with arterial/arteriolar nephrosclerosis. The renal outcomes of the arterial/arteriolar nephrosclerosis patients were assessed by performing logistic and Cox regression analyses. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the impact of hyperuricemia (HU) on kidney survival...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753815/ssa-05-2-hypertension-and-kidney-complication-in-africa
#15
Solomon Kadiri
Hypertension prevalence rates in most urbanized areas of Africa range from 20-30%, with a recent systematic review reporting 16.2% for sub-Saharan Africa. These rates are lower than those in the West but the age standardized rates are higher than in other regions of the world. The attendant morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high. For example, failure of nocturnal dipping and microalbuminuria, predictive of vascular disease, occur relatively early in the course of hypertension and predispose to early vascular disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678298/study-of-the-kidney-tumor-parenchymal-interface-after-neoadjuvant-treatment-with-axitinib-for-locally-advanced-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-matched-analysis-from-a-phase-ii-trial
#16
Fumi Kawakami, Priya Rao, Pheroze Tamboli, Christopher G Wood, Jose A Karam
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate histological changes in the tumor-parenchymal interface in clear cell renal cell carcinoma after neoadjuvant axitinib treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained clinical and pathology materials from 23 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant axitinib in a phase II clinical trial and from 23 matched patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma who underwent upfront surgery. Histology of the tumor pseudocapsule and the peritumor kidney parenchymal change was evaluated and compared between the 2 cohorts...
March 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643378/ssa-05-2-hypertension-and-kidney-complication-in-africa
#17
Solomon Kadiri
Hypertension prevalence rates in most urbanized areas of Africa range from 20-30%, with a recent systematic review reporting 16.2% for sub-Saharan Africa. These rates are lower than those in the West but the age standardized rates are higher than in other regions of the world. The attendant morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high. For example, failure of nocturnal dipping and microalbuminuria, predictive of vascular disease, occur relatively early in the course of hypertension and predispose to early vascular disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598487/-survival-of-older-patients-starting-hemodialysis-in-chile
#18
Álvaro Ríos, Patricia Herrera, Álvaro Morales, Enrique Reynolds, María Belén Fernández, Fernando González
UNLABELLED: The proportion of older people with end stage renal disease is increasing. Their prognosis is characterized by a high mortality and poor quality of life. AIM: To analyze the survival of patients starting chronic hemodialysis (CHD) according to their age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients admitted to CHD in the East Metropolitan Health Service of Santiago in a 2-year period were analyzed. Four age groups were created, separating patients older than 70 years in a special group...
June 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594733/urinary-lysosomal-enzyme-activities-and-albuminuria-in-ghanaian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Henry Asare-Anane, Felix Twum, Emmanuel Kwaku Ofori, Erving L Torgbor, Seth D Amanquah, Charlotte Osafo
Renal tubular lysosomal enzyme activities like alanine aminopeptidase (AAP) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) have been shown to increase in patients developing diabetic nephropathy and nephrosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the activities of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and alanine aminopeptidase and albumin concentration in urine samples of patients with type 2 diabetes. One hundred and thirty (65 type 2 diabetic and 65 nondiabetic) subjects participated in this study. Blood samples were drawn for measurements of fasting blood glucose, albumin (Alb), lipids, and creatinine (Cr)...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569942/safety-of-monitoring-viral-and-liver-function-markers-in-patients-with-prior-resolved-hepatitis-b-infection-after-kidney-transplantation
#20
H Maekawa, M Yazawa, K Koitabashi, N Imai, H Kawarazaki, R Nakazawa, H Sasaki, T Chikaraishi, Y Shibagaki
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a risk factor of mortality in kidney transplant recipients. However, information on the risk of HBV reactivation in kidney recipients with prior resolved HBV infection is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of simply monitoring viral and liver markers in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients with prior resolved HBV infection. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the clinical records of LDKT recipients...
July 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
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