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Functional gastrointestinal disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791992/role-of-the-duodenum-in-the-pathogenesis-of-functional-dyspepsia-a-paradigm-shift
#1
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Jung, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder characterized by chronic epigastric pain or burning, or bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation, without a definitive organic cause. The pathogenesis of FD is likely heterogeneous. Classically, motor disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, and brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of FD, but recently an important role for chronic low-grade inflammation and post-infectious gastroenteritis in FD has been reported and confirmed...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791170/effectiveness-and-safety-of-lixisenatide-for-treatment-of-diabetes-in-the-real-world-data-from-the-monitoring-registry-in-a-real-life-cohort-in-the-czech-and-slovak-republic
#2
Martin Haluzík, Alena Adamíková, Milan Běhunčík, Marek Macko, Radka Štěpánová
INTRODUCTION: GLP1 receptor agonist lixisenatide has demonstrated its efficacy in numerous clinical trials, nevertheless its real-life effectiveness data is limited. AIM: To describe effectiveness and safety of lixisenatide in routine clinical practice in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as recorded by the Registry-Based Observational Study. METHODS: Multinational, multicenter, observational, non-interventional, 6-month prospective product registry of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged > 18 years who were initiating therapy with lixisenatide...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789682/the-role-of-diet-in-the-aetiopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
REVIEW
Hamed Khalili, Simon S M Chan, Paul Lochhead, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Andrew R Hart, Andrew T Chan
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively known as IBD, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the aetiopathogenesis of IBD is largely unknown, it is widely thought that diet has a crucial role in the development and progression of IBD. Indeed, epidemiological and genetic association studies have identified a number of promising dietary and genetic risk factors for IBD. These preliminary studies have led to major interest in investigating the complex interaction between diet, host genetics, the gut microbiota and immune function in the pathogenesis of IBD...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788877/contribution-of-nrf2-in-gastrointestinal-protection-from-oxidative-injury
#4
Akinori Yanaka
The human gastrointestinal tract is exposed to a variety of toxic agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gastric acid, enteric pathogenic bacteria, excessive auto immune reactions, and chronic mental stresses. These stressors generate free radicals within the gastrointestinal tissues, causing chronic inflammatory diseases, ulcers, cancers, and functional disturbances. Recent studies have demonstrated that some natural food compounds upregulate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated antioxidant system, ameliorating or preventing these disorders...
May 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788876/exploiting-significance-of-physical-exercise-in-prevention-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#5
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Marcin Magierowski, Slawomir Kwiecien, Dagmara Wojcik, Agata Ptak-Belowska, Marcin Surmiak, Aneta Targosz, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
BACKGROUND: Physical activity can be involved in the prevention of gastrointestinal (GI)-tract diseases, however, the results regarding the volume and the intensity of exercise considered as beneficial for protection of gastrointestinal organs are conflicting. AIMS AND METHODS: The main objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive and updated overview on the beneficial and harmful effects of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. We attempted to discuss recent evidence regarding the association between different modes and intensity levels of exercise and physiological functions of the gut and gut pathology...
May 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788271/the-innate-immune-system-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-role-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-and-lamina-propria-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-intestinal-inflammation
#6
A Montalban-Arques, M Chaparro, Javier P Gisbert, D Bernardo
Background: The gastrointestinal tract harbors the largest microbiota load in the human body, hence maintaining a delicate balance between immunity against invading pathogens and tolerance toward commensal. Such immune equilibrium, or intestinal homeostasis, is conducted by a tight regulation and cooperation of the different branches of the immune system, including the innate and the adaptive immune system. However, several factors affect this delicate equilibrium, ultimately leading to gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785336/targeting-the-microbiota-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-to-mood-disorders-focus-on-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#7
M M Pusceddu, K Murray, M G Gareau
Purpose of review: The crosstalk between the gut and the brain has revealed a complex communication system responsible for maintaining a proper gastrointestinal homeostasis as well as affect emotional mood and cognitive functions. Recent research has revealed that beneficial manipulation of the microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics represent an emerging and novel strategy for the treatment of a large spectrum of diseases ranging from visceral pain to mood disorders. The review critically evaluates current knowledge of the effects exerted by both probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781817/intravenous-immunoglobulin-therapy-in-refractory-autoimmune-dysautonomias-a-retrospective-analysis-of-38-patients
#8
Jill R Schofield, Kamal R Chemali
BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has recognized efficacy in autoimmune peripheral nerve disorders, but there has been limited study of the use of IVIG in autoimmune dysautonomias. STUDY QUESTION: To determine the efficacy and safety of IVIG in patients with disabling, refractory autoimmune dysautonomias, including patients with postural tachycardia syndrome and gastrointestinal dysmotility. STUDY DESIGN: Patients with one or more autonomic disorder(s) and persistent serological evidence for autoimmunity who were unable to work or attend school despite usual treatments for dysautonomia were treated with IVIG for at least 3 months at a dose of at least 1 gm/kg monthly...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778241/dual-autonomic-inhibitory-action-of-central-apelin-on-gastric-motor-functions-in-rats
#9
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen
Centrally administered apelin has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying (GE) in rodents, however, the relevant mechanism has been investigated incompletely. Using male Wistar rats, we investigated the efferent pathways involved in gastroinhibitory action of central apelin. Stereotaxic intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulation, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) and/or celiac ganglionectomy (CGX) were performed 7 days prior to the experiments. Apelin-13 was administered (30 nmol, icv) 90 min prior to GE measurement...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768343/potential-common-factors-associated-with-predisposition-to-common-cold-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-japanese-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#10
Michi Shibata, Taizo Iwane, Ryoko Higuchi, Kaname Suwa, Kei Nakajima
People worldwide frequently catch a common cold, which occasionally develops into secondary severe conditions such as pneumonia. However, it is unclear whether predisposition to the common cold is associated with the individual's characteristics including age, body weight, lifestyles, diets, and intestinal functions, besides exposure to a responsible pathogen. We addressed this issue epidemiologically considering many relevant clinical factors.We reviewed data from a cross-sectional study consisting of 39,524 apparently healthy Japanese aged 40 to 79 years (26,975 men and 12,549 women) who underwent a checkup in 2007...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767141/weaning-stress-and-gastrointestinal-barrier-development-implications-for-lifelong-gut-health-in-pigs
#11
REVIEW
Adam J Moeser, Calvin S Pohl, Mrigendra Rajput
The gastrointestinal (GI) barrier serves a critical role in survival and overall health of animals and humans. Several layers of barrier defense mechanisms are provided by the epithelial, immune and enteric nervous systems. Together they act in concert to control normal gut functions (e.g., digestion, absorption, secretion, immunity, etc.) whereas at the same time provide a barrier from the hostile conditions in the luminal environment. Breakdown of these critical GI functions is a central pathophysiological mechanism in the most serious GI disorders in pigs...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766783/role-of-formyl-peptide-receptors-in-gastrointestinal-healing
#12
Nella Prevete, Amato De Paulis, Dolores Sgambato, Rosa Marina Melillo, Giuseppe D'Argenio, Lorenzo Romano, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Marco Romano
The wound healing and the barrier restoration of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa must be continuously ensured to allow homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and of all the surrounding tissues. Several lines of the evidence report a key role of innate immunity, and in particular of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), in controlling the homeostasis of GI tract by sensing commensal and pathogen bacteria, activating the immune response and regulating epithelial repair, thus guaranteeing the morphological and functional recovery of the injured tissue...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766521/current-and-future-perspectives-in-the-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#13
REVIEW
Junichi Akiyama, Shiko Kuribayashi, Myong Ki Baeg, Nicola de Bortoli, Elen Valitova, Edoardo V Savarino, Motoyasu Kusano, George Triadafilopoulos
Although the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) used to be lower in East Asia as compared to Western countries, it has recently been increasing, most likely due to the socioeconomic development in the East. The prevalence of both GERD and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) ranges between 10% and 25% worldwide and there are distinct subgroups of patients with overlapping of GERD and FGIDs. However, the true prevalence of an overlap between GERD and FGIDs can be determined only when a formal pathophysiological evaluation has been performed...
May 16, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764491/does-a-low-fodmaps-diet-reduce-symptoms-of-functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-a-systematic-review-in-adult-and-paediatric-population-on-behalf-of-italian-society-of-pediatrics
#14
REVIEW
Rossella Turco, Silvia Salvatore, Erasmo Miele, Claudio Romano, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Annamaria Staiano
BACKGROUND: Despite the rising of the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs)' incidence in the last years, the etio-pathogenesis of FGIDs remains unclear. The diet seems to play an important role in these disorders. Indeed, at least two thirds of adult patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and of children with FGIDs perceive their GI symptoms to be food-related. In particular, in the last years, more interest has been focused in the low Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyol (FODMAPs) diet...
May 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762379/demographic-and-clinical-correlates-of-mucosal-disaccharidase-deficiencies-in-children-with-functional-dyspepsia
#15
Bruno P Chumpitazi, Claudia C Robayo-Torres, Cynthia M Tsai, Antone R Opekun, Susan S Baker, Buford L Nichols, Mark A Gilger
BACKGROUND: A subset of children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), which includes functional dyspepsia, may have duodenal disaccharidase deficiencies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency, demographics, and clinical characteristics associated with duodenal disaccharidase deficiencies in children with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Children ages 4 to 18 years undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) evaluation for dyspepsia were enrolled in either a retrospective (study 1) or prospective (study 2) evaluation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760783/minor-digestive-symptoms-and-their-impact-in-the-general-population-a-cluster-analysis-approach
#16
Diane L'Heureux-Bouron, Sophie Legrain-Raspaud, Helen R Carruthers, P J Whorwell
Background: The classification and treatment of patients who do not meet the criteria for a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder has not been well established. This study aimed to record the prevalence of minor digestive symptoms (MDSs) in the general population attempting to divide them into symptom clusters as well as trying to assess their impact and the way sufferers cope with them. Methods: Following face-to-face interviews, a web-based, self-administered questionnaire was designed to capture a range of GI sensations using 34 questions and 12 images depicting abdominal symptoms...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755994/therapeutic-effects-of-low-dose-bismuth-subcitrate-on-symptoms-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-adult-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-clinical-trial
#17
Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Ardalan Memar, Yasaman Mohamadi, Nooshin Rezakhani, Parastoo Safazadeh, Sarina Aghaha, Payman Adibi
Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that causes abdominal pain or discomfort and alters bowel with no organic abnormalities. Treatment options for IBS have increased in number in the past decade, and clinicians should not be limited to use only conventional treatments to cure it. This article is a placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the therapeutic effects of low-dose bismuth subcitrate on symptoms and the health-related quality of life in adult patients with IBS...
January 2018: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754192/gastrointestinal-disorders-associated-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Stella Hartono, Michelina Rosa Ippoliti, Maria Mastroianni, Ricardo Torres, Nicholas L Rider
There are now 354 inborn errors of immunity (primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs)) with 344 distinct molecular etiologies reported according to the International Union of Immunological Sciences (IUIS) (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11: p. 1050-63, 2013, Semin Gastrointest Dis 8: p. 22-32, 1997, J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018). Using the IUIS document as a reference and cross-checking PubMed ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.pubmed.gov ), we found that approximately one third of the 354 diseases of impaired immunity have a gastrointestinal component [J Clin Immunol 38: p...
May 13, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749705/fecal-clostridiales-distribution-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-reflect-bowel-habits-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
Giorgio Gargari, Valentina Taverniti, Claudio Gardana, Cesare Cremon, Filippo Canducci, Isabella Pagano, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Lara Bellacosa, Anna Maria Castellazzi, Chiara Valsecchi, Sara Carlotta Tagliacarne, Massimo Bellini, Lorenzo Bertani, Dario Gambaccini, Santino Marchi, Michele Cicala, Bastianello Germanà, Elisabetta Dal Pont, Maurizio Vecchi, Cristina Ogliari, Walter Fiore, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Giovanni Barbara, Simone Guglielmetti
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, is classified according to bowel habits as IBS with constipation (IBS-C), with diarrhea (IBS-D), with alternating constipation and diarrhea (IBS-M), and unsubtyped (IBS-U). The mechanisms leading to the different IBS forms are mostly unknown. This study aims to evaluate whether specific fecal bacterial taxa and/or short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be used to distinguish IBS subtypes and are relevant for explaining the clinical differences between IBS sub-categories...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747935/prevalence-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-comparison-between-rome-iii-and-rome-iv-criteria
#20
Miguel Saps, Carlos Alberto Velasco-Benitez, Amber Hamid Langshaw, Carmen Rosy Ramírez-Hernández
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children using Rome IV criteria and to compare the prevalence of FGIDs using Rome IV with Rome III criteria. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study using the same methods as our previous study on FGIDs in Colombia. The Questionnaire of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rome IV version was translated into Spanish, followed by reverse translation. Terms were adjusted to children's language by using focus groups of children...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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