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Xiao-Fen Ruan, Yong-Jun Li, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Wei Lei, Can Chen, Yang Li, Hong Yu, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Xiao-Long Wang, Neal L Weintraub, Yao-Liang Tang
Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in China, which contains two principal components, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR). Thus far, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SJP on the cardiac microenvironment are unknown. Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) communicate with cardiomyocytes (CMs) through the release of microvesicles (exosomes) to restore cardiac homeostasis and elicit repair, in part through epigenetic regulatory mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Marit Danielsen, Sigrid Bjørnelv, Grete Helen Bratberg, Øyvind Rø
OBJECTIVE: The need to consider gender when studying exercise in eating disorder (ED) has been underscored. The study aimed to test the psychometric properties and factor structure of the exercise and eating disorder (EED) questionnaire for males with and without ED, to highlight gender differences, and to explore issues relevant for a male version of the EED questionnaire. METHOD: This cross sectional study included 258 male participants: 55 ED patients (inpatients and outpatients) and 203 student controls...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Sana Syed, Najeeha T Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Jennie Z Ma, Tauseef Akhund, Wenjun Xin, Sean R Moore, Enju Liu, Shahida Qureshi, Kerri Gosselin, Andrew Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan, S Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) in children from low-income countries has been linked to linear growth declines. There is a critical need to identify sensitive and early EED biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether levels of antibodies against bacterial components flagellin (flic) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) predict poor growth. DESIGN/METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort of 380 children in rural Pakistan blood and stool samples were obtained at ages 6 and 9 months...
2018: PloS One
Mayur Doke, Vincent Avecilla, Quentin Felty
The rising global incidence of obesity cannot be fully explained within the context of traditional risk factors such as an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, aging, or genetics. Adipose tissue is an endocrine as well as a metabolic organ that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental estrogenic chemicals. Since some of the endocrine disruptors are lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, they tend to bioaccumulate in the adipose tissue of exposed populations. Elevated exposure to these chemicals may predispose susceptible individuals to weight gain by increasing the number and size of fat cells...
2018: BioMed Research International
Deepesh Duwadi, Anishma Shrestha, Binyam Yilma, Itamar Kozlovski, Munaya Sa-Eed, Nikesh Dahal, James Jukosky
Using tBLASTn and BLASTp searches, we queried recently sequenced arthropod genomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using a database of known arthropod cecropins, defensins, and attacins. We identified and synthesized 6 potential AMPs and screened them for antimicrobial activity. Using radial diffusion assays and microtiter antimicrobial assays, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial effects of these peptides against several human pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We also conducted hemolysis assays to examine the cytotoxicity of these peptides to mammalian cells...
March 1, 2018: Peptides
Marta Farràs, Kanta Chandwe, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Beatrice Amadi, John Louis-Auguste, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, Richard Guerrant, Paul Kelly, Jonathan Richard Swann
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is widespread throughout the tropics and in children is associated with stunting and other adverse health outcomes. One of the hallmarks of EED is villus damage. In children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) the severity of enteropathy is greater and short term mortality is high, but the metabolic consequences of enteropathy are unknown. Here, we characterize the urinary metabolic alterations associated with villus health, classic enteropathy biomarkers and anthropometric measurements in severely malnourished children in Zambia...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Sophia E Agapova, Kevin B Stephenson, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Naohiro Makise, Masaya Sekimizu, Takashi Kubo, Susumu Wakai, Shun-Ichi Watanabe, Tomoyasu Kato, Takayuki Kinoshita, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Masashi Fukayama, Akira Kawai, Hitoshi Ichikawa, Akihiko Yoshida
AIMS: Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a sarcoma in the non-skeletal tissue that directly produces neoplastic osteoid or bone. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) are the two most common types of sarcoma that can harbor heterologous osteosarcomatous differentiation. We aimed to determine the potential relationship of ESOS to DDLPS and MPNST. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated MDM2 and H3K27me3 status in 19 cases of ESOS, 2 of which contained a low-grade component...
February 28, 2018: Histopathology
Hiroshi Otsuka, Kenichi Kohashi, Masato Yoshimoto, Shin Ishihara, Yu Toda, Yuichi Yamada, Hidetaka Yamamoto, Yasuharu Nakashima, Yoshinao Oda
The histological definitive diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is quite difficult because the morphological features are not specific and no useful immunohistochemical marker has been identified. Loss-of-function mutations in EED or SUZ12, which encode the core subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), were reported in MPNSTs, and the mutations were shown to cause inactivation of PRC2, leading to loss of trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). Immunohistochemistry of H3K27me3 is expected to be a specific marker for MPNSTs...
January 31, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Marcia Gibson, Hilary Thomson, Kasia Banas, Vittoria Lutje, Martin J McKee, Susan P Martin, Candida Fenton, Clare Bambra, Lyndal Bond
BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents...
February 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael L Chen, Agata Chlopik, Maija P Hoang, Gideon P Smith
Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a rare, chronic small-vessel vasculitis that presents as firm, red, violaceous, or brown papules and nodules on the extensor surfaces of the limbs. Oral dapsone is considered first-line therapy for EED; in the current case report, a patient presenting with EED began dapsone treatment and symptoms subsided within two weeks. Seven months later, the patient became pregnant and stopped dapsone owing to her concerns with dapsone use during pregnancy, resulting in recurrence of EED symptoms...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Jie Yu, Xuesong Yang, Xuefeng Yang, Mengxue Yang, Pan Wang, Yu Yang, Jing Yang, Wenmei Li, Jie Xu
Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) contributes to the pathogenesis of many metabolic disorders. Here, we have analyzed the effect of the EED-nonylphenol (NP) on the promotion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats fed high sucrose-high fat diet (HSHFD). Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: controls fed a normal diet (C-ND); HSHFD-fed controls (C-HSHFD); and rats fed a HSHFD combined with NP at doses of 0.02 μg/kg/day (NP-L-HSHFD), 0.2 μg/kg/day (NP-M-HSHFD), and 2 μg/kg/day (NP-H-HSHFD)...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Martin Vanden Eede, Matthew Schroyens
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Late postpartum eclampsia is characterized by pre-eclampsia and tonic-clonic seizures presenting more than 48 hours postpartum. It is a rare, frightening and dangerous complication that requires rapid recognition and adequate treatment. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We present a case of late postpartum eclampsia, initially diagnosed as right-sided heart failure, 10 days postpartum.Two days after the delivery she developed mild swelling of both feet, progressive shortness of breath on exertion and orthopnea...
February 16, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Sana Syed, Tauseefullah Akhund, Fayyaz Umrani, Sheraz Ahmed, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Najeeb Rahman, Shahida Qureshi, Wenjun Xin, Jennie Z Ma, Molly Hughes, Syed Asad Ali
Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED), a syndrome characterized by chronic gut inflammation, contributes towards stunting and poor response to enteric vaccines in children in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated major putative biomarkers of EED using growth faltering as its clinical proxy. Newborns (n = 380) were enrolled and followed till 18 months with monthly anthropometry. Biomarkers associated with gut and systemic inflammation were assessed at 6 and 9 months. Linear mixed effects model was used to determine the associations of these biomarkers with growth faltering between birth and 18 months...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Coyle, S Kinsella, B Lenehan, J M Queally
BACKGROUND: As healthcare systems come under ever-increasing pressure to provide more care with fewer resources, emphasis is being placed on value-based systems that maximise quality and minimize cost. The aim of this study was to determine which interventions in fracture care have been demonstrated to be cost effective. METHODS: A systemic review of cost-utility studies on the management of fractures from 1976 to 2015 was carried out using a search of the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and MEDLINE...
January 31, 2018: Injury
Yuanyuan Li, Hui Zheng, Qiujun Wang, Chen Zhou, Lei Wei, Xuehui Liu, Wenhao Zhang, Yu Zhang, Zhenhai Du, Xiaowo Wang, Wei Xie
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that the majority of developmental genes are devoid of DNA methylation at promoters even when they are repressed. Such hypomethylated regions at developmental genes are unusually large and extend well beyond proximal promoters, forming DNA methylation valleys (DMVs) or DNA methylation canyons. However, it remains elusive how most developmental genes can evade DNA methylation regardless of their transcriptional states. RESULTS: We show that DMVs are hypomethylated in development and are highly conserved across vertebrates...
February 8, 2018: Genome Biology
Yong Jin Cho, Soo Hee Kim, Eun Kyung Kim, Jung Woo Han, Kyoo-Ho Shin, Hyuk Hu, Kyung Sik Kim, Young Deuk Choi, Sunghoon Kim, Young Han Lee, Jin-Suck Suh, Joong Bae Ahn, Hyun Cheol Chung, Sung Hoon Noh, Sun Young Rha, Sung-Taek Jung, Hyo Song Kim
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2; formed by EZH2, SUZ12, and EED protein subunits) and PRC1 (BMI1 protein) induce gene silencing through histone modification by H3K27me3. In the present study, we characterized the PRC expression pattern and its clinical implication in sarcoma. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed PRC expression in 105 sarcoma patients with 5 subtypes: synovial sarcoma (n = 18), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 28), Ewing sarcoma (n = 15), osteosarcoma (n = 30), and others (n = 14)...
February 7, 2018: BMC Cancer
Bin Sun, Eunhyuk Chang, Anna Gerhartl, Francis G Szele
The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) harbors neural stem cells (NSCs) that exhibit robust neurogenesis. However, the epigenetic mechanisms that maintain NSCs and regulate neurogenesis remain unclear. We report that label-retaining SVZ NSCs express Eed, the core component of Polycomb repressive complex 2. In vivo and in vitro conditional knockout and knockdown show Eed is necessary for maintaining NSC proliferation, neurogenesis and neurosphere formation. We discovered that Eed functions to maintain p21 protein levels in NSCs by repressing Gata6 transcription...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Robert Smigiel, Anna Biernacka, Mateusz Biela, Victor Murcia-Pienkowski, Elzbieta Szmida, Piotr Gasperowicz, Joanna Kosinska, Grazyna Kostrzewa, Agnieszka Anna Koppolu, Anna Walczak, Dominik Wawrzuta, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Malgorzata Sasiadek, Rafal Ploski
Overgrowth, macrocephaly, accelerated osseous maturation, variable intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features are the main symptoms of Weaver syndrome, a rare condition caused by mutations in EZH2 gene. Recently, in four patients with Weaver-like symptoms without mutations in EZH2 gene, pathogenic variants in EED were described. We present another patient clinically diagnosed with Weaver syndrome in whom WES revealed an EED de novo mutation affecting two neighboring aminoacids, NM_003797.3:c...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
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