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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754779/a-linc1405-eomes-complex-promotes-cardiac-mesoderm-specification-and-cardiogenesis
#1
Xudong Guo, Yanxin Xu, Zikang Wang, Yukang Wu, Jiayu Chen, Guiying Wang, Chenqi Lu, Wenwen Jia, Jiajie Xi, Songcheng Zhu, Zeyidan Jiapaer, Xiaoping Wan, Zhongmin Liu, Shaorong Gao, Jiuhong Kang
Large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play widespread roles in epigenetic regulation during multiple differentiation processes, but little is known about their mode of action in cardiac differentiation. Here, we identified the key roles of a lincRNA, termed linc1405, in modulating the core network of cardiac differentiation by functionally interacting with Eomes. Chromatin- and RNA-immunoprecipitation assays showed that exon 2 of linc1405 physically mediates a complex consisting of Eomes, trithorax group (TrxG) subunit WDR5, and histone acetyltransferase GCN5 binding at the enhancer region of Mesp1 gene and activates its expression during cardiac mesoderm specification of embryonic stem cells...
May 3, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672864/menin-regulates-the-serine-biosynthetic-pathway-in-ewing-sarcoma
#2
Laurie K Svoboda, Selina Shiqing K Teh, Sudha Sud, Samuel Kerk, Aaron Zebolsky, Sydney Treichel, Dafydd Thomas, Christopher J Halbrook, Ho-Joon Lee, Daniel Kremer, Li Zhang, Szymon Klossowski, Armand R Bankhead, Brian Magnuson, Mats Ljungman, Tomasz Cierpicki, Jolanta Grembecka, Costas A Lyssiotis, Elizabeth R Lawlor
Developmental transcription programs are epigenetically regulated by multi-protein complexes, including the menin- and MLL-containing trithorax (TrxG) complexes, which promote gene transcription by depositing the H3K4me3 activating mark at target gene promoters. We recently reported that in Ewing sarcoma, MLL1 (lysine methyltransferase 2A, KMT2A) and menin are overexpressed and function as oncogenes. Small molecule inhibition of the menin-MLL interaction leads to loss of menin and MLL1 protein expression and to inhibition of growth and tumorigenicity...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665352/epigenetic-and-non-epigenetic-functions-of-the-rybp-protein-in-development-and-disease-short-title-the-rybp-drybp-protein
#3
REVIEW
Carolina J Simoes da Silva, Rocío Simón, Ana Busturia
Over the last decades significant advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling organismal development. Among these mechanisms the knowledge gained on the roles played by epigenetic regulation of gene expression is extensive. Epigenetic control of transcription requires the function of protein complexes whose specific biochemical activities, such as histone mono-ubiquitylation, affect chromatin compaction and, consequently activation or repression of gene expression. Complexes composed of Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins promote transcriptional silencing while those containing trithorax group (trxG) proteins promote transcriptional activation...
April 14, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661849/feedback-regulation-by-antagonistic-epigenetic-factors-potentially-maintains-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#4
Devendran A Sadasivam, Der-Hwa Huang
Polycomb group (PcG) repressors confer epigenetically heritable silencing on key regulatory genes through histone H3 trimethylation on lysine 27 (H3K27me3). How the silencing state withstands antagonistic activities from co-expressed trithorax group (trxG) activators is unclear. Using overexpression of Trx H3K4 methylase to perturb the silenced state, we find a dynamic process triggered in a stepwise fashion to neutralize the inductive impacts from excess Trx. Shortly after Trx overexpression, there are global increases in H3K4 trimethylation and RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, marking active transcription...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611871/sip1-participates-in-regulation-of-flowering-time-in-rice-by-recruiting-ostrx1-to-ehd1
#5
Pengfei Jiang, Shiliang Wang, Han Zheng, Hao Li, Fei Zhang, Yanhua Su, Zuntao Xu, Haiyan Lin, Qian Qian, Yong Ding
Flowering time (heading date) in rice (Oryza sativa) is an important agronomic trait that determines yield. The levels of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) modulated by TRITHORAX-like proteins regulate gene transcription, flowering time and environmental stress responses. However, plant TRITHORAX-like proteins have no known DNA-binding domain, and therefore the mechanism that gives sequence specificity to these proteins remains unclear. Here, we show that the rice TRITHORAX-like protein OsTrx1 is recruited to its target, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), by the C2H2 zinc finger protein SDG723/OsTrx1/OsSET33 Interaction Protein 1 (SIP1)...
April 3, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593341/mll5-suppresses-antiviral-innate-immune-response-by-facilitating-stub1-mediated-rig-i-degradation
#6
Peipei Zhou, Xiaodan Ding, Xiaoling Wan, Lulu Liu, Xiujie Yuan, Wei Zhang, Xinhui Hui, Guangxun Meng, Hui Xiao, Bin Li, Jin Zhong, Fajian Hou, Lihwen Deng, Yan Zhang
Trithorax group protein MLL5 is an important epigenetic modifier that controls cell cycle progression, chromatin architecture maintenance, and hematopoiesis. However, whether MLL5 has a role in innate antiviral immunity is largely unknown. Here we show that MLL5 suppresses the RIG-I-mediated anti-viral immune response. Mll5-deficient mice infected with vesicular stomatitis virus show enhanced anti-viral innate immunity, reduced morbidity, and viral load. Mechanistically, a fraction of MLL5 located in the cytoplasm interacts with both RIG-I and its E3 ubiquitin ligase STUB1, which promotes K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of RIG-I...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593072/a-strategy-to-isolate-modifiers-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-lethal-mutations-investigating-the-endoderm-specifying-ability-of-the-intestinal-differentiation-gata-factor-elt-2
#7
Tobias Wiesenfahrt, Jingjie Duanmu, Frances Snider, Don Moerman, Vinci Au, Erica Li-Leger, Stephane Flibotte, Dylan M Parker, Craig J Marshall, Erin Osborne Nishimura, Paul E Mains, James D McGhee
The ELT-2 GATA factor normally functions in differentiation of the C. elegans endoderm, downstream of endoderm specification. We have previously shown that, if ELT-2 is expressed sufficiently early, it is also able to specify the endoderm and to replace all other members of the core GATA-factor transcriptional cascade (END-1, END-3, ELT-7). However, such rescue requires multiple copies (and presumably overexpression) of the end-1p::elt-2 cDNA transgene; a single copy of the transgene does not rescue. We have made this observation the basis of a genetic screen to search for genetic modifiers that allow a single copy of the end-1p::elt-2 cDNA transgene to rescue the lethality of the end-1 end-3 double mutant...
March 28, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555581/polycomb-trithorax-group-dependent-regulation-of-the-neuronal-gene-lim3-involved-in-drosophila-lifespan-control
#8
Olga Y Rybina, Yakov M Rozovsky, Ekaterina R Veselkina, Elena G Pasyukova
Molecular mechanisms governing gene expression and defining complex phenotypes are central to understanding the basics of development and aging. Here, we demonstrate that naturally occurring polymorphisms of the Lim3 regulatory region that are associated with variation in gene expression and Drosophila lifespan control are located exclusively in the Polycomb response element (PRE). We find that the Polycomb group (PcG) protein Polycomb (PC) is bound to the PRE only in embryos where Lim3 is present in both repressed and active states...
May 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540501/regulation-and-function-of-h3k36-di-methylation-by-the-trithorax-group-protein-complex-amc
#9
Sigrun Schmähling, Arno Meiler, Yoonjung Lee, Arif Mohammed, Katja Finkl, Katharina Tauscher, Lars Israel, Marc Wirth, Julia Philippou-Massier, Helmut Blum, Bianca Habermann, Axel Imhof, Ji-Joon Song, Jürg Müller
The Drosophila Ash1 protein is a trithorax-group (trxG) regulator that antagonizes Polycomb repression at HOX genes. Ash1 di-methylates lysine 36 in histone H3 (H3K36me2) but how this activity is controlled and at which genes it functions is not well understood. We show that Ash1 protein purified from Drosophila exists in a complex with MRG15 and Caf1 that we named AMC. In Drosophila and human AMC, MRG15 binds a conserved FxLP motif near the Ash1 SET domain and stimulates H3K36 di-methylation on nucleosomes...
April 5, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533779/a-non-canonical-polycomb-dependency-in-synovial-sarcoma
#10
Joshua J Waterfall, Paul S Meltzer
Disruptions in the antagonistic balance between the chromatin-modifying Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins drive many malignancies. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Banito et al. describe how the SS18-SSX oncogenic fusion protein in synovial sarcoma directly co-opts these complexes to drive gene dysregulation and sustain the transformed state.
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517958/atxr2-as-a-core-regulator-of-de-novo-root-organogenesis
#11
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Tissue identity is plastically regulated in plants, and chromatin modifiers/remodelers are main players of cell fate changes. Callus formation is an intriguing example of cell fate transition. Leaf explants can form callus tissues, which resemble lateral root primordium, on callus-inducing medium (CIM). We recently demonstrated that the ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2) protein, which deposits H3K36me3 at genomic level, regulates callus formation on CIM. Consistent with the role of ATXR2 in conferring root identity, lateral root formation was significantly reduced in atxr2-deficient mutants...
March 4, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440594/the-compass-like-complex-promotes-flowering-and-panicle-branching-in-rice
#12
Pengfei Jiang, Shiliang Wang, Haiyang Jiang, Beijiu Cheng, Keqiang Wu, Yong Ding
Flowering time (heading date) and panicle branch number are important agronomic traits that determine yield in rice ( Oryza sativa ). The activation of flowering requires histone methylation, but the roles of trimethylation of Lys 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in modulating heading date and panicle development are unclear. Here, we showed that the COMPASS-like complex promotes flowering and panicle branching. The rice ( Oryza sativa ) WD40 protein OsWDR5a interacts with the TRITHORAX-like protein OsTrx1/SET domain group protein 723 (SDG723) to form the core components of the COMPASS-like complex...
April 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428247/trithorax-group-proteins-act-together-with-a-polycomb-group-protein-to-maintain-chromatin-integrity-for-epigenetic-silencing-during-seed-germination-in-arabidopsis
#13
Fan Xu, Tony Kuo, Yenny Rosli, Mao-Sen Liu, Limin Wu, Long-Fang Oliver Chen, Jennifer C Fletcher, Zinmay Renee Sung, Li Pu
Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) proteins have been shown to act antagonistically to epigenetically regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. The trxG proteins counteract PcG-mediated floral repression in Arabidopsis, but their roles in other developmental processes are poorly understood. We investigated the interactions between the trxG genes, ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG OF TRITHORAX1 (ATX1) and ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1), and the PcG gene EMBRYONIC FLOWER 1 (EMF1) during early development. Unexpectedly, we found that mutations in the trxG genes failed to rescue the early-flowering phenotype of emf1 mutants...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372960/-control-of-the-gene-activity-by-polycomb-and-trithorax-group-proteins-in-drosophila
#14
REVIEW
D A Chetverina, P V Elizar’ev, D V Lomaev, P G Georgiev, M M Erokhin
Combinatorial expression of the genes in multicellular organisms leads to the development of different cell types. The important epigenetic regulators of higher eukaryotes are the Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins. These factors control the transcription of a large number of genes involved in various cellular processes. Dysregulation of PcG and TrxG systems leads to developmental abnormalities and cancer. This review focuses on the main characteristics and properties of the Drosophila PRE elements...
February 2017: Genetika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302370/atm-signaling-pathway-is-implicated-in-the-smyd3-mediated-proliferation-and-migration-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#15
Lei Wang, Qiu-Tong Wang, Yu-Peng Liu, Qing-Qing Dong, Hai-Jie Hu, Zhi Miao, Shuang Li, Yong Liu, Hao Zhou, Tong-Cun Zhang, Wen-Jian Ma, Xue-Gang Luo
Purpose: We previously found that the histone methyltransferase suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, trithorax and myeloid-nervy-deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a potential independent predictive factor or prognostic factor for overall survival in gastric cancer patients, but its roles seem to differ from those in other cancers. Therefore, in this study, the detailed functions of SMYD3 in cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancer were examined...
December 2017: Journal of Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302059/trithorax-dependent-changes-in-chromatin-landscape-at-enhancer-and-promoter-regions-drive-female-puberty
#16
Carlos A Toro, Hollis Wright, Carlos F Aylwin, Sergio R Ojeda, Alejandro Lomniczi
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control the timing of puberty by repressing the Kiss1 gene in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. Here we identify two members of the Trithorax group (TrxG) of modifiers, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1), and 3 (MLL3), as central components of an activating epigenetic machinery that dynamically counteracts PcG repression. Preceding puberty, MLL1 changes the chromatin configuration at the promoters of Kiss1 and Tac3, two genes required for puberty to occur, from repressive to permissive...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273756/chromatin-state-changes-during-neural-development-revealed-by-in-vivo-cell-type-specific-profiling
#17
Owen J Marshall, Andrea H Brand
A key question in developmental biology is how cellular differentiation is controlled during development. While transitions between trithorax-group (TrxG) and polycomb-group (PcG) chromatin states are vital for the differentiation of ES cells to multipotent stem cells, little is known regarding the role of chromatin states during development of the brain. Here we show that large-scale chromatin remodelling occurs during Drosophila neural development. We demonstrate that the majority of genes activated during neuronal differentiation are silent in neural stem cells (NSCs) and occupy black chromatin and a TrxG-repressive state...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250818/trithorax-group-proteins-arabidopsis-trithorax4-atx4-and-atx5-function-in-abscisic-acid-and-dehydration-stress-responses
#18
Yutong Liu, Ai Zhang, Hao Yin, Qingxiang Meng, Xiaoming Yu, Shuangzhan Huang, Jie Wang, Rafiq Ahmad, Bao Liu, Zheng-Yi Xu
Trithorax-group proteins (TrxGs) play essential regulatory roles in chromatin modification to activate transcription. Although TrxGs have been shown to be extensively involved in the activation of developmental genes, how the specific TrxGs function in the dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated modulation of downstream gene expression remains unknown. Here, we report that two evolutionarily conserved Arabidopsis thaliana TrxGs, ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX4 (ATX4) and ATX5, play essential roles in the drought stress response...
March 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196188/nervous-system-development-and-disease-a-focus-on-trithorax-related-proteins-and-chromatin-remodelers
#19
REVIEW
Amanda Moccia, Donna M Martin
The nervous system comprises many different cell types including neurons, glia, macrophages, and immune cells, each of which is defined by specific patterns of gene expression, morphology, function, and anatomical location. Establishment of these complex and highly regulated cell fates requires spatial and temporal coordination of gene transcription. Open chromatin (euchromatin) allows transcription factors to interact with gene promoters and activate lineage specific genes, whereas closed chromatin (heterochromatin) remains inaccessible to transcriptional activation...
March 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184559/state-of-the-art-trxg-factor-regulation-of-post-embryonic-plant-development
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer C Fletcher
Multicellular organisms rely on the precise and consistent regulation of gene expression to direct their development in tissue- and cell-type specific patterns. This regulatory activity involves arrays of DNA-binding transcription factors and epigenetic factors that modify chromatin structure. Among the chromatin modifiers, trithorax (trxG) and Polycomb (PcG) group proteins play important roles in orchestrating the stable activation and repression of gene expression, respectively. These proteins have generally antagonistic functions in maintaining cell and tissue homeostasis as well as in mediating widespread transcriptional reprogramming during developmental transitions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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