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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454437/polycomb-group-expression-signatures-in-the-malignant-progression-of-gliomas
#1
Qi Hu, Weining Wu, Ailiang Zeng, Tianfu Yu, Feng Shen, Er Nie, Yingyi Wang, Ning Liu, Junxia Zhang, Yongping You
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form at least two key complexes, namely polycomb repressive complex 1 and polycomb repressive complex 2. These complexes are involved in the progression of various cancers. Systematic research has not been conducted on the aberrant expression of PcG members in gliomas. Using the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas data set, PcG expression patterns between normal brain tissues and glioma samples were analyzed, and a PcG-based classifier was then developed using BRB Cox regression and risk-score model...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454227/chromobox-homolog-2-protein-a-novel-biomarker-for-predicting-prognosis-and-taxol-sensitivity-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#2
Wang Yang Chen, Xian Yu Zhang, Tong Liu, Yang Liu, Ya Shuang Zhao, Da Pang
Polycomb group (PcG) complexes modify histones to silence tumor suppressor genes, which exhibit an important function in tumorigenesis and progression. The chromobox (Cbx) protein family is a critical component of PcG-mediated repression. Cbx2, a member of the Cbx protein family, is hypothesized to exhibit a vital role in breast cancer. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarrays was performed to determine the levels of Cbx2 protein expression in breast cancer. The association between Cbx2 expression and the clinical features and prognosis of 455 breast cancer patients was analyzed...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451301/room-temperature-decarboxylative-cyanation-of-carboxylic-acids-using-photoredox-catalysis-and-cyanobenziodoxolones-a-divergent-mechanism-compared-to-alkynylation
#3
Franck Le Vaillant, Matthew D Wodrich, Jérôme Waser
The one-step conversion of aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding nitriles has been accomplished via the merger of visible light mediated photoredox and cyanobenziodoxolones (CBX) reagents. The reaction proceeded in high yields with natural and non-natural α-amino and α-oxy acids, affording a broad scope of nitriles with excellent tolerance of the substituents in the α position. The direct cyanation of dipeptides and drug precursors was also achieved. The mechanism of the decarboxylative cyanation was investigated both computationally and experimentally and compared with the previously developed alkynylation reaction...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425985/the-cellular-senescence-of-leukemia-initiating-cells-from-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-is-postponed-by-%C3%AE-arrestin1-binding-with-p300-sp1-to-regulate-htert-transcription
#4
Shan Liu, Haiyan Liu, Ru Qin, Yi Shu, Zhidai Liu, Penghui Zhang, Caiwen Duan, Dengli Hong, Jie Yu, Lin Zou
Although we previously reported that the self-renewal of leukemia-initiating cells of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL LICs) was regulated by β-Arrestin1, a multiple-function protein, the cellular senescence is critical for LICs fate and leukemia progress, and worthy for further investigation. Here we found that depletion of β-Arrestin1 extended the population doubling time and the percentage of senile cells, the signatures of cellular senescence, of B-ALL LICs. Moreover, lack of β-Arrestin1 enhanced the expression of proteins (CBX, HIRA) and genes (P53, P16) related to senescence in leukemic Reh cells and B-ALL-LICs-derived leukemic mice...
April 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401401/modulation-of-tonic-gaba-currents-by-anion-channel-and-connexin-hemichannel-antagonists
#5
Christopher B Ransom, Zucheng Ye, William J Spain, George B Richerson
Anion channels and connexin hemichannels are permeable to amino acid neurotransmitters. It is hypothesized that these conductive pathways release GABA, thereby influencing ambient GABA levels and tonic GABAergic inhibition. To investigate this, we measured the effects of anion channel/hemichannel antagonists on tonic GABA currents of rat hippocampal neurons. In contrast to predictions, blockade of anion channels and hemichannels with NPPB potentiated tonic GABA currents of neurons in culture and acute hippocampal slices...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390472/pannexin-channels-increase-propidium-iodide-permeability-in-frozen-thawed-dog-spermatozoa
#6
J L Torres, J Palomino, R D Moreno, M De Los Reyes
Pannexins (Panx) are proteins that form functional single membrane channels, but they have not yet been described in dogs. The aim of the present study was to detect Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3 in frozen-thawed dog spermatozoa using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses, evaluating the relationship of these proteins with propidium iodide (PI) in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Fresh and frozen-thawed dog spermatozoa from eight dogs were preincubated with 3μM PI with or without 15μM carbenoxolone (CBX) or 1mM probenecid (PBD), two Panx channel inhibitors, and then incubated with rabbit anti-Panx1, anti-Panx2 and anti-Panx3 antibodies (1:200)...
April 10, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293301/histone-peptide-microarray-screen-of-chromo-and-tudor-domains-defines-new-histone-lysine-methylation-interactions
#7
Erin K Shanle, Stephen A Shinsky, Joseph B Bridgers, Narkhyun Bae, Cari Sagum, Krzysztof Krajewski, Scott B Rothbart, Mark T Bedford, Brian D Strahl
BACKGROUND: Histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) function to regulate chromatin structure and function in part through the recruitment of effector proteins that harbor specialized "reader" domains. Despite efforts to elucidate reader domain-PTM interactions, the influence of neighboring PTMs and the target specificity of many reader domains is still unclear. The aim of this study was to use a high-throughput histone peptide microarray platform to interrogate 83 known and putative histone reader domains from the chromo and Tudor domain families to identify their interactions and characterize the influence of neighboring PTMs on these interactions...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244642/carbenoxolone-inhibits-trpv4-channel-initiated-oxidative-urothelial-injury-and-ameliorates-cyclophosphamide-induced-bladder-dysfunction
#8
Xiling Zhang, Shan Gao, Masayoshi Tanaka, Zhen Zhang, Yanru Huang, Takahiko Mitsui, Manabu Kamiyama, Schuichi Koizumi, Jianglin Fan, Masayuki Takeda, Jian Yao
Carbenoxolone (CBX) is a clinically prescribed drug for the treatment of digestive ulcer and inflammation. It is also a widely used pharmacological inhibitor of several channels in basic research. Given that the overactivity of several channels, including those inhibitable by CBX, underlies bladder dysfunction, we tested the potential therapeutic application and mechanism of CBX in the treatment of voiding dysfunction. In a mouse model of cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP), CBX administration prevented the CYP-elicited increase in bladder weight, oedema, haemorrhage, and urothelial injury...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177370/fermentation-products-as-feed-additives-mitigate-some-ill-effects-of-heat-stress-in-pigs
#9
S Kumar, B E Bass, M Bandrick, C L Loving, S L Brockmeier, T Looft, J Trachsel, D M Madson, M Thomas, T A Casey, J W Frank, T B Stanton, H K Allen
Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132772/profiling-of-human-epigenetic-regulators-using-a-semi-automated-real-time-qpcr-platform-validated-by-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Amel Dudakovic, Martina Gluscevic, Christopher R Paradise, Halil Dudakovic, Farzaneh Khani, Roman Thaler, Farah S Ahmed, Xiaodong Li, Allan B Dietz, Gary S Stein, Martin A Montecino, David R Deyle, Jennifer J Westendorf, Andre J van Wijnen
Epigenetic mechanisms control phenotypic commitment of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) into osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic lineages. To investigate enzymes and chromatin binding proteins controlling the epigenome, we developed a hybrid expression screening strategy that combines semi-automated real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR), next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and a novel data management application (FileMerge). This strategy was used to interrogate expression of a large cohort (n>300) of human epigenetic regulators (EpiRegs) that generate, interpret and/or edit the histone code...
April 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122351/cbx6-overexpression-contributes-to-tumor-progression-and-is-predictive-of-a-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Hao Zheng, Wei-Hua Jiang, Tao Tian, Hai-Song Tan, Ying Chen, Guang-Lei Qiao, Jun Han, Sheng-Yu Huang, Yuan Yang, Shuai Li, Zhen-Guang Wang, Rong Gao, Hao Ren, Hao Xing, Jun-Sheng Ni, Lin-Hui Wang, Li-Jun Ma, Wei-Ping Zhou
Aberrant chromobox (CBX) family protein expression has been reported in a variety of human malignancies. However, the role of CBX6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and patient prognosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that CBX6 was frequently up-regulated in HCC clinical samples and HCC cell lines and that CBX6 expression was significantly correlated with larger tumor sizes (≥ 5 cm, p = 0.011) and multiple tumors (n ≥ 2, p = 0.018). Survival analyses indicated that patients with higher CBX6 expression levels had significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients with lower CBX6 expression levels, and multivariate analyses confirmed that increased CBX6 expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for HCC patients...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115483/gap-junction-mediated-signaling-from-motor-neurons-regulates-motor-generation-in-the-central-circuits-of-larval-drosophila
#12
Teruyuki Matsunaga, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Akinao Nose
In this study, we used the peristaltic crawling of Drosophila larvae as a model to study how motor patterns are regulated by central circuits. We built an experimental system that allows simultaneous application of optogenetics and calcium imaging to the isolated ventral nerve cord (VNC). We then investigated the effects of manipulating local activity of motor neurons (MNs) on fictive locomotion observed as waves of MN activity propagating along neuromeres. Optical inhibition of MNs with halorhodopsin3 (NpHR3) in a middle segment (A4, A5 or A6), but not other segments, dramatically decreased the frequency of the motor waves...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065778/protective-effects-of-tongxinluo-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-related-to-connexin-43-calpain-ii-bax-caspase-3-pathway-in-rat
#13
Xiao Cheng, Zijun Hou, Jingbo Sun, Yan Huang, Lixin Wang, Ziyi Zhou, Li-Hua Zhou, Yefeng Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL) is a multifunctional traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Numerous studies demonstrate that TXL is a novel neuroprotective drug, however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: we aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of TXL on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and provide the evidence for the involvement of Connexin 43/Calpain II/ Bax/Caspase-3 pathway in TXL-mediated neuroprotection...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018136/cbx-chromodomain-inhibition-enhances-chemotherapy-response-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#14
Katelyn E Connelly, Emily C Martin, Emily C Dykhuizen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) lacks effective therapeutic options leaving patients with a survival time of approximately one year. Recently, the alteration of chromatin modulators has been implicated in the pathogenesis and chemoresistance of numerous cancers; in particular, the Polycomb Group Proteins have been shown to play a role in glioblastoma progression and maintenance [1-5]. In this study, we aimed to identify drug combinations that decrease GBM cell viability by combining small molecule inhibitors against the Polycomb family with two standard chemotherapies...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007587/astrocytic-gap-junction-blockade-markedly-increases-extracellular-potassium-without-causing-seizures-in-the-mouse-neocortex
#15
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Iliya Weisspapir, Bojana Stefanovic, Luc Leybaert, Peter L Carlen
Extracellular potassium concentration, [K(+)]o, is a major determinant of neuronal excitability. In the healthy brain, [K(+)]o levels are tightly controlled. During seizures, [K(+)]o increases up to 15mM and is thought to cause seizures due to its depolarizing effect. Although astrocytes have been suggested to play a key role in the redistribution (or spatial buffering) of excess K(+) through Connexin-43 (Cx43)-based Gap Junctions (GJs), the relation between this dynamic regulatory process and seizure generation remains unknown...
May 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986088/designing-and-screening-of-universal-drug-from-neem-azadirachta-indica-and-standard-drug-chemicals-against-influenza-virus-nucleoprotein
#16
Aftab Ahmad, Muhammad Rizwan Javed, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Tayyab Husnain
BACKGROUND: Different strains of influenza virus are affecting a large number of people worldwide. Many synthetic antiviral medicines are available for influenza virus in the market. But still there is a need for the development of universal drugs against these strains of influenza virus. METHODS: For this purpose conserved residues within the influenza virus nucleoprotein have been retrieved. The drugs, previously known to have antiviral properties, were screened to identify the best candidate universal drug against Influenza virus strains...
December 16, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881333/-role-of-pannexin-1-channels-in-cisplatin-induced-apoptosis-in-i-10-cells
#17
Jian-Feng Wu, Shu-Ying Dong, Dan-Dan Wu, Yin-Ling Chen, Xu-Hui Tong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of pannexin 1 channels in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in I-10 cells and the mechanisms. METHODS: MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (DDP) in I-10 cells. Annexin V/PI double staining and Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining were employed to detect early- and late-stage apoptosis of the cells, respectively. Extracellular ATP level and intracellular IP3 level in the cells were detected using commercial detection kits...
November 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864346/cbx4-suppresses-metastasis-via-recruitment-of-hdac3-to-the-runx2-promoter-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#18
Xin Wang, Liping Li, Yuanzhong Wu, Ruhua Zhang, Meifang Zhang, Dan Liao, Gang Wang, Ge Qin, Rui-Hua Xu, Tiebang Kang
Polycomb chromobox (CBX) proteins participate in the polycomb repressive complex (PRC1) that mediates epigenetic gene silencing and endows PRC1 with distinct oncogenic or tumor suppressor functions in a cell-type-dependent manner. In this study, we report that inhibition of cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma requires CBX4-mediated repression of Runx2, a key transcription factor that promotes colorectal carcinoma metastasis. CBX4 inversely correlated with Runx2 expression in colorectal carcinoma tissues, and the combination of high CBX4 expression and low Runx2 expression significantly correlated with overall survival, more so than either CBX4 or Runx2 expression alone...
December 15, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824928/carbenoxolone-disodium-treatment-for-canine-pituitary-dependent-hyperadrenocorticism
#19
Takahiro Teshima, Hirotaka Matsumoto, Tomoko Okusa, Rion Uchiyama, Hidekazu Koyama
Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is mainly caused by pituitary corticotroph tumors in dogs. A characteristic feature of corticotroph tumors is their resistance to negative feedback by glucocorticoids. In some animal species, including dogs, the aberrant expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD), a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is observed in corticotroph tumors. We previously reported that carbenoxolone (CBX), an inhibitor of 11HSD, suppressed ACTH secretion from the pituitary gland, and decreased cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792814/glycyrrhizin-reduces-hmgb1-and-bacterial-load-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis
#20
Sandamali A Ekanayaka, Sharon A McClellan, Ronald P Barrett, Shikhil Kharotia, Linda D Hazlett
Purpose: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) contributes to poor disease outcome in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. This study tests the prophylactic effect of treatment with HMGB1 inhibitors, glycyrrhizin (GLY) and its derivative, carbenoxolone (CBX), for Pseudomonas keratitis. Methods: We treated C57BL/6 (B6) mice subconjunctivally with GLY or CBX, infected with a noncytotoxic clinical isolate (KEI 1025) or a cytotoxic strain (ATCC 19660) of P. aeruginosa, and injected intraperitoneally with either agent...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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