Read by QxMD icon Read


Sigrun Schmähling, Arno Meiler, Yoonjung Lee, Arif Mohammed, Katja Finkl, Katharina Tauscher, Lars Israel, Marc Borath, Julia Philippou-Massier, Helmut Blum, Bianca Habermann, Axel Imhof, Ji-Joon Song, Jürg Müller
The Drosophila Ash1 protein is a trithorax-group (trxG) regulator that antagonizes Polycomb repression at HOX genes. Ash1 di-methylates lysine 36 in histone H3 (H3K36me2) but how this activity is controlled and at which genes it functions is not well understood. We show that Ash1 protein purified from Drosophila exists in a complex with MRG15 and Caf1 that we named AMC. In Drosophila and human AMC, MRG15 binds a conserved FxLP motif near the Ash1 SET domain and stimulates H3K36 di-methylation on nucleosomes...
March 14, 2018: Development
Joshua J Waterfall, Paul S Meltzer
Disruptions in the antagonistic balance between the chromatin-modifying Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins drive many malignancies. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Banito et al. describe how the SS18-SSX oncogenic fusion protein in synovial sarcoma directly co-opts these complexes to drive gene dysregulation and sustain the transformed state.
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Tissue identity is plastically regulated in plants, and chromatin modifiers/remodelers are main players of cell fate changes. Callus formation is an intriguing example of cell fate transition. Leaf explants can form callus tissues, which resemble lateral root primordium, on callus-inducing medium (CIM). We recently demonstrated that the ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2) protein, which deposits H3K36me3 at genomic level, regulates callus formation on CIM. Consistent with the role of ATXR2 in conferring root identity, lateral root formation was significantly reduced in atxr2-deficient mutants...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Pengfei Jiang, Shiliang Wang, Haiyang Jiang, Beijiu Cheng, Keqiang Wu, Yong Ding
Flowering time (heading date) and panicle branch number are important agronomic traits that determine yield in rice (Oryza sativa). The activation of flowering requires histone methylation, but the roles of tri-methylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in modulating heading date and panicle development are unclear. Here, we showed that the COMPASS-like complex promotes flowering and panicle branching. The rice WD40 protein OsWDR5a interacts with the TRITHORAX-like protein OsTrx1/SDG723 to form the core components of the COMPASS-like complex...
February 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Fan Xu, Tony Kuo, Yenny Rosli, Mao-Sen Liu, Limin Wu, Long-Fang Oliver Chen, Jennifer C Fletcher, Zinmay Renee Sung, Li Pu
Polycomb Group (PcG) and trithorax Group (trxG) proteins have been shown to act antagonistically to epigenetically regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. The trxG proteins counteract PcG-mediated floral repression in Arabidopsis, but their roles in other developmental processes are poorly understood. We investigated the interactions between the trxG genes, ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG OF TRITHORAX1 (ATX1) and ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1), and the PcG gene EMBRYONIC FLOWER 1 (EMF1) during early development. Unexpectedly, we found that mutations in the trxG genes failed to rescue the early flowering phenotype of emf1 mutants...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Plant
D A Chetverina, P V Elizar’ev, D V Lomaev, P G Georgiev, M M Erokhin
Combinatorial expression of the genes in multicellular organisms leads to the development of different cell types. The important epigenetic regulators of higher eukaryotes are the Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins. These factors control the transcription of a large number of genes involved in various cellular processes. Dysregulation of PcG and TrxG systems leads to developmental abnormalities and cancer. This review focuses on the main characteristics and properties of the Drosophila PRE elements...
February 2017: Genetika
Lei Wang, Qiu-Tong Wang, Yu-Peng Liu, Qing-Qing Dong, Hai-Jie Hu, Zhi Miao, Shuang Li, Yong Liu, Hao Zhou, Tong-Cun Zhang, Wen-Jian Ma, Xue-Gang Luo
Purpose: We previously found that the histone methyltransferase suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, trithorax and myeloid-nervy-deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a potential independent predictive factor or prognostic factor for overall survival in gastric cancer patients, but its roles seem to differ from those in other cancers. Therefore, in this study, the detailed functions of SMYD3 in cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancer were examined...
December 2017: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Carlos A Toro, Hollis Wright, Carlos F Aylwin, Sergio R Ojeda, Alejandro Lomniczi
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control the timing of puberty by repressing the Kiss1 gene in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. Here we identify two members of the Trithorax group (TrxG) of modifiers, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1), and 3 (MLL3), as central components of an activating epigenetic machinery that dynamically counteracts PcG repression. Preceding puberty, MLL1 changes the chromatin configuration at the promoters of Kiss1 and Tac3, two genes required for puberty to occur, from repressive to permissive...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Owen J Marshall, Andrea H Brand
A key question in developmental biology is how cellular differentiation is controlled during development. While transitions between trithorax-group (TrxG) and polycomb-group (PcG) chromatin states are vital for the differentiation of ES cells to multipotent stem cells, little is known regarding the role of chromatin states during development of the brain. Here we show that large-scale chromatin remodelling occurs during Drosophila neural development. We demonstrate that the majority of genes activated during neuronal differentiation are silent in neural stem cells (NSCs) and occupy black chromatin and a TrxG-repressive state...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Yutong Liu, Ai Zhang, Hao Yin, Qingxiang Meng, Xiaoming Yu, Shuangzhan Huang, Jie Wang, Rafiq Ahmad, Bao Liu, Zheng-Yi Xu
Trithorax-group proteins (TrxGs) play essential regulatory roles in chromatin modification to activate transcription. Although TrxGs have been shown to be extensively involved in the activation of developmental genes, how the specific TrxGs function in the dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated modulation of downstream gene expression remains unknown. Here, we report that two evolutionarily conserved Arabidopsis thaliana TrxGs, ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX4 (ATX4) and ATX5, play essential roles in the drought stress response...
December 18, 2017: New Phytologist
Amanda Moccia, Donna M Martin
The nervous system comprises many different cell types including neurons, glia, macrophages, and immune cells, each of which is defined by specific patterns of gene expression, morphology, function, and anatomical location. Establishment of these complex and highly regulated cell fates requires spatial and temporal coordination of gene transcription. Open chromatin (euchromatin) allows transcription factors to interact with gene promoters and activate lineage specific genes, whereas closed chromatin (heterochromatin) remains inaccessible to transcriptional activation...
March 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Jennifer C Fletcher
Multicellular organisms rely on the precise and consistent regulation of gene expression to direct their development in tissue- and cell-type specific patterns. This regulatory activity involves arrays of DNA-binding transcription factors and epigenetic factors that modify chromatin structure. Among the chromatin modifiers, trithorax (trxG) and Polycomb (PcG) group proteins play important roles in orchestrating the stable activation and repression of gene expression, respectively. These proteins have generally antagonistic functions in maintaining cell and tissue homeostasis as well as in mediating widespread transcriptional reprogramming during developmental transitions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Cellular dedifferentiation, the transition of differentiated somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells, ensures developmental plasticity and contributes to wound healing in plants. Wounding induces cells to form a mass of unorganized pluripotent cells called callus at the wound site. Explanted cells can also form callus tissues in vitro. Reversible cellular differentiation-dedifferentiation processes in higher eukaryotes are controlled mainly by chromatin modifications. We demonstrate that ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2), a histone lysine methyltransferase that promotes the accumulation of histone H3 proteins that are trimethylated on lysine 36 (H3K36me3) during callus formation, promotes early stages of cellular dedifferentiation through activation of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN ( LBD ) genes...
November 28, 2017: Science Signaling
Ryan N Delgado, Daniel A Lim
Throughout embryonic development and into postnatal life, regionally distinct populations of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) collectively generate the many different types of neurons that underlie the complex structure and function of the adult mammalian brain. At very early stages of telencephalic development, NPCs become organized into regional domains that each produce different subsets of neurons. This positional identity of NPCs relates to the regional expression of specific, fate-determining homeodomain transcription factors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Vasanthi Dasari, Surabhi Srivastava, Shagufta Khan, Rakesh K Mishra
The process of aging is a hallmark of the natural life span of all organisms and individuals within a population show variability in the measures of age related performance. Longevity and the rate of aging are influenced by several factors such as genetics, nutrition, stress, and environment. Many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging and there is increasing evidence that epigenetic factors regulate these genes to control life span. Polycomb (PcG) and trithorax (trxG) protein complexes maintain the expression profiles of developmentally important genes and regulate many cellular processes...
February 2018: Biogerontology
Chang Huang, Fu Yang, Zhuqiang Zhang, Jing Zhang, Gaihong Cai, Lin Li, Yong Zheng, She Chen, Rongwen Xi, Bing Zhu
Ash1 is a Trithorax group protein that possesses H3K36-specific histone methyltransferase activity, which antagonizes Polycomb silencing. Here we report the identification of two Ash1 complex subunits, Mrg15 and Nurf55. In vitro, Mrg15 stimulates the enzymatic activity of Ash1. In vivo, Mrg15 is recruited by Ash1 to their common targets, and Mrg15 reinforces Ash1 chromatin association and facilitates the proper deposition of H3K36me2. To dissect the functional role of Mrg15 in the context of the Ash1 complex, we identify an Ash1 point mutation (Ash1-R1288A) that displays a greatly attenuated interaction with Mrg15...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Feng Jiang, Qing Liu, Xiang Liu, Xian-Hui Wang, Le Kang
Epigenetic gene control is maintained by chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) genes, which act antagonistically via the interplay between PcG and TrxG regulation to generate silenced or permissive transcriptional states. In this study, we searched for PcG/TrxG genes in 180 arthropod genomes, covering all the sequenced arthropod genomes at the time of conducting this study, to perform a global investigation of PcG/TrxG genes in a phylogenetic frame. Results of ancestral state reconstruction analysis revealed that the ancestor of arthropod species has an almost complete repertoire of PcG/TrxG genes, and most of these genes were seldom lost above order level...
November 11, 2017: Insect Science
Hyuckjoon Kang, Youngsook L Jung, Kyle A McElroy, Barry M Zee, Heather A Wallace, Jessica L Woolnough, Peter J Park, Mitzi I Kuroda
Regulatory decisions in Drosophila require Polycomb group (PcG) proteins to maintain the silent state and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins to oppose silencing. Since PcG and TrxG are ubiquitous and lack apparent sequence specificity, a long-standing model is that targeting occurs via protein interactions; for instance, between repressors and PcG proteins. Instead, we found that Pc-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) purifies with coactivators Fs(1)h [female sterile (1) homeotic] and Enok/Br140 during embryogenesis. Fs(1)h is a TrxG member and the ortholog of BRD4, a bromodomain protein that binds to acetylated histones and is a key transcriptional coactivator in mammals...
October 1, 2017: Genes & Development
Tom S Koemans, Tjitske Kleefstra, Melissa C Chubak, Max H Stone, Margot R F Reijnders, Sonja de Munnik, Marjolein H Willemsen, Michaela Fenckova, Connie T R M Stumpel, Levinus A Bok, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Kyna A Byerly, Linda B Baughn, Alexander P A Stegmann, Rolph Pfundt, Huiqing Zhou, Hans van Bokhoven, Annette Schenck, Jamie M Kramer
Kleefstra syndrome, caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characteristic facial dysmorphisms, and other variable clinical features. In addition to EHMT1 mutations, de novo variants were reported in four additional genes (MBD5, SMARCB1, NR1I3, and KMT2C), in single individuals with clinical characteristics overlapping Kleefstra syndrome. Here, we present a novel cohort of five patients with de novo loss of function mutations affecting the histone methyltransferase KMT2C...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Huan Wang, Aaron Bender, Peng Wang, Esra Karakose, William B Inabnet, Steven K Libutti, Andrew Arnold, Luca Lambertini, Micheal Stang, Herbert Chen, Yumi Kasai, Milind Mahajan, Yayoi Kinoshita, Gustavo Fernandez-Ranvier, Thomas C Becker, Karen K Takane, Laura A Walker, Shira Saul, Rong Chen, Donald K Scott, Jorge Ferrer, Yevgeniy Antipin, Michael Donovan, Andrew V Uzilov, Boris Reva, Eric E Schadt, Bojan Losic, Carmen Argmann, Andrew F Stewart
Although diabetes results in part from a deficiency of normal pancreatic beta cells, inducing human beta cells to regenerate is difficult. Reasoning that insulinomas hold the "genomic recipe" for beta cell expansion, we surveyed 38 human insulinomas to obtain insights into therapeutic pathways for beta cell regeneration. An integrative analysis of whole-exome and RNA-sequencing data was employed to extensively characterize the genomic and molecular landscape of insulinomas relative to normal beta cells...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"