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psychosis, severe mental illness

Amy McKeever, SueEllen Alderman, Stephanie Luff, Brian DeJesus
Severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) refers to complex mood disorders that include major depressive disorder with or without psychosis; severe anxiety disorders resistant to treatment; affective psychotic disorders including bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; and other nonaffective subtypes of schizophrenia. SPMIs affect 1 in 17 people and are among the leading causes of disability and impaired health-related quality of life in the United States. Caring for childbearing women with preexisting SPMI can be challenging for maternal-child health clinicians...
October 2016: Nursing for Women's Health
Rachel Upthegrove, Jonathan Ives, Matthew R Broome, Kimberly Caldwell, Stephen J Wood, Femi Oyebode
BACKGROUND: In dimensional understanding of psychosis, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are unitary phenomena present on a continuum from non-clinical voice hearing to severe mental illness. There is mixed evidence for this approach and a relative absence of research into subjective experience of AVH in early psychosis. AIMS: To conduct primary research into the nature of subjective experience of AVH in first-episode psychosis. METHOD: A phenomenological study using diary and photo-elicitation qualitative techniques investigating the subjective experience of AVH in 25 young people with first-episode psychosis...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
Emily Liffick, Nicole F Mehdiyoun, Jenifer L Vohs, Michael M Francis, Alan Breier
OBJECTIVE: Because of the chronicity, severity, and marked psychosocial impairment that may characterize the illness, schizophrenia is an incredibly costly disease. Recent data indicate that intervention earlier in the course of schizophrenia produces cost savings. This study compared health service utilization and associated costs for patients receiving treatment for first-episode psychosis (FEP) delivered within the early-intervention (EI) model at the Prevention and Recovery Center for Early Psychosis (PARC) and for a matched sample of FEP patients receiving treatment as usual at a geographically similar mental health clinic...
October 3, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Tarek Okasha, Nivert Zaki, Marwa Abd El Meguid, Marwa El-Missiry, Walaa Sabry, Mostafa Kamel Ismaeil, Samar M Fouad
BACKGROUND: Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been considered as a poor prognostic factor for psychotic disorder. Several studies have been investigating different predictors of DUP in Western countries, while in Egypt only a few studies have examined various predictors of DUP. AIMS: To study DUP in Egyptian patients with psychotic disorders and to investigate how certain illnesses, patient, socio-cultural risk factors and help-seeking behaviour are correlated with prolonged DUP...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
E Sakellaridou, C Chrysanthou, A Nienaber
We examined the effectiveness of a new homebased integrated care intervention model for patients with multiple-episode psychosis in a rural area in Germany, which combines elements of 2 other well-defined interventions: Assertive Community Treatment and Home Treatment. The pilot evaluation was conducted in 2 steps, using a quantitative and a qualitative design. In a 24-month follow-up period, patients showed significant improvement in symptoms, illness severity, global functioning and quality of life, as well as larger reduction in the number of days of inpatient treatment needed...
September 16, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Christina J Hsieh, Douglass Godwin, Daniel Mamah
Early identification and treatment are associated with improved outcomes in bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Screening for the presence of these disorders usually involves time-intensive interviews that may not be practical in settings where mental health providers are limited. Thus, individuals at earlier stages of illness are often not identified. The Washington Early Recognition Center Affectivity and Psychosis (WERCAP) screen is a self-report questionnaire originally developed to identify clinical risk for developing bipolar or psychotic disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Murray G Tucker, Sebastian Kekulawala, Michelle Kent, Sam Mostafa, Richard Harvey
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of comorbid illicit drug use in persons with chronic psychotic illness represents a strong determinant of psychotic relapse and rehospitalization. Epidemiological studies indicate changing patterns of illicit drug use in Australia, which are concerning because of increased use of crystal methamphetamine, also known as "ice." An important complication of habitual use of crystal methamphetamine is the development of a dose-dependent acute psychotic reaction...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Mariano Martini, Ilaria Gorini, Marta Licata, Francesco De Stefano, Michele Schiavone, Rosagemma Ciliberti
The seventeenth century is a period of transition from religious views that are not authentic but dogmatic about demonic influences to the application of scientific and methodological criteria in science. During Enlightenment there was an approach heavily influenced by ethical issues. In this context, there is a rational recognition of the value of man free from the teleological type references. Mental illnesses are treated using scientific criteria. During the seventeenth century clinical interest is also extended to psychosis and not only to neurosis...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Diane M Durgan, Ronald S Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Although burn patients with preexisting mood disorders have been shown to have diminished clinical recovery, acute mental disorders (AMD) are often unrecognized despite a link with post-traumatic stress disorder and social maladjustment later on. This study assessed the clinical profile of a large cohort of burn patients who developed AMD compared to those with chronic mental illness (CMI) and those without mental health problems to assess the impact of AMI on burn outcomes...
August 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Laura Orsolini, Alessandro Valchera, Roberta Vecchiotti, Carmine Tomasetti, Felice Iasevoli, Michele Fornaro, Domenico De Berardis, Giampaolo Perna, Maurizio Pompili, Cesario Bellantuono
Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide has been considered a relatively rare event during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e., postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc.) have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers' mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Vincent Laprevote, Ulrike Heitz, Paolo Di Patrizio, Erich Studerus, Fabienne Ligier, Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Anita Riecher-Rössler
Chronic psychosis, as for instance schizophrenia, usually begins in young adulthood and may cause severe disability. It causes a mean loss of life expectancy of 22 years. Actual models of psychosis do not trace the beginning of psychosis to the first franc psychotic episode only, but to earlier symptoms. In a classical health system only considering the first psychotic episode, the mean duration of untreated illness (DUI) can last several years. Yet this DUI has a direct impact on the prognosis of the disease...
August 20, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Victor Makanjuola, Yomi Esan, Bibilola Oladeji, Lola Kola, John Appiah-Poku, Benjamin Harris, Caleb Othieno, Leshawndra Price, Soraya Seedat, Oye Gureje
BACKGROUND: Most cultures in sub-Saharan Africa subscribe to the belief that the root cause of psychosis is supernatural. Individuals in the community who hold a religiomagical explanatory model of causation have been shown to exhibit more stigmatizing attitudes towards people with psychosis. Self-stigma among individuals with psychosis is less frequently studied. METHOD: We used a mixed-method approach, consisting of key informant's interviews to elicit information on explanatory models of causation of psychosis and questionnaire assessment of internalized stigma with an adapted version of the Scale for Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness...
August 4, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
A van Minnen, B M van der Vleugel, D P G van den Berg, P A J M de Bont, C de Roos, M van der Gaag, A de Jongh
This study presents secondary analyses of a recently published trial in which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients with psychosis (n = 108) underwent 8 sessions of trauma-focused treatment, either prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. 24.1% fulfilled the criteria for the dissociative subtype, a newly introduced PTSD subtype in DSM-5. Treatment outcome was compared for patients with and without the dissociative subtype of PTSD. Patients with the dissociative subtype of PTSD showed large reductions in clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS) score, comparable with patients without the dissociative subtype of PTSD...
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Carianne M Hunt, Michael Spence, Anne McBride
BACKGROUND: On average, people with schizophrenia and psychosis die 13-30 years sooner than the general population (World Psychiatry 10 (1):52-77, 2011). Mental and physical health care is often provided by different organisations, different practitioners and in different settings which makes collaborative care difficult. Research is needed to understand and map the impact of new collaborative ways of working at the primary/secondary care interface (PloS One 7 (5); e36468). The evaluation presented in this paper was designed to explore the potential of a Community and Physical Health Co-ordinator role (CPHC) (CPHCs were previously Care Co-ordinators within the Community Mental Health Team, Community in the title CPHC refers to Community Mental Health) and Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) meetings across primary and community care, with the aim of improving collaboration of mental and physical health care for service users with Severe Mental Illness (SMI)...
2016: BMC Family Practice
Ana Catalan, Maider Gonzalez de Artaza, Sonia Bustamante, Pablo Orgaz, Luis Osa, Virxinia Angosto, Cristina Valverde, Amaia Bilbao, Arantza Madrazo, Jim van Os, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Torres
BACKGROUND: Facial emotion recognition (FER) is essential to guide social functioning and behaviour for interpersonal communication. FER may be altered in severe mental illness such as in psychosis and in borderline personality disorder patients. However, it is unclear if these FER alterations are specifically related to psychosis. Awareness of FER alterations may be useful in clinical settings to improve treatment strategies. The aim of our study was to examine FER in patients with severe mental disorder and their relation with psychotic symptomatology...
2016: PloS One
Jie Yin Yee, Yuen Mei See, Nur Amirah Abdul Rashid, Sasi Neelamekam, Jimmy Lee
Total vitamin D levels had been commonly reported to be lowered in patients with chronic psychotic illnesses in countries from the higher latitudes. However, studies on patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) are limited. In this study we investigated serum concentrations of total and bioavailable vitamin D levels in FEP patients compared to healthy controls and the association between symptom severity and vitamin D components. A total of 31 FEP patients and 31 healthy controls were recruited from Institute of Mental Health, Singapore...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Antonio Ventriglio, Alessandro Gentile, Iris Bonfitto, Eleonora Stella, Massimo Mari, Luca Steardo, Antonello Bellomo
Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
T T Raij, T Mäntylä, O Mantere, T Kieseppä, J Suvisaari
BACKGROUND: Delusion is the most characteristic symptom of psychosis. While researchers suggested an association between changes of the cortical salience network (CSN) and delusion, whether these CSN findings are a cause or a consequence of delusion remains unknown. METHOD: To assess the effect of CSN functioning to forthcoming changes in delusion scores, we measured brain activation with 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging in two independent samples of first-episode psychosis patients (total of 27 patients and 23 healthy controls)...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
Siann Bowman, Carol McKinstry, Patrick McGorry
AIM: This paper reviews the evidence of youth mental ill health and its impact on secondary school educational attainment. METHODS: This narrative review presents the current research related to the mental ill health of young people in urban and rural Australia, their educational attainment and the effectiveness of mental health strategies implemented in secondary schools. RESULTS: The prevalence of mental ill health is high for Australian young people and the onset of depression, anxiety, substance-use disorders and first episode psychosis (FEP) commonly occurs when the individual is at school...
July 6, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
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