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Functional gastrointestinal disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817385/novel-molecular-defects-associated-with-very-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel
#1
Sara Ciullini Mannurita, Eleonora Gambineri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune dysregulation disorders present with common clinical features of multiorgan autoimmunity. Gastrointestinal involvement is the hallmark of an impaired immune homeostasis. This review will give an overview on the novel phenotypes, highlighting the major points that will help to enable early diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The rapid progress on DNA sequencing technologies have led to the identification of monogenic defects that adversely impact the control of immune homeostasis...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#2
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814481/plausibility-criteria-for-putative-pathophysiological-mechanisms-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-a-consensus-of-experts
#3
Jan Tack, Maura Corsetti, Michael Camilleri, Eamonn Mm Quigley, Magnus Simren, Hidekazu Suzuki, Nicholas J Talley, Hans Tornblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are extremely common conditions associated with a considerable personal, social and health economic burden. Managing FGIDs in clinical practice is challenging because of the uncertainty of symptom-based diagnosis, the high frequency of overlap between these conditions and the limited efficacy of available therapies. It has often been argued that successful drug development and management of FGIDs requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology...
August 16, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814319/constipation-in-adults-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#4
Cecilie Ejerskov, Klaus Krogh, John R Ostergaard, Janne L Fassov, Annette Haagerup
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterised by symptoms of the skin, eyes, nervous system and bones. A previous study indicated that constipation, large rectal diameters and prolonged colorectal transit times are common in children with NF1. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in adult patients with NF1 to their unaffected relatives serving as the control group. Patients with NF1 were recruited from one of two Danish National Centres of Expertise for NF1 and their unaffected relatives were invited to participate as controls...
August 16, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806915/evaluating-the-maintenance-of-disease-associated-variation-at-the-blood-group-related-gene-b4galnt2-in-house-mice
#5
Marie Vallier, Maria Abou Chakra, Laura Hindersin, Miriam Linnenbrink, Arne Traulsen, John F Baines
BACKGROUND: B4galnt2 is a blood group-related glycosyltransferase that displays cis-regulatory variation for its tissue-specific expression patterns in house mice. The wild type allele, found e.g. in the C57BL/6 J strain, directs intestinal expression of B4galnt2, which is the pattern observed among vertebrates, including humans. An alternative allele class found in the RIIIS/J strain and other mice instead drives expression in blood vessels, which leads to a phenotype similar to type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD), a common human bleeding disorder...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805200/-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-neonate-and-toddler-the-rome-iv-criteria
#6
REVIEW
Barbara Iwańczak, Franciszek Iwańczak
Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants and children are very frequent. To the most common belong: infant colic, regurgitation and functional constipation. In the year 2016 modified IV Rome criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders were published. In the current work the authors discuss diagnostic criteria and therapy in regurgitation, rumination syndrome in infants, cyclic vomiting syndrome, infant colic, infant dyschezia and functional constipation in children younger than four years...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804508/a-psychology-of-the-human-brain-gut-microbiome-axis
#7
Andrew P Allen, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, John F Cryan
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis...
April 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802288/efficacy-and-safety-of-pectin-supplemented-enteral-nutrition-in-intensive-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Fengchan Xi, Xingwei Xu, Shanjun Tan, Tao Gao, Jialiang Shi, Yanxi Kong, Wenkui Yu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Enteral nutrition (EN) can improve clinical outcomes as an important treatment in critically ill patients. However, when patients suffer from gastrointestinal function disorders, intestinal intolerance occurs and EN administration may be delayed and even fails to perform. Pectin, a structural heteropolysaccharide, could protect gastrointestinal function from disorders in many gastrointestianl diseases. The present study aimed to determine whether pectin-supplemented EN was safe and improved clinical outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798012/internet-delivered-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-children-with-pain-related-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-feasibility-study
#9
Maria Lalouni, Brjánn Ljótsson, Marianne Bonnert, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Jens Högström, Eva Serlachius, Ola Olén
BACKGROUND: Pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (P-FGIDs; eg, irritable bowel syndrome) are highly prevalent in children and associated with low quality of life, anxiety, and school absence. Treatment options are scarce, and there is a need for effective and accessible treatments. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (Internet-CBT) based on exposure exercises is effective for adult and adolescent irritable bowel syndrome, but it has not been evaluated for younger children...
August 10, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795216/the-impact-of-pre-existing-conditions-on-functional-outcome-and-mortality-in-geriatric-hip-fracture-patients
#10
Christopher Bliemel, Benjamin Buecking, Ludwig Oberkircher, Matthias Knobe, Steffen Ruchholtz, Daphne Eschbach
PURPOSE: Due to pre-existing illnesses, elderly hip fracture patients represent a vulnerable patient population. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of various pre-existing conditions on the outcomes of hip fracture patients. METHODS: A total of 402 surgically treated geriatric hip fracture patients were included in this prospective, single-centre study. Upon admission, patient age, gender and fracture type were documented, among other information...
August 9, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793925/perturbed-human-sub-networks-by-fusobacterium-nucleatum-candidate-virulence-proteins
#11
Andreas Zanzoni, Lionel Spinelli, Shérazade Braham, Christine Brun
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum is a gram-negative anaerobic species residing in the oral cavity and implicated in several inflammatory processes in the human body. Although F. nucleatum abundance is increased in inflammatory bowel disease subjects and is prevalent in colorectal cancer patients, the causal role of the bacterium in gastrointestinal disorders and the mechanistic details of host cell functions subversion are not fully understood. RESULTS: We devised a computational strategy to identify putative secreted F...
August 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791287/bidirectional-mast-cell-eosinophil-interactions-in-inflammatory-disorders-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Mansour Seaf, Giancarlo Marone, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Gianni Marone
Human mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils were first described and named by Paul Ehrlich. These cells have distinct myeloid progenitors and differ morphologically, ultrastructurally, immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically. However, MCs and eosinophils play a pivotal role in several allergic disorders. In addition, these cells are involved in autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. MCs are distributed throughout all normal human tissues, whereas eosinophils are present only in gastrointestinal tract, secondary lymphoid tissues, and adipose tissue, thymus, mammary gland, and uterus...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782637/synthesis-and-activity-of-opioid-peptidomimetics-with-%C3%AE-2-and-%C3%AE-3-amino-acids
#13
Katarzyna Gach-Janczak, Justyna Piekielna-Ciesielska, Anna Adamska-Bartłomiejczyk, Renata Perlikowska, Rafał Kruszyński, Alicja Kluczyk, Julia Krzywik, Jarosław Sukiennik, Maria Camilla Cerlesi, Girolamo Calo, Andrzej Wasilewski, Marta Zielińska, Anna Janecka
Morphiceptin (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-NH2) is a selective ligand of the mu opioid receptor, an important target in pain regulation. In this study, morphiceptin was modified at positions 2 or 3 by introduction of β(2)- or β(3)-amino acids and additionally in position 1 by replacing Tyr by Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), which resulted in obtaining enzymatically stable analogs with mixed opioid receptor affinity profiles. An analog of the sequence Dmt-d-Ala-(R)-β(2)-1-Nal-Pro-NH2 [Nal=3-(1-naphthyl)-alanine] showed very high activity at the mu and delta receptors in the calcium mobilization functional test but did not cross the artificial membrane imitating the blood-brain barrier...
August 3, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782197/early-life-adversity-epigenetics-and-visceral-hypersensitivity
#14
REVIEW
S Liu, S I Hagiwara, A Bhargava
Abdominal pain is associated with many gastrointestinal dysfunctions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Visceral hypersensitivity is a key reason for development of abdominal pain that presents in these gastrointestinal disorders/diseases. The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity is complex and still far from being fully understood. In animal studies, visceral hypersensitivity has been linked to several early-life adverse (ELA) events. In humans, IBD, functional dyspepsia, and IBS can have adult onset, though the adverse events that lead to visceral hypersensitivity are largely uncharacterized...
September 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780072/presentation-and-epidemiology-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#15
Joel E Richter, Joel H Rubenstein
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder in the United States, and leads to substantial morbidity, though associated mortality is rare. The prevalence of GERD symptoms appeared to increase until 1999. Risk factors for complications of GERD include advanced age, male sex, white race, abdominal obesity, and tobacco use. Most patients with GERD presents with heartburn and effortless regurgitation. Coexistent dysphagia is considered an alarm symptom, prompting evaluation...
August 2, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776720/some-novel-mannich-bases-of-5-3-4-dichlorophenyl-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-3h-one-and-their-anti-inflammatory-activity
#16
Meric Koksal, Irem Ozkan-Dagliyan, Tugce Ozyazici, Beril Kadioglu, Hande Sipahi, Ayhan Bozkurt, Suleyman S Bilge
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are widely used for the treatment of rheumatic arthritis, pain, and many different types of inflammatory disorders, cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. The free carboxylic acid group existing on their chemical structure is correlated with GI toxicity related with all routine NSAIDs. Replacing this functional group with the 1,3,4-oxadiazole bioisostere is a generally used strategy to obtain an anti-inflammatory agent devoid of GI side effects...
August 4, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774781/estrogen-signaling-deregulation-related-with-local-immune-response-modulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Damian Jacenik, Adam I Cygankiewicz, Jakub Fichna, Anna Mokrowiecka, Ewa Małecka-Panas, Wanda M Krajewska
The etiology and pathogenesis underlying irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal disorder are still unclear. Cumulating data suggest dysregulation of inflammatory and immune response pathways and changes of epithelial barrier function. The role of estrogens albeit varied, in responses of immune system is well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate estrogen receptors engagment in IBS subtypes, i.e. constipation predominant (IBS-C) and diarrhea predominant (IBS-D). Furthermore, we analyzed whether estrogen signaling is accompanied by alteration in expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and microRNAs that can regulate among others genes involved in immune responses...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770495/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-beyond-clostridium-difficile
#18
REVIEW
Braden Millan, Michael Laffin, Karen Madsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as standard of care in the treatment of antibiotic refractory Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). This review examines the current evidence that exists to support the use of FMT in the treatment of human disease beyond C. difficile infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Beneficial effects of FMT have been described in case series or small prospective trials on a wide spectrum of conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, and neuropsychiatric conditions, and in limiting antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections...
September 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767192/expanding-the-phenotype-of-dst-related-disorder-a-case-report-suggesting-a-genotype-phenotype-correlation
#19
Gerarda Cappuccio, Michele Pinelli, Annalaura Torella, Marianna Alagia, Renata Auricchio, Annamaria Staiano, Vincenzo Nigro, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri
The gene DST encodes for the large protein BPAG1 involved in hemidesmosomes. Its alternative splicing gives rise to tissue-enriched isoforms in brain, muscle, and skin. The few patients described so far with bi-allelic mutations in the DST gene have either a skin phenotype of epidermolysis bullosa simplex or a neurological phenotype. Here, we report a 17-year-old female individual presenting with a more complex phenotype consisting of both skin and neuronal involvement, in addition to several previously unreported findings, such as iris heterochromia, cataract, hearing impairment, syringomyelia, behavioral, and gastrointestinal issues, osteoporosis, and growth hormone deficiency...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763491/endoscopic-features-of-lymphoid-follicles-using-blue-laser-imaging-bli-endoscopy-in-the-colorectum-and-its-association-with-chronic-bowel-symptoms
#20
Tomomitsu Tahara, Kazuya Takahama, Sayumi Tahara, Dai Yoshida, Noriyuki Horiguchi, Tomohiko Kawamura, Masaaki Okubo, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Makoto Urano, Tomoyuki Shibata, Tetsuya Tuskamoto, Hiro-O Ieda, Makoto Kuroda, Naoki Ohmiya
BACKGROUND/AIM: In the colorectum, lymphoid follicles hyperplasia (LH) is sometimes observed as small, round, yellowish-white nodules. The novel image-enhanced endoscopy system named blue laser imaging (BLI) provides enhanced the contrast of surface vessels using lasers for light illumination. We investigated the endoscopic features of LH observed by using BLI endoscopy and its association with chronic bowel symptoms. PATIENTS/METHODS: 300 participants undergoing colonoscopy for various indications were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
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