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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146638/preventing-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-of-studies-of-cost-effectiveness-of-lifestyle-programmes-and-metformin-with-and-without-screening-for-pre-diabetes
#1
Samantha Roberts, Eleanor Barry, Dawn Craig, Mara Airoldi, Gwyn Bevan, Trisha Greenhalgh
OBJECTIVE: Explore the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions and metformin in reducing subsequent incidence of type 2 diabetes, both alone and in combination with a screening programme to identify high-risk individuals. DESIGN: Systematic review of economic evaluations. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Database searches (Embase, Medline, PreMedline, NHS EED) and citation tracking identified economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions or metformin alone or in combination with screening programmes in people at high risk of developing diabetes...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139480/position-paper-the-potential-role-of-optical-biopsy-in-the-study-and-diagnosis-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Alex J Thompson, Michael Hughes, Salzitsa Anastasova, Laurie S Conklin, Tudor Thomas, Cadman Leggett, William A Faubion, Thomas J Miller, Peter Delaney, François Lacombe, Sacha Loiseau, Alexander Meining, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Guillermo J Tearney, Paul Kelly, Guang-Zhong Yang
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a disease of the small intestine affecting children and adults in low and middle income countries. Arising as a consequence of repeated infections, gut inflammation results in impaired intestinal absorptive and barrier function, leading to poor nutrient uptake and ultimately to stunting and other developmental limitations. Progress towards new biomarkers and interventions for EED is hampered by the practical and ethical difficulties of cross-validation with the gold standard of biopsy and histology...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137925/polycomb-repression-complex-2-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-retinal-progenitor-cells-and-balanced-retinal-differentiation
#3
Naoko Fujimura, Andrea Kuzelova, Anja Ebert, Hynek Strnad, Jitka Lachova, Ondrej Machon, Meinrad Busslinger, Zbynek Kozmik
Polycomb repressive complexes maintain transcriptional repression of genes encoding crucial developmental regulators through chromatin modification. Here we investigated the role of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in retinal development by inactivating its key components Eed and Ezh2. Conditional deletion of Ezh2 resulted in a partial loss of PRC2 function and accelerated differentiation of Müller glial cells. In contrast, inactivation of Eed led to the ablation of PRC2 function at early postnatal stage...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118384/the-genomic-landscape-of-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors-diverse-drivers-of-ras-pathway-activation
#4
Andrew S Brohl, Elliot Kahen, Sean J Yoder, Jamie K Teer, Damon R Reed
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma. To more fully characterize the genomic landscape of this tumor type, we performed next generation sequencing studies for mutational and copy number analysis. We analyzed whole exome sequencing data from 12 MPNST and SNP arrays for a subset of these. We additionally conducted a literature review of prior next generation sequencing studies in this disease and compared to the current study. We report recurrent mutations in NF1, SUZ12, EED, TP53 and CDKN2A in our study cohort...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113931/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-a-transgenic-model-of-breast-cancer
#5
Gordon Winocur, Hal Berman, Mary Nguyen, Malcolm A Binns, Mark Henkelman, Matthijs van Eede, Micheline Piquette-Miller, Melanie J Sekeres, J Martin Wojtowicz, Johnson Yu, Haibo Zhang, Ian F Tannock
Animal studies have reinforced clinical reports of cognitive impairment in cancer survivors following chemotherapy but, until now, all pre-clinical research in this area has been conducted on normal rodents. The present study investigated the effects of chemotherapy on cognition and underlying biological mechanisms in the FVB/N-Tg (MMTV-neu) 202 Mul/J mouse, a well-characterized transgenic model of breast cancer that has similarities to the tumorigenesis which occurs in humans. Tumor-bearing and control mice received three weekly injections of a combination of methotrexate + 5-fluorouracil, or an equal volume of saline...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110675/lactoferrin-and-lysozyme-to-reduce-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-stunting-in-malawian-children-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
William D Cheng, Karl J Wold, Nicole S Benzoni, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Indi Trehan
BACKGROUND: Chronic childhood malnutrition, as manifested by stunted linear growth, remains a persistent barrier to optimal child growth and societal development. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a significant underlying factor in the causal pathway to stunting, delayed cognitive development, and ultimately morbidity and mortality. Effective therapies against EED and stunting are lacking and further clinical trials are warranted to effectively identify and operationalize interventions...
November 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092882/complementary-feeding-with-cowpea-reduces-growth-faltering-in-rural-malawian-infants-a-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Kevin B Stephenson, Sophia E Agapova, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED).Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend.Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068068/late-stage-nodular-erythema-elevatum-diutinum-mimicking-sclerotic-fibroma
#8
Kevin Y Shi, Travis Vandergriff
Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a rare, cutaneous vasculitis of uncertain origins. EED can present clinically as chronic bilateral, symmetrical, periarticular papules, plaques, and nodules. We report here an unusual case of EED presenting as multiple, densely fibrosing nodules on the feet of a 60 year-old HIV positive woman. The initial evaluation of the patient was complicated by the strong histologic resemblance of multiple lesions to sclerotic fibroma (SF), a cutaneous manifestation of Cowden disease...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052503/intensive-follow-up-for-women-with-breast-cancer-review-of-clinical-economic-and-patient-s-preference-domains-through-evidence-to-decision-framework
#9
Alessandra Lafranconi, Liisa Pylkkänen, Silvia Deandrea, Anke Bramesfeld, Donata Lerda, Luciana Neamțiu, Zuleika Saz-Parkinson, Margarita Posso, David Rigau, Ivan Sola, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Maria José Martinez-Zapata
BACKGROUND: Women treated for breast cancer are followed-up for monitoring of treatment effectiveness and for detecting recurrences at an early stage. The type of follow-up received may affect women's reassurance and impact on their quality of life. Anxiety and depression among women with breast cancer has been described, but little is known about how the intensity of the follow-up can affect women's psychological status. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intensive vs...
October 19, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026209/wd40-repeat-domain-proteins-a-novel-target-class
#10
REVIEW
Matthieu Schapira, Mike Tyers, Maricel Torrent, Cheryl H Arrowsmith
Antagonism of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with small molecules is becoming more feasible as a therapeutic approach. Successful PPI inhibitors tend to target proteins containing deep peptide-binding grooves or pockets rather than the more common large, flat protein interaction surfaces. Here, we review one of the most abundant PPI domains in the human proteome, the WD40 repeat (WDR) domain, which has a central peptide-binding pocket and is a member of the β-propeller domain-containing protein family...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025198/foam-dressings-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#11
REVIEW
Rachel M Walker, Brigid M Gillespie, Lukman Thalib, Niall S Higgins, Jennifer A Whitty
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure injuries and bed sores, are localised areas of injury to the skin or underlying tissues, or both. Dressings made from a variety of materials, including foam, are used to treat pressure ulcers. An evidence-based overview of dressings for pressure ulcers is needed to enable informed decision-making on dressing use. This review is part of a suite of Cochrane Reviews investigating the use of dressings in the treatment of pressure ulcers...
October 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016294/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-a-case-definition-for-intervention-trials
#12
Donna M Denno, Phillip I Tarr, James P Nataro
Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) was first described as a malabsorption syndrome with small intestinal villous flattening among healthy adults in Thailand and other low-resource settings.(1-4) A similar entity was described in Peace Corps volunteers in South Asia.(5,6) Several years later, resolution of histopathology and malabsorption after repatriation or immigration to North America was demonstrated.(7,8).
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992490/does-the-presence-of-caffeine-in-the-marine-environment-represent-an-environmental-risk-a-regional-and-global-study
#13
Raquel Dafouz, Neus Cáceres, José Luis Rodríguez-Gil, Nicola Mastroianni, Miren López de Alda, Damià Barceló, Ángel Gil de Miguel, Yolanda Valcárcel
Caffeine is an emerging contaminant considered to be an indicator of human contamination that has been widely detected in various aquatic systems, especially in continental waters. Nevertheless, the extent of its possible environmental impact is yet to be determined. This study determined the presence of caffeine, and evaluated the environmental hazard posed by this substance, in the "Rías Gallegas", a series of costal inlets in north-west Spain which are of great ecological value and in which fishing and bivalve farming, are a significant source of income...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991421/worth-the-wait-the-effect-of-early-term-birth-on-maternal-and-infant-health
#14
Kasey Buckles, Melanie Guldi
Early term birth is defined as birth at 37 or 38 weeks gestation. While infants born early term are not considered premature, the medical literature suggests that they have an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes compared to infants born at term (39 or 40 weeks). Despite these known harms, we document a rise in early term births in the United States from 1989 to the mid-2000s, followed by a decline in recent years. We posit that the recent decline in early term births has been driven by changes in medical practice advocated by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, programs such as the March of Dimes’ "Worth the Wait" campaign, and by Medicaid policy...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972500/-the-determination-of-effective-equivalent-doses-during-chest-radiology-in-patients
#15
K Murjikneli, S Rodonaia, L Lomtadze, T Darsania, M Kajrishvili
As is known, medical radiation has a big impact on the increase of population doses, which determines the risk of increasing population's radiation. Thus, it is relevant the determination of the radiation doses in patients during X-ray diagnostic procedures up to now. The aim of our research is the examination of the effective equivalent doses and their determination during X-ray. Due to the experimental modeling method by using phantom and TLD it has been determined average absorbed doses in separate organs of patients, also the effective equivalent dose during chest organs radiology, which is 122 mrem...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957764/global-scanning-assessment-of-calcium-channel-blockers-in-the-environment-review-and-analysis-of-occurrence-ecotoxicology-and-hazards-in-aquatic-systems
#16
REVIEW
Gavin N Saari, W Casan Scott, Bryan W Brooks
As an urban water cycle is increasingly realized, aquatic systems are influenced by sewage and wastewater effluent discharges of variable quality. Such urbanization results in exposures of non-target aquatic organisms to medicines and other contaminants. In the present study, we performed a unique global hazard assessment of calcium channel blockers (CCB) in multiple environmental matrices. Effluent and freshwater observations were primarily from North America (62% and 76%, respectively) and Europe (21% and 10%, respectively) with limited-to-no information from rapidly urbanizing regions of developing countries in Asia-Pacific, South America, and Africa...
September 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926243/are-we-there-yet-applying-thermodynamic-and-kinetic-profiling-on-embryonic-ectoderm-development-eed-hit-to-lead-program
#17
Ying Wang, Rohinton P Edalji, Sanjay C Panchal, Chaohong Sun, Stevan W Djuric, Anil Vasudevan
It is advocated that kinetic and thermodynamic profiling of bioactive compounds should be incorporated and utilized as complementary tools for hit and lead optimizations in drug discovery. To assess their applications in the EED hit-to-lead optimization process, large amount of thermodynamic and kinetic data were collected and analyzed via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), respectively. Slower dissociation rates (koff) of the lead compounds were observed as the program progressed...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899895/biomechanical-and-hemodynamic-measures-of-right-ventricular-diastolic-function-translating-tissue-biomechanics-to-clinical-relevance
#18
Sae Jang, Rebecca R Vanderpool, Reza Avazmohammadi, Eugene Lapshin, Timothy N Bachman, Michael Sacks, Marc A Simon
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function has been associated with outcomes for patients with pulmonary hypertension; however, the relationship between biomechanics and hemodynamics in the right ventricle has not been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat models of RV pressure overload were obtained via pulmonary artery banding (PAB; control, n=7; PAB, n=5). At 3 weeks after banding, RV hemodynamics were measured using a conductance catheter. Biaxial mechanical properties of the RV free wall myocardium were obtained to extrapolate longitudinal and circumferential elastic modulus in low and high strain regions (E1 and E2, respectively)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898989/role-of-histone-h3k27-trimethylation-loss-as-a-marker-for-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-in-fine-needle-aspiration-and-small-biopsy-specimens
#19
Jeffrey K Mito, Xiaohua Qian, Leona A Doyle, Jason L Hornick, Vickie Y Jo
Objectives: Accurate diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is often challenging on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or core needle biopsy. Recurrent mutations in EED and SUZ12, which encode subunits of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), have been identified in 70% to 92% of MPNSTs; PRC2 inactivation leads to loss of trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). We evaluated the utility of H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry for distinguishing MPNST from its cytomorphologic mimics...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892846/caffeine-and-paraxanthine-in-aquatic-systems-global-exposure-distributions-and-probabilistic-risk-assessment
#20
J L Rodríguez-Gil, N Cáceres, R Dafouz, Y Valcárcel
This study presents one of the most complete applications of probabilistic methodologies to the risk assessment of emerging contaminants. Perhaps the most data-rich of these compounds, caffeine, as well as its main metabolite (paraxanthine), were selected for this study. Information for a total of 29,132 individual caffeine and 7442 paraxanthine samples was compiled, including samples where the compounds were not detected. The inclusion of non-detect samples (as censored data) in the estimation of environmental exposure distributions (EEDs) allowed for a realistic characterization of the global presence of these compounds in aquatic systems...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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