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psychosis, severe mental illness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765339/can-model-projects-of-need-adapted-care-reduce-involuntary-hospital-treatment-and-the-use-of-coercive-measures
#1
Alexandre Wullschleger, Jürgen Berg, Felix Bermpohl, Christiane Montag
Intensive outpatient models of need-adapted psychiatric care have been shown to reduce the length of hospital stays and to improve retention in care for people with severe mental illnesses. In contrast, evidence regarding the impact of such models on involuntary hospital treatment and other coercive measures in inpatient settings is still sparse, although these represent important indicators of the patients' wellbeing. In Germany, intensive models of care still have not been routinely implemented, and their effectiveness within the German psychiatric system is only studied in a few pioneering regions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759034/motives-offending-behavior-and-gender-differences-in-murder-perpetrators-with-or-without-psychosis
#2
Henning Hachtel, Margaret Nixon, Debra Bennett, Paul Mullen, James Ogloff
Little is known whether differences exist in motivation and reactive/instrumental offense behaviors between murder offenders with and without psychotic disorder. To contribute to better prevention strategies, the aim of this study was to investigate offense characteristics in murder offenders with a psychotic, nonpsychotic or no psychiatric diagnosis, and whether these factors differ according to sex. This data study examined the population of murder offenders between 1997 and 2005 ( N = 435) in Victoria, Australia...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713101/an-interesting-presentation-about-cyclical-menstrual-psychosis-with-an-updated-review-of-literature
#3
Srinagesh Mannekote Thippaiah, Soumya Nagaraja, Badari Birur, Arnold W Cohen
Cyclical menstrual psychosis is an uncommon, generally a self-limiting mental illness that occurs only in females. It is associated with other menstruation-related disorders and stressful psychogenic factors. Nonetheless, many cases remain unrecognized due to poor awareness of its presence. A young female who presented with psychotic and mood symptoms during each cycle of menstruation was admitted to the psychiatric inpatient unit. There was severe disruption in her activities of daily living and socio-occupational functioning...
March 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708023/textbook-descriptions-of-people-with-psychosis-some-ethical-aspects
#4
Terje Emil Fredwall, Inger Beate Larsen
BACKGROUND: Textbooks are central for the education of professionals in the health field and a resource for practitioners already in the field. OBJECTIVES: This article focuses on how 12 textbooks in psychiatric nursing and psychiatry, published in Norway between 1877 and 2012, describe and present people with psychosis. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used qualitative content analysis. Ethical considerations: The topic is published textbooks, made available to be read by students, teachers and professionals, and no ethical approval was required...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700218/psychosis-creativity-and-recovery-exploring-the-relationship-in-a-patient
#5
Nilamadhab Kar, Socorro Barreto
Relation between mental illness and creativity is intricate. While many creative people show signs of mental illness, persons with severe mental illness occasionally have creative output beyond the ordinary. We are presenting a patient with psychotic illness whose creative potential took a positive turn during the illness phase and grew further following symptomatic improvement and helped in her recovery process. Observing the contrast related to creative productivity pre and post psychotic phase raises the probability of whether psychotic illness or process might enhance creative potential...
April 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695941/a-naturalistic-study-on-the-relationship-among-resilient-factors-psychiatric-symptoms-and-psychosocial-functioning-in-a-sample-of-residential-patients-with-psychosis
#6
Nicola Poloni, Daniele Zizolfi, Marta Ielmini, Roberto Pagani, Ivano Caselli, Marcello Diurni, Anna Milano, Camilla Callegari
Objective: Resilience is a multidimensional process of adaptation aimed to overcome stressful or traumatic life experiences; only in the last few years it has been considered as a personal resource in psychosis and schizophrenia. This study aimed to assess the relationship between intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience factors and schizophrenia, particularly whether and how resilience can improve the course of psychotic illness. Patients and methods: In this observational study, all patients recruited had to fulfill the following inclusion criteria: diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 ); aged between 18 and 65 years; provided written informed consent; to be clinically stable (Clinical Global Impression Scale <3); history of illness ≥5 years; to be compliant with antipsychotic therapy over the last year; and regular submission to periodic monthly psychiatric visits...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695824/postpartum-psychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Louise M Howard, Veerle Bergink, Simone Vigod, Ian Jones, Trine Munk-Olsen, Simone Honikman, Jeannette Milgrom
Pregnancy is a complex and vulnerable period that presents a number of challenges to women, including the development of postpartum psychiatric disorders (PPDs). These disorders can include postpartum depression and anxiety, which are relatively common, and the rare but more severe postpartum psychosis. In addition, other PPDs can include obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and eating disorders. The aetiology of PPDs is a complex interaction of psychological, social and biological factors, in addition to genetic and environmental factors...
April 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689517/neuropsychological-predictors-of-performance-based-measures-of-functional-capacity-and-social-skills-in-individuals-with-severe-mental-illness
#8
Zanjbeel Mahmood, Cynthia Z Burton, Lea Vella, Elizabeth W Twamley
Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680512/involuntary-psychiatric-hospitalization-and-its-relationship-to-psychopathology-and-aggression
#9
Pedro Henrique Canova Mosele, Guillierme Chervenski Figueira, Amadeu Antônio Bertuol Filho, José Antônio Reis Ferreira de Lima, Vitor Crestani Calegaro
The current study investigates the relationship between involuntary hospitalization, severity of psychopathology, and aggression. Adult psychiatric inpatients hospitalized from August, 2012 to January, 2013 were evaluated via the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Individuals were compared regarding voluntariness of hospitalization. Of the 137 hospitalizations in the period, 71 were involuntary (INV). The variables associated with involuntariness were being brought to hospital by ambulance or police, and aggression in the first 24 h of admission...
April 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675994/psychotic-like-experiences-in-pre-adolescence-what-precedes-the-antecedent-symptoms-of-severe-mental-illness
#10
K Bolhuis, M E Koopman-Verhoeff, L M E Blanken, D Cibrev, V W V Jaddoe, F C Verhulst, M H J Hillegers, S A Kushner, H Tiemeier
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent psychotic-like experiences predict the onset of psychosis, but also predict subsequent non-psychotic disorders. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand the aetiology of psychotic-like experiences. This study examined whether (a) child emotional and behavioural problems at 3 and 6 years, or (b) childhood adversities were associated with psychotic-like experiences at age 10 years. METHOD: This prospective study was embedded in the Generation R Study; 3984 children (mean age 10 years) completed a psychotic-like experiences questionnaire...
April 19, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575804/clinical-and-functional-correlates-of-financially-deprived-women-with-first-episode-psychosis
#11
Christy L M Hui, Wai Tung Ko, Wing Chung Chang, Edwin H M Lee, Sherry K W Chan, Eric Y H Chen
BACKGROUND: Women, especially those with low-socio-economic status and financial deprivation, are found to be affected by mental illnesses disproportionately. We compared the clinical, functioning and cognitive characteristics between the financially deprived women with first-episode psychosis and their non-deprived women counterparts. METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis of consecutively recruited first-episode psychosis women patients was conducted. A total of 93 financially deprived women patients and 105 non-deprived women patients aged 25 to 55 years were compared in terms of demographic, premorbid and help-seeking characteristics, baseline clinical characteristics, baseline functioning and baseline cognitive functioning...
March 25, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564993/risk-of-dementia-associated-with-psychotic-disorders-in-later-life-the-health-in-men-study-hims
#12
Osvaldo P Almeida, Andrew H Ford, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recent research has identified several potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia, including mental disorders. Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder, have also been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but currently available data difficult to generalise because of bias and confounding. We designed the present study to investigate if the presence of a psychotic disorder increased the risk of incident dementia in later life...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559781/novel-treatment-options-in-depression-and-psychosis
#13
REVIEW
Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540116/introducing-specialist-integrated-mental-health-care-in-lebanon-the-psychosis-recovery-outreach-program
#14
Joseph El-Khoury, Rassil Ghazzaoui, Amanda Ahmad
The recognition of mental health needs in developing countries is growing in parallel with increased public awareness of and reduced stigma toward mental illness. With resources still limited in these countries, creating economically viable health care models is essential. These models are often adapted from already established and tested systems in industrialized nations. The Psychosis Recovery Outreach Program (PROP) at the American University of Beirut is an initiative that exemplifies the global transfer of knowledge, experience, and skills...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534245/hyper-and-hypomentalizing-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-fmri-and-behavioral-studies
#15
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523041/cardiometabolic-risk-factors-physical-activity-and-psychiatric-status-in-patients-in-long-term-psychiatric-inpatient-departments
#16
Petter Andreas Ringen, Ann Faerden, Bjørnar Antonsen, Ragnhild S Falk, Asgeir Mamen, Eline B Rognli, Dag K Solberg, Ole A Andreassen, Egil W Martinsen
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause for the markedly reduced life expectancy in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Hospital departments should provide adequate prevention of cardiometabolic risk by optimizing prevention and treatment. Characteristics of cardiometabolic risk factors in inpatients are still not well known. We aimed to describe the status of cardiometabolic risk factors in inpatients with SMI and identify associations with psychiatric status and treatment...
March 9, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474265/global-mental-health-and-schizophrenia
#17
Laura Asher, Abebaw Fekadu, Charlotte Hanlon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim was to synthesize recent evidence on schizophrenia illness experience and outcomes and models of care in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a plurality of explanatory models for psychosis and increasing evidence that context influences experiences of stigma. People with schizophrenia in LMICs are vulnerable to food insecurity, violence and physical health problems, in addition to unmet needs for mental healthcare...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420822/bifactor-modeling-of-the-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-generalized-psychosis-spans-schizoaffective-bipolar-and-schizophrenia-diagnoses
#18
Ariana E Anderson, Stephen Marder, Steven P Reise, Adam Savitz, Giacomo Salvadore, Dong Jing Fu, Qingqin Li, Ibrahim Turkoz, Carol Han, Robert M Bilder
Objective: Common genetic variation spans schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders, but historically, these syndromes have been distinguished categorically. A symptom dimension shared across these syndromes, if such a general factor exists, might provide a clearer target for understanding and treating mental illnesses that share core biological bases. Method: We tested the hypothesis that a bifactor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), containing 1 general factor and 5 specific factors (positive, negative, disorganized, excited, anxiety), explains the cross-diagnostic structure of symptoms better than the traditional 5-factor model, and examined the extent to which a general factor reflects the overall severity of symptoms spanning diagnoses in 5094 total patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorder...
February 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396118/clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-an-intervention-for-reducing-cholesterol-and-cardiovascular-risk-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness-in-english-primary-care-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
David Osborn, Alexandra Burton, Rachael Hunter, Louise Marston, Lou Atkins, Thomas Barnes, Ruth Blackburn, Thomas Craig, Hazel Gilbert, Samira Heinkel, Richard Holt, Michael King, Susan Michie, Richard Morris, Steve Morris, Irwin Nazareth, Rumana Omar, Irene Petersen, Robert Peveler, Vanessa Pinfold, Kate Walters
BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illnesses, including psychosis, have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a primary care intervention on decreasing total cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk in people with severe mental illnesses. METHODS: We did this cluster randomised trial in general practices across England, with general practices as the cluster unit. We randomly assigned general practices (1:1) with 40 or more patients with severe mental illnesses using a computer-generated random sequence with a block size of four...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373933/outcomes-of-clients-in-need-of-intensive-team-care-in-flexible-assertive-community-treatment-in-sweden
#20
Bengt Svensson, Lars Hansson, Annika Lexén
BACKGROUND: Flexible Assertive Community Treatment (Flexible ACT) has been implemented in Sweden during recent years due to increasing interest in integrated services for people with severe mental illness. To date, few studies have been done on Flexible ACT effectiveness. AIMS: The overall aim of this study was to explore the extent to which clients assigned to the Flexible ACT board for ACT intensive care were stabilized with improved everyday functioning, social outcomes, and changes in healthcare use...
April 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
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