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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782994/structural-covariance-of-brain-region-volumes-is-associated-with-both-structural-connectivity-and-transcriptomic-similarity
#1
Yohan Yee, Darren J Fernandes, Leon French, Jacob Ellegood, Lindsay S Cahill, Dulcie A Vousden, Leigh Spencer Noakes, Jan Scholz, Matthijs C van Eede, Brian J Nieman, John G Sled, Jason P Lerch
An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773153/differential-electrophysiological-correlates-of-panic-disorder-in-non-pulsatile-tinnitus
#2
T Pattyn, S Vanneste, D De Ridder, V Van Rompaey, D J Veltman, P Van de Heyning, Bcg Sabbe, F Van Den Eede
AIMS: The prevalence of panic disorder (PD) reportedly is up to fivefold higher in people with tinnitus than it is in the general population. The brain networks in the two conditions overlap but the pathophysiological link remains unclear. In this study the electrophysiological brain activity is investigated in adults with non-pulsatile tinnitus with and without concurrent PD. METHODS: Resting-state EEGs of 16 participants with non-pulsatile tinnitus and PD were compared with those of 16 peers with non-pulsatile tinnitus without PD and as many healthy controls...
June 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767687/hormone-responsive-genes-in-the-shh-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways-influence-urethral-closure-and-phallus-growth
#3
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Asao Fujiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that affect androgen or estrogen activity may disrupt gene regulation during normal phallus development to cause hypospadias or a masculinized clitoris. We treated developing male tammar wallabies with estrogen and females with androgen from day 20-40 postpartum (pp) during the established androgen imprinting window. Administration of estrogen to males inhibited phallus elongation but had no effect on urethral closure and did not significantly depress testicular androgen synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754954/the-polycomb-dependent-epigenome-controls-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-dedifferentiation-and-diabetes
#4
Tess Tsai-Hsiu Lu, Steffen Heyne, Erez Dror, Eduard Casas, Laura Leonhardt, Thorina Boenke, Chih-Hsiang Yang, Sagar, Laura Arrigoni, Kevin Dalgaard, Raffaele Teperino, Lennart Enders, Madhan Selvaraj, Marius Ruf, Sunil J Raja, Huafeng Xie, Ulrike Boenisch, Stuart H Orkin, Francis C Lynn, Brad G Hoffman, Dominic Grün, Tanya Vavouri, Adelheid M Lempradl, J Andrew Pospisilik
To date, it remains largely unclear to what extent chromatin machinery contributes to the susceptibility and progression of complex diseases. Here, we combine deep epigenome mapping with single-cell transcriptomics to mine for evidence of chromatin dysregulation in type 2 diabetes. We find two chromatin-state signatures that track β cell dysfunction in mice and humans: ectopic activation of bivalent Polycomb-silenced domains and loss of expression at an epigenomically unique class of lineage-defining genes...
May 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719718/a-systematic-review-of-the-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-united-states
#5
Daniel J Livorsi, Margaret L Chorazy, Marin L Schweizer, Erin C Balkenende, Amy E Blevins, Rajeshwari Nair, Matthew H Samore, Richard E Nelson, Karim Khader, Eli N Perencevich
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) pose an urgent public health threat in the United States. An important step in planning and monitoring a national response to CRE is understanding its epidemiology and associated outcomes. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that investigated incidence and outcomes of CRE infection in the US. Methods: We performed searches in MEDLINE via Ovid, CDSR, DARE, CENTRAL, NHS EED, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles published from 1/1/2000 to 2/1/2016 about the incidence and outcomes of CRE at US sites...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706087/association-of-aflatoxin-exposure-and-height-for-age-among-young-children-in-guatemala
#6
Lee E Voth-Gaeddert, Matthew Stoker, Olga Torres, Daniel B Oerther
Aflatoxin exposure has been proposed to affect child height-for-age. The following hypothesized associations were tested in Guatemala: (1) aflatoxin (B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 ) exposure and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and child height-for-age z-score; and (2) aflatoxin exposures and subsequent symptoms of aflatoxins. Maize consumption data, health data, and samples of maize from households were collected from mothers and their children - under five - in October 2016 (n = 320) and February 2017 (n = 120)...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694365/a-preliminary-investigation-into-the-early-embryo-death-syndrome-eeds-at-the-world-s-largest-green-turtle-rookery
#7
David Terrington Booth, Andrew Dunstan
Raine Island hosts the largest nesting aggregation of green turtles in the world, but nest emergence success and hence recruitment of hatchlings off the beach appear to have significantly declined since the 1990s. Nests destroyed by subsequent nesting turtles, and nest failure due to flooding account for most of the nest failure, but many nests still have poor hatch success even when undisturbed and flood-free. In undisturbed, flood-free nests that experience high mortality, embryos typically die at a very early stage of development, a phenomenon we term early embryo death syndrome (EEDS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687454/interventions-for-implementation-of-thromboprophylaxis-in-hospitalized-patients-at-risk-for-venous-thromboembolism
#8
REVIEW
Susan R Kahn, David R Morrison, Gisèle Diendéré, Alexandre Piché, Kristian B Filion, Adi J Klil-Drori, James D Douketis, Jessica Emed, André Roussin, Vicky Tagalakis, Martin Morris, William Geerts
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. While numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that the appropriate use of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients at risk for VTE is safe, effective, and cost-effective, thromboprophylaxis remains underused or inappropriately used. Our previous review suggested that system-wide interventions, such as education, alerts, and multifaceted interventions were more effective at improving the prescribing of thromboprophylaxis than relying on individual providers' behaviors...
April 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681499/allosteric-activation-dictates-prc2-activity-independent-of-its-recruitment-to-chromatin
#9
Chul-Hwan Lee, Jia-Ray Yu, Sunil Kumar, Ying Jin, Gary LeRoy, Natarajan Bhanu, Syuzo Kaneko, Benjamin A Garcia, Andrew D Hamilton, Danny Reinberg
PRC2 is a therapeutic target for several types of cancers currently undergoing clinical trials. Its activity is regulated by a positive feedback loop whereby its terminal enzymatic product, H3K27me3, is specifically recognized and bound by an aromatic cage present in its EED subunit. The ensuing allosteric activation of the complex stimulates H3K27me3 deposition on chromatin. Here we report a stepwise feedback mechanism entailing key residues within distinctive interfacing motifs of EZH2 or EED that are found to be mutated in cancers and/or Weaver syndrome...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666467/ascorbic-acid-induces-global-epigenetic-reprogramming-to-promote-meiotic-maturation-and-developmental-competence-of-porcine-oocytes
#10
Xiao-Xia Yu, Yun-Hua Liu, Xiao-Man Liu, Pei-Chao Wang, Shuai Liu, Jia-Kun Miao, Zhi-Qiang Du, Cai-Xia Yang
L-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) can enhance the meiotic maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here we show the role of ascorbic acid in regulating epigenetic status of both nucleic acids and chromatin to promote oocyte maturation and development in pigs. Supplementation of 250 μM L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium salt hydrate (AA2P) during in vitro maturation significantly enhanced the nuclear maturation (as indicated by higher rate of first polar body extrusion and increased Bmp15 mRNA level), reduced level of reactive oxygen species, and promoted developmental potency (higher cleavage and blastocyst rates of parthenotes, and decreased Bax and Caspase3 mRNA levels in blastocysts) of pig oocytes...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665462/urinary-phthalate-metabolites-and-environmental-phenols-in-university-students-in-south-china
#11
Xue-Mei Zhang, Xiang-Ying Lou, Liu-Hong Wu, Cong Huang, Da Chen, Ying Guo
In China, university students have unique lifestyles compared with the rest of the youth population, as they are almost entirely isolated in campuses. The number of university students is large, and since students represent the future of human reproduction, exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) may have a large impact on society. In this study, levels of several EEDs, including phthalate metabolites, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues, triclosan (TCS), and benzophenone-3, were determined in 169 urine samples collected from university students in Guangzhou, South China...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628311/a-family-of-vertebrate-specific-polycombs-encoded-by-the-lcor-lcorl-genes-balance-prc2-subtype-activities
#12
Eric Conway, Emilia Jerman, Evan Healy, Shinsuke Ito, Daniel Holoch, Giorgio Oliviero, Orla Deevy, Eleanor Glancy, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Marlena Mucha, Ariane Watson, Alan M Rice, Paul Chammas, Christine Huang, Indigo Pratt-Kelly, Yoko Koseki, Manabu Nakayama, Tomoyuki Ishikura, Gundula Streubel, Kieran Wynne, Karsten Hokamp, Aoife McLysaght, Claudio Ciferri, Luciano Di Croce, Gerard Cagney, Raphaël Margueron, Haruhiko Koseki, Adrian P Bracken
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) consists of core subunits SUZ12, EED, RBBP4/7, and EZH1/2 and is responsible for mono-, di-, and tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3. Whereas two distinct forms exist, PRC2.1 (containing one polycomb-like protein) and PRC2.2 (containing AEBP2 and JARID2), little is known about their differential functions. Here, we report the discovery of a family of vertebrate-specific PRC2.1 proteins, "PRC2 associated LCOR isoform 1" (PALI1) and PALI2, encoded by the LCOR and LCORL gene loci, respectively...
April 1, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623624/the-economic-burden-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Ashley Enstone, Maire Greaney, Manca Povsic, Robin Wyn, John R Penrod, Yong Yuan
BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the most aggressive form of lung carcinoma, represents approximately 15% of all lung cancers; however, the economic and healthcare burden of SCLC is not well-defined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of SCLC on healthcare costs through a systematic literature review (SLR). METHODS: Using the OVID search engine, the SLR was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, EconLIT and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED)...
August 18, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613921/markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-are-associated-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-tanzanian-children
#14
Analee J Etheredge, Karim Manji, Mark Kellogg, Hao Tran, Enju Liu, Christine M McDonald, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Wafaie Fawzi, David Bellinger, Andrew T Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to enteropathogens may result in environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical condition associated with poor child growth. Growth faltering is strongly associated with poor neurodevelopment, and occurs during sensitive periods of postnatal brain development. We investigated the role of novel EED biomarkers, systemic inflammation, and micronutrient status on neurodevelopment in Tanzanian children. METHODS: Non-stunted subjects with 6-week and 6-month blood samples and neurodevelopmental measures (n = 107) were included in this study...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606589/the-h3k36me2-methyltransferase-nsd1-demarcates-prc2-mediated-h3k27me2-and-h3k27me3-domains-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Gundula Streubel, Ariane Watson, Sri Ganesh Jammula, Andrea Scelfo, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Giorgio Oliviero, Rachel McCole, Eric Conway, Eleanor Glancy, Gian Luca Negri, Eugene Dillon, Kieran Wynne, Diego Pasini, Nevan J Krogan, Adrian P Bracken, Gerard Cagney
The Polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) is composed of the core subunits Ezh1/2, Suz12, and Eed, and it mediates all di- and tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 in higher eukaryotes. However, little is known about how the catalytic activity of PRC2 is regulated to demarcate H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 domains across the genome. To address this, we mapped the endogenous interactomes of Ezh2 and Suz12 in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and we combined this with a functional screen for H3K27 methylation marks. We found that Nsd1-mediated H3K36me2 co-locates with H3K27me2, and its loss leads to genome-wide expansion of H3K27me3...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572378/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-ezh2-inhibitors-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphomas
#16
Malik Bisserier, Narendra Wajapeyee
Resistance to targeted therapies has become increasingly prevalent. We noted that resistance to different targeted therapies occurs by largely common mechanisms. In this study, we used this information for identifying the mechanisms of resistance to Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) inhibitors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) harboring EZH2 mutations. We discovered that EZH2 inhibitor resistance DLBCL cells showed activation of the IGF-1R, MEK, and PI3K pathways. Constitutive activation of IGF-1R, MEK or PI3K pathways were sufficient to confer resistance to EZH2 inhibitors in DLBCL...
March 23, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542684/exosomes-from-suxiao-jiuxin-pill-treated-cardiac-mesenchymal-stem-cells-decrease-h3k27-demethylase-utx-expression-in-mouse-cardiomyocytes-in-vitro
#17
Xiao-Fen Ruan, Yong-Jun Li, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Wei Lei, Can Chen, Yang Li, Hong Yu, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Xiao-Long Wang, Neal L Weintraub, Yaoliang Tang
Suxiao Jiuxin pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in China, which contains two principal components, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR). Thus far, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SJP on the cardiac microenvironment are unknown. Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) communicate with cardiomyocytes (CMs) through the release of microvesicles (exosomes) to restore cardiac homeostasis and elicit repair, in part through epigenetic regulatory mechanisms...
April 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537659/validation-of-the-exercise-and-eating-disorder-questionnaire-in-males-with-and-without-eating-disorders
#18
Marit Danielsen, Sigrid Bjørnelv, Grete Helen Bratberg, Øyvind Rø
OBJECTIVE: The need to consider gender when studying exercise in eating disorder (ED) has been underscored. The study aimed to test the psychometric properties and factor structure of the exercise and eating disorder (EED) questionnaire for males with and without ED, to highlight gender differences, and to explore issues relevant for a male version of the EED questionnaire. METHOD: This cross sectional study included 258 male participants: 55 ED patients (inpatients and outpatients) and 203 student controls...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509790/serum-anti-flagellin-and-anti-lipopolysaccharide-immunoglobulins-as-predictors-of-linear-growth-faltering-in-pakistani-infants-at-risk-for-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#19
Sana Syed, Najeeha T Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Jennie Z Ma, Tauseef Akhund, Wenjun Xin, Sean R Moore, Enju Liu, Shahida Qureshi, Kerri Gosselin, Andrew Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan, S Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) in children from low-income countries has been linked to linear growth declines. There is a critical need to identify sensitive and early EED biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether levels of antibodies against bacterial components flagellin (flic) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) predict poor growth. DESIGN/METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 380 children in rural Pakistan blood and stool samples were obtained at ages 6 and 9 months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507860/inhibitor-of-differentiation-3-and-estrogenic-endocrine-disruptors-implications-for-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Mayur Doke, Vincent Avecilla, Quentin Felty
The rising global incidence of obesity cannot be fully explained within the context of traditional risk factors such as an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, aging, or genetics. Adipose tissue is an endocrine as well as a metabolic organ that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental estrogenic chemicals. Since some of the endocrine disruptors are lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, they tend to bioaccumulate in the adipose tissue of exposed populations. Elevated exposure to these chemicals may predispose susceptible individuals to weight gain by increasing the number and size of fat cells...
2018: BioMed Research International
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