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Xiaolu Zhao, Yuanyuan Wang, Yurui Wang, Yifan Liu, Shan Gao
DNA replication elongation is tightly controlled by histone-modifying enzymes. Our previous studies showed that the histone methytransferase TXR1 (Tetrahymena Trithorax related protein 1) specifically catalyzes H3K27 monomethylation and affects DNA replication elongation in Tetrahymena thermophila. In this study, we investigated whether TXR1 has a substrate preference to the canonical H3 over the replacement variant H3.3. We demonstrated by histone mutagenesis that K27Q mutation in H3.3 further aggravated the replication stress phenotype of K27Q mutation in canonical H3, supporting H3...
October 17, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Hideaki Nakajima
Epigenetic marks, such as histone modifications or DNA methylation, regulate tissue specific gene expression by affecting the structures and accessibility of chromatin or DNA. Epigenetics, the molecular mechanisms regulating the epigenome, would therefore be critically involved in development and cell differentiation versus proliferation. Histone modifications include methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination of specific lysine, arginine or serine residues on histone tails, and each modification has its own specific effect on gene expressions...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Yong Huang, Yijia Mo, Pengyun Chen, Xiaoling Yuan, Funing Meng, Shengwei Zhu, Zhi Liu
SET (Su(var), E(z), and Trithorax) domain-containing proteins play an important role in plant development and stress responses through modifying lysine methylation status of histone. Gossypium raimondii may be the putative contributor of the D-subgenome of economical crops allotetraploid G. hirsutum and G. barbadense and therefore can potentially provide resistance genes. In this study, we identified 52 SET domain-containing genes from G. raimondii genome. Based on conserved sequences, these genes are grouped into seven classes and are predicted to catalyze the methylation of different substrates: GrKMT1 for H3K9me, GrKMT2 and GrKMT7 for H3K4me, GrKMT3 for H3K36me, GrKMT6 for H3K27me, but GrRBCMT and GrS-ET for nonhistones substrate-specific methylation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Menno J Oudhoff, Frann Antignano, Alistair L Chenery, Kyle Burrows, Stephen A Redpath, Mitchell J Braam, Georgia Perona-Wright, Colby Zaph
The intestine is a common site for a variety of pathogenic infections. Helminth infections continue to be major causes of disease worldwide, and are a significant burden on health care systems. Lysine methyltransferases are part of a family of novel attractive targets for drug discovery. SETD7 is a member of the Suppressor of variegation 3-9-Enhancer of zeste-Trithorax (SET) domain-containing family of lysine methyltransferases, and has been shown to methylate and alter the function of a wide variety of proteins in vitro...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Steven T Poynter, Cigall Kadoch
Early discoveries in chromatin biology and epigenetics heralded new insights into organismal development. From these studies, two mediators of cellular differentiation were discovered: the Polycomb group (PcG) of transcriptional repressors, and the trithorax group (trxG) of transcriptional activators. These protein families, while opposed in function, work together to coordinate the appropriate cellular developmental programs that allow for both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Recently, both the PcG and trxG chromatin modulators have been observed to be deregulated in a wide spectrum diseases including developmental disorders and cancer...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Jean-Baptiste Micol, Omar Abdel-Wahab
Additional sex combs-like (ASXL) proteins are mammalian homologs of Addition of sex combs (Asx), a protein that regulates the balance of trithorax and Polycomb function in Drosophila. All three ASXL family members (ASXL1, ASXL2, and ASXL3) are affected by somatic or de novo germline mutations in cancer or rare developmental syndromes, respectively. Although Asx is characterized as a catalytic partner for the deubiquitinase Calypso (or BAP1), there are domains of ASXL proteins that are distinct from Asx and the roles and redundancies of ASXL members are not yet well understood...
October 3, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Xuewen Li, Fu Yang, Hongyan Chen, Bowen Deng, Xinghua Li, Rongwen Xi
Polycomb and Trithorax group (PcG and TrxG) genes function to regulate gene transcription by maintaining a repressive or active chromatin state, respectively. This antagonistic activity is important for body patterning during embryonic development, but whether this function module has a role in adult tissues is unclear. Here, we report that in the Drosophila ovary, disruption of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), specifically in the supporting escort cells, causes blockage of cystoblast differentiation and germline stem cell-like tumor formation...
October 1, 2016: Development
Jean-Michel Gibert, Emmanuèle Mouchel-Vielh, Sandra De Castro, Frédérique Peronnet
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to distinct environmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive. Furthermore, it is thought to facilitate evolution. Although phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, its molecular mechanisms are only beginning to be unravelled. Environmental conditions can affect gene expression through modification of chromatin structure, mainly via histone modifications, nucleosome remodelling or DNA methylation, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity might partly be due to chromatin plasticity...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
Ryan Rickels, Deqing Hu, Clayton K Collings, Ashley R Woodfin, Andrea Piunti, Man Mohan, Hans-Martin Herz, Evgeny Kvon, Ali Shilatifard
Polycomb response elements (PREs) are specific DNA sequences that stably maintain the developmental pattern of gene expression. Drosophila PREs are well characterized, whereas the existence of PREs in mammals remains debated. Accumulating evidence supports a model in which CpG islands recruit Polycomb group (PcG) complexes; however, which subset of CGIs is selected to serve as PREs is unclear. Trithorax (Trx) positively regulates gene expression in Drosophila and co-occupies PREs to antagonize Polycomb-dependent silencing...
July 21, 2016: Molecular Cell
P V Elizar'ev, D V Lomaev, D A Chetverina, P G Georgiev, M M Erokhin
Maintenance of the individual patterns of gene expression in different cell types is required for the differentiation and development of multicellular organisms. Expression of many genes is controlled by Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins that act through association with chromatin. PcG/TrxG are assembled on the DNA sequences termed PREs (Polycomb Response Elements), the activity of which can be modulated and switched from repression to activation. In this study, we analyzed the influence of transcriptional read-through on PRE activity switch mediated by the yeast activator GAL4...
April 2016: Acta Naturae
Amandine Breton, Andria Theodorou, Suleyman Aktuna, Laura Sonzogni, David Darling, Lucas Chan, Stephan Menzel, Peter J van der Spek, Sigrid M A Swagemakers, Frank Grosveld, Sjaak Philipsen, Swee Lay Thein
In 1993, we described an English family with beta-thalassaemia that was not linked to the beta-globin locus. Whole genome sequence analyses revealed potential causative mutations in 15 different genes, of which 4 were consistently and uniquely associated with the phenotype in all 7 affected family members, also confirmed by genetic linkage analysis. Of the 4 genes, which are present in a centromeric region of chromosome 1, ASH1L was proposed as causative through functional mRNA knock-down and chromatin-immunoprecipitation studies in human erythroid progenitor cells...
July 19, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Shweta Mendiratta, Shipra Bhatia, Shruti Jain, Taniya Kaur, Vani Brahmachari
The presence of a highly conserved DNA binding domain in INO80 subfamily predicted that INO80 directly interacts with DNA and we demonstrated its DNA binding activity in vitro. Here we report the consensus motif recognized by the DBINO domain identified by SELEX method and demonstrate the specific interaction of INO80 with the consensus motif. We show that INO80 significantly down regulates the reporter gene expression through its binding motif, and the repression is dependent on the presence of INO80 but not YY1 in the cell...
2016: PloS One
Janine C Quijano, Robert G Wisotzkey, Nancy Lan Tran, Yunxian Huang, Michael J Stinchfield, Theodor E Haerry, Osamu Shimmi, Stuart J Newfeld
Secreted ligands in the Dpp/BMP family drive dorsal-ventral (D/V) axis formation in all Bilaterian species. However, maternal factors regulating Dpp/BMP transcription in this process are largely unknown. We identified the BTB domain protein longitudinals lacking-like (lolal) as a modifier of decapentaplegic (dpp) mutations. We show that Lolal is evolutionarily related to the Trithorax group of chromatin regulators and that lolal interacts genetically with the epigenetic factor Trithorax-like during Dpp D/V signaling...
October 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Anne Grijzenhout, Jonathan Godwin, Haruhiko Koseki, Michal Ryszard Gdula, Dorota Szumska, Joanna F McGouran, Shoumo Bhattacharya, Benedikt M Kessler, Neil Brockdorff, Sarah Cooper
The Polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 are key mediators of heritable gene silencing in multicellular organisms. Here, we characterise AEBP2, a known PRC2 co-factor which, in vitro, has been shown to stimulate PRC2 activity. We show that AEBP2 localises specifically to PRC2 target loci, including the inactive X chromosome. Proteomic analysis confirms that AEBP2 associates exclusively with PRC2 complexes. However, analysis of embryos homozygous for a targeted mutation of Aebp2 unexpectedly revealed a Trithorax phenotype, normally linked to antagonism of Polycomb function...
August 1, 2016: Development
Ayako Ui, Akira Yasui
Polycomb group (PcG) repress, whereas Trithorax group (TrxG) activate transcription for tissue development and cellular proliferation, and misregulation of these factors is often associated with cancer. ENL (MLLT1) and AF9 (MLLT3) are fusion partners of Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL), TrxG proteins, and are factors in Super Elongation Complex (SEC). SEC controls transcriptional elongation to release RNA polymerase II, paused around transcription start site. In MLL rearranged leukemia, several components of SEC have been found as MLL-fusion partners and the control of transcriptional elongation is misregulated leading to tumorigenesis in MLL-SEC fused Leukemia...
April 25, 2016: Nucleus
Andrea Piunti, Ali Shilatifard
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in metazoans is central for establishing cellular diversity, and its deregulation can result in pathological conditions. Although transcription factors are essential for implementing gene expression programs, they do not function in isolation and require the recruitment of various chromatin-modifying and -remodeling machineries. A classic example of developmental chromatin regulation is the balanced activities of the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins within the PRC1 and PRC2 complexes, and the Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins within the COMPASS family, which are highly mutated in a large number of human diseases...
June 3, 2016: Science
Chao-Shun Yang, Kung-Yen Chang, Jason Dang, Tariq M Rana
The polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is a multi-subunit complex that plays critical roles in the epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Here, we show that the PRC1 component polycomb group ring finger 6 (Pcgf6) is required to maintain embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity. In contrast to canonical PRC1, Pcgf6 acts as a positive regulator of transcription and binds predominantly to promoters bearing active chromatin marks. Pcgf6 is expressed at high levels in ESCs, and knockdown reduces the expression of the core ESC regulators Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rodrigo Aguilar, Fernando J Bustos, Mauricio Saez, Adriana Rojas, Miguel L Allende, Andre J van Wijnen, Brigitte van Zundert, Martin Montecino
During hippocampal neuron differentiation, the expression of critical inducers of non-neuronal cell lineages must be efficiently silenced. Runx2 transcription factor is the master regulator of mesenchymal cells responsible for intramembranous osteoblast differentiation and formation of the craniofacial bone tissue that surrounds and protects the central nervous system (CNS) in mammalian embryos. The molecular mechanisms that mediate silencing of the Runx2 gene and its downstream target osteogenic-related genes in neuronal cells have not been explored...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hariharan Jayaram, Dominik Hoelper, Siddhant U Jain, Nico Cantone, Stefan M Lundgren, Florence Poy, C David Allis, Richard Cummings, Steven Bellon, Peter W Lewis
Lysine to methionine (K-to-M) mutations in genes encoding histone H3 are thought to drive a subset of pediatric brain and bone cancers. These high-frequency K-to-M mutations occur at sites of methylation on histone H3, and tumors containing the mutant histones exhibit a global loss of specific histone methylation marks. Previous studies showed that K-to-M mutant histones, also known as oncohistones, are potent orthosteric inhibitors of specific Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax (SET) domain methyltransferases...
May 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guangyan Sun, Zhipeng Zhou, Xiao Liu, Kexin Gai, Qingqing Liu, Joonseok Cha, Farah Naz Kaleri, Ying Wang, Qun He
The circadian system in Neurospora is based on the transcriptional/translational feedback loops and rhythmic frequency (frq) transcription requires the WHITE COLLAR (WC) complex. Our previous paper has shown that frq could be transcribed in a WC-independent pathway in a strain lacking the histone H3K36 methyltransferase, SET-2 (su(var)3-9-enhancer-of-zeste-trithorax-2) (1), but the mechanism was unclear. Here we disclose that loss of histone H3K36 methylation, due to either deletion of SET-2 or H3K36R mutation, results in arrhythmic frq transcription and loss of overt rhythmicity...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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