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Functional gastrointestinal disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220362/the-role-of-impedance-planimetry-in-the-evaluation-of-esophageal-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Nitin K Ahuja, John O Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impedance planimetry measures tissue wall distensibility as a function of pressure and cross-sectional area. Recent interest in this technique's relevance to the gastrointestinal tract has been accelerated by the availability of the functional lumen imaging probe, a catheter-based system that dynamically quantitates these biomechanical properties. Herein, we review the device's particular utility in the setting of esophageal pathology, including processes affecting the esophageal body as well as the upper and lower esophageal sphincters...
February 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216898/depolarizing-effects-of-daikenchuto-on-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-from-mouse-small-intestine
#2
Hyungwoo Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Dongki Yang, Myeong Ho Jung, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Daikenchuto (DKT; TJ-100, TU-100), a traditional herbal medicineis used in modern medicine to treat gastrointestinal (GI) functional disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells of the GI tract and play important roles in the regulation of GI motility. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of DKT on the pacemaker potentials (PPs) of cultured ICCs from murine small intestine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enzymatic digestions were used to dissociate ICCs from mouse small intestine tissues...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215703/structure-and-function-of-vibrio-cholerae-accessory-cholera-enterotoxin-in-presence-of-gold-nanoparticles-dependence-on-morphology
#3
Tanaya Chatterjee, Barun K Chatterjee, Tultul Saha, Kazi Mirajul Hoque, Pinak Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is a classical enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent for cholera. Considering the crucial role of Ace in pathogenesis of cholera, we explored the modulation of structure/function of Ace using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and shape - spherical (AuNS10 and AuNS100, the number indicating the diameter in nm) and rod (AuNR10). METHODS: Biophysical techniques have been used to find out structural modulation of Ace by AuNPs...
February 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215154/stress-and-salivary-glands
#4
Beáta Kerémi, Anita Beck, Tibor Károly Fábián, Gábor Fábián, Géza Szabó, Ákos Nagy, Gábor Varga
Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system...
February 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215066/how-to-modulate-gut-microbiota-diet-pre-probiotics-or-antibiotics
#5
Francesca R Ponziani, Cecilia Binda, Antonio Gasbarrini
The gut microbiota is involved in the maintenance of humans' health and its alterations have been associated to several intestinal and extra intestinal disorders. For this reason, there is increasing interest on gut microbiota modulation as both a preventive strategy or as a therapeutic option in different gastrointestinal, hepatic and systemic diseases. Many studies have tried to find out the impact of diet, prebiotic, probiotic and antibiotics on gut microbiota composition and function, obtaining very heterogeneous and sometimes conflicting results, especially as regards the effect on clinical outcomes...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212976/functional-lumen-imaging-probe-for-the-management-of-esophageal-disorders-expert-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of-the-aga-institute
#6
REVIEW
Ikuo Hirano, John E Pandolfino, Guy E Boeckxstaens
The functional luminal imaging probe is a Food and Drug Administration-approved measurement tool used to measure simultaneous pressure and diameter to guide management of various upper gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, this tool is also approved to guide therapy during bariatric procedures and specialized esophageal surgery. Although it has been commercially available since 2009 as the endolumenal functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP), the functional luminal imaging probe has had limited penetrance into clinical settings outside of specialized centers...
March 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208878/a-study-of-medication-compliance-in-geriatric-patients-with-chronic-illnesses-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#7
R Shruthi, R Jyothi, H P Pundarikaksha, G N Nagesh, T J Tushar
INTRODUCTION: Geriatric population is more prone for various chronic and recurrent illnesses like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, IHD, arthritic, neurodegenerative, gastrointestinal, ocular, genitourinary, respiratory disorders etc., which may require chronic medication with multiple drugs. Poor compliance in this age group accounts for medication wastage with increased cost of healthcare and substantial worsening of the disease with disability or death. Most of the human and economic costs associated with non adherence can be avoided by improving medication adherence...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207290/fatty-acid-and-mineral-receptors-as-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#8
Pawin Pongkorpsakol, Aekkacha Moonwiriyakit, Chatchai Muanprasat
Nutrient-sensing receptors, including fatty acid receptors (FFA1-FFA4), Ca(2+)-sensing receptors and Zn(2+)-sensing receptors, are involved in several biological processes. These receptors are abundantly expressed in the GI tract, where they have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating GI function. This review provides an overview of the GI functions of fatty acid and mineral receptors, including the regulation of gastric and enteroendocrine functions, GI motility, ion transport and cell growth. Recently, several lines of evidence have implicated these receptors as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of GI disorders, for example, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, metabolic syndrome and diarrheal diseases...
February 16, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204956/centrally-targeted-pharmacotherapy-for-chronic-abdominal-pain-understanding-and-management
#9
Hans Törnblom, Douglas A Drossman
Chronic abdominal pain has a widespread impact on the individual and the society. Identifying and explaining mechanisms of importance for the pain experience within a biopsychosocial context are central in order to select treatment that has a chance for symptom reduction. With current knowledge of brain-gut interactions, chronic abdominal pain, which mostly appears in functional gastrointestinal disorders, to a large extent involves pain mechanisms residing within the brain. As such, the use of centrally targeted pharmacotherapy as an effective treatment option is obvious in a selected number of patients...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203283/current-and-emergent-pharmacologic-treatments-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-evidence-based-treatment-in-practice
#10
REVIEW
Susan Lucak, Lin Chang, Albena Halpert, Lucinda A Harris
Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is a common, chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms that can be distressing for patients and often result in substantially impaired quality of life. This review focuses on providing clinicians with information on practical, evidence-based treatment for IBS-D. Current therapies commonly used for the treatment of IBS-D, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, are briefly reviewed, followed by discussion of the emergent pharmacologic treatments (rifaximin and eluxadoline) and medical foods (IBgard(®) and EnteraGam(®))...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#11
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191707/mechanisms-underlying-reflux-symptoms-and-dysphagia-in-patients-with-joint-hypermobility-syndrome-with-and-without-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#12
A Fikree, Q Aziz, D Sifrim
BACKGROUND: The joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a common non-inflammatory connective tissue disorder which frequently co-exists with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of orthostatic intolerance. Gastrointestinal symptoms and dysmotility have been reported in PoTS. Dysphagia and reflux are common symptoms in JHS, yet no studies have examined the physiological mechanism for these, subdivided by PoTS status. METHODS: Thirty patients (28 female, ages: 18-62) with JHS and symptoms of reflux (n=28) ± dysphagia (n=25), underwent high-resolution manometry and 24 hour pH-impedance monitoring after questionnaire-based symptom assessment...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191706/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-and-estrogen-receptor-ligands-regulate-colonic-motility-and-visceral-pain
#13
M Zielińska, J Fichna, M Bashashati, S Habibi, A Sibaev, J-P Timmermans, M Storr
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, which occurs more frequently in women than men. The aim of our study was to determine the role of activation of classical estrogen receptors (ER) and novel membrane receptor, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human and mouse tissue and to assess the possible cross talk between these receptors in the GI tract. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of GPER in human and mouse intestines...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191693/gene-expression-profiles-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-correlate-with-salience-network-activity-in-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-study
#14
A Gupta, S Cole, J S Labus, S Joshi, T J Nguyen, L A Kilpatrick, K Tillisch, B D Naliboff, L Chang, E A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Distinct gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) consistent with increased sympathetic nervous system activity have been described in different populations under chronic stress. Neuroinflammatory brain changes, possibly related to the migration of primed monocytes to the brain, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered brain-gut interactions and increased sympathetic/vagal tone and anxiety...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190554/neuregulin-1-is-involved-in-enteric-nervous-system-development-in-zebrafish
#15
Jiarui Pu, Shaotao Tang, Qiangsong Tong, Guobin Wang, Haibo Jia, Qiong Jia, Kang Li, Dan Li, Dehua Yang, Jun Yang, Hang Li, Shuai Li, Hong Mei
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease (HD, also known as congenital colon aganglionosis) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the distal gastrointestinal tract, which results in tonic contraction of the aganglionic gut segment and functional intestinal obstruction. Recent studies have indicated neuregulin 1 (NRG1) as a new candidate gene involved in the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in humans. METHODS: In our study, we investigated the role of NRG1 in zebrafish ENS development by assessing NRG1 expression patterns during ENS development...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190395/gabaergic-system-in-action-connection-to-gastrointestinal-stress-related-disorders
#16
Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Michelangelo Auteri, Rosa Serio, Josipa Vlainić
BACKGROUND: Currently, treatment of stress-related gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is mainly symptomatic since there is no drug on the market that solves effectively diverse disease symptoms and comorbid states. Thus, recently GABA receptors have been identified within gastrointestinal system and it has been recognized that among various GABAergic drugs some of them influence gastrointestinal stress-related diseases...
February 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187396/methyl-orvinol-dual-activity-opioid-receptor-ligand-inhibits-gastrointestinal-transit-and-alleviates-abdominal-pain-in-the-mouse-models-mimicking-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Marta Zielińska, Agata Jarmuż, Andrzej Wasilewski, Gerta Cami-Kobeci, Stephen Husbands, Jakub Fichna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The major IBS-D symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and discomfort. High density of opioid receptors (ORs) in the GI tract and their participation in the maintenance of GI homeostasis make ORs ligands an attractive option for developing new anti-IBS-D treatments. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of methyl-orvinol on the GI motility and secretion and in mouse models mimicking symptoms of IBS-D...
December 5, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186368/gastrointestinal-involvement-in-the-ehlers-danlos-syndromes
#18
Asma Fikree, Gisela Chelimsky, Heidi Collins, Katcha Kovacic, Qasim Aziz
Current evidence suggests that an association exists between non-inflammatory hereditary disorders of connective tissue such as the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Patients with EDS can present with both structural problems such as hiatus hernias, visceroptosis, rectoceles, and rectal prolapse as well as functional problems such as disordered gut motility. It has recently been demonstrated that patients with hypermobile EDS (hEDS) present with GI symptoms related to the fore and hind-gut and these patients frequently meet the criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185117/a-lesson-from-a-reported-pathogenic-variant-in-peutz-jeghers-syndrome-a-case-report
#19
Hu Tan, Xianda Wei, Pu Yang, Yanru Huang, Haoxian Li, Desheng Liang, Lingqian Wu
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation, gastrointestinal (GI) hamartmatous polyps, and an increased risk of various malignancies. Pathogenic variants in the LKB1 tumor suppressor gene (also known as STK11) are the major cause of PJS. In this study, compound heterozygous variants of LKB1, c.890G > A/ c.1062C > G and del(exon1)/ c.1062C > G, were identified in two sporadic Chinese PJS cases respectively. Although all these three variants had been related to the autosomal dominant PJS in previous studies, all evidences collected in this study including de novo data, segregation data, population data, in-silico data, and functional data indicated that del(exon1) and c...
February 9, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179108/revisiting-metchnikoff-age-related-alterations-in-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-the-mouse
#20
Karen A Scott, Masayuki Ida, Veronica L Peterson, Jack A Prenderville, Gerard M Moloney, Takayuki Izumo, Kiera Murphy, Amy Murphy, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the role of the gut microbiome in health including brain health. This is by no means a new theory; Elie Metchnikoff proposed over a century ago that targeting the gut by consuming lactic acid bacteria such as those in yogurt, could improve or delay the onset of cognitive decline associated with ageing. However, there is limited information characterising the relationship between the behavioural and physiological sequelae of aging and alterations in the gut microbiome...
February 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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