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Jesper Brink Svendsen, Bo Baslund, Elisabeth Præstekjær Cramer, Nicolas Rapin, Niels Borregaard, Jack Bernard Cowland
Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 3 (JMJD3)/lysine demethylase 6B (KDM6B) is an epigenetic modulator that removes repressive histone marks on genes. Expression of KDM6B mRNA is elevated in leukocytes from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and has been suggested to be the reason for higher proteinase 3 (PR3) mRNA expression in these cells due to derepression of PRTN3 gene transcription. MicroRNA-941 (miR-941) has been shown to target KDM6B mRNA and inhibit JMJD3 production. We therefore investigated whether polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) from patients suffering from granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) have lower expression of miR-941 than healthy control donors as a biological cause for higher JMJD3 levels...
2016: PloS One
Rohit Mathur, Lalit Sehgal, Ondrej Havranek, Stefan Köhrer, Tamer Khashab, Neeraj Jain, Jan A Burger, Sattva S Neelapu, R Eric Davis, Felipe Samaniego
Histone methylation and demethylation regulates B-cell development, and their deregulation correlates with tumor chemoresistance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, limiting curative rates. Since histone methylation status correlates with disease aggressiveness and relapse, we investigated the therapeutic potential of inhibiting histone 3 Lys27 demethylase KDM6B, in-vitro, using the small molecule inhibitor GSK-J4. KDM6B is overexpressed in the DLBCL germinal center B-cell subtype, and higher KDM6B levels are associated with worse survival in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP...
October 14, 2016: Haematologica
Min Pan, Michael A Reid, Xazmin H Lowman, Rajan P Kulkarni, Thai Q Tran, Xiaojing Liu, Ying Yang, Jenny E Hernandez-Davies, Kimberly K Rosales, Haiqing Li, Willy Hugo, Chunying Song, Xiangdong Xu, Dustin E Schones, David K Ann, Viviana Gradinaru, Roger S Lo, Jason W Locasale, Mei Kong
Poorly organized tumour vasculature often results in areas of limited nutrient supply and hypoxia. Despite our understanding of solid tumour responses to hypoxia, how nutrient deprivation regionally affects tumour growth and therapeutic response is poorly understood. Here, we show that the core region of solid tumours displayed glutamine deficiency compared with other amino acids. Low glutamine in tumour core regions led to dramatic histone hypermethylation due to decreased α-ketoglutarate levels, a key cofactor for the Jumonji-domain-containing histone demethylases...
October 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Arcangela G Manente, Giulia Pinton, Sara Zonca, Daniela Tavian, Tanwir Habib, Puthen V Jithesh, Dean Fennell, Stefan Nilsson, Laura Moro
AIM: To assess the correlation between KDM6B and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MATERIALS & METHODS: We evaluated gene expression by in silico analysis of microarray data, real-time PCR and western blot in MPM tumors and cell lines. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: We report a strong positive correlation between the expression of KDM6B and ERβ in MPM tumors and cell lines. We describe that, in hypoxia, the HIF2α-KDM6B axis induces an epithelioid morphology and ERβ expression in biphasic MPM cells with estrogen receptor-negative phenotype...
September 2016: Epigenomics
M K Kang, S Mehrazarin, N-H Park, C-Y Wang
Histone N-terminal tails of nucleosomes are the sites of complex regulation of gene expression through post-translational modifications. Among these modifications, histone methylation had long been associated with permanent gene inactivation until the discovery of Lys-specific demethylase (LSD1), which is responsible for dynamic gene regulation. There are more than 30 members of the Lys demethylase (KDM) family, and with exception of LSD1 and LSD2, all other KDMs possess the Jumonji C (JmjC) domain exhibiting demethylase activity and require unique cofactors, for example, Fe(II) and α-ketoglutarate...
August 11, 2016: Oral Diseases
Zhan Gang Xiao, Jing Shen, Lin Zhang, Long Fei Li, Ming Xing Li, Wei Hu, Zhi Jie Li, Chi Hin Cho
Aberrant epigenetic reprogramming occurs frequently in the development of tumors. Histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) exerts a repressive epigenetic mark on a large number of genes. UTX and JMJD3 are the only two histone demethylases which activate gene expression via demethylating H3K27me3 to H3K27me2 or H3K27me1. Current studies show that dysregulation of these two proteins are heavily linked to oncogenesis in various tissue types. Accumulating evidence suggested that there is remarkable therapeutic potential of targeting JMJD3 or UTX in different types of cancer...
July 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Michael Hoang, Jeffrey J Kim, Yiyoung Kim, Elizabeth Tong, Benjamin Trammell, Yao Liu, Songtao Shi, Chang-Ryul Lee, Christine Hong, Cun-Yu Wang, Yong Kim
Epigenetic changes, such as alteration of DNA methylation patterns, have been proposed as a molecular mechanism underlying the effect of alcohol on the maintenance of adult stem cells. We have performed genome-wide gene expression microarray and DNA methylome analysis to identify molecular alterations via DNA methylation changes associated with exposure of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to ethanol (EtOH). By combined analysis of the gene expression and DNA methylation, we have found a significant number of genes that are potentially regulated by EtOH-induced DNA methylation...
July 2016: Stem Cell Research
Molly Gale, Joyce Sayegh, Jian Cao, Michael Norcia, Peter Gareiss, Denton Hoyer, Jane S Merkel, Qin Yan
Lysine demethylase 5A (KDM5A/RBP2/JARID1A) is a histone lysine demethylase that is overexpressed in several human cancers including lung, gastric, breast and liver cancers. It plays key roles in important cancer processes including tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug tolerance, making it a potential cancer therapeutic target. Chemical tools to analyze KDM5A demethylase activity are extremely limited as available inhibitors are not specific for KDM5A. Here, we characterized KDM5A using a homogeneous luminescence-based assay and conducted a screen of about 9,000 small molecules for inhibitors...
May 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Catrine Johansson, Srikannathasan Velupillai, Anthony Tumber, Aleksandra Szykowska, Edward S Hookway, Radoslaw P Nowak, Claire Strain-Damerell, Carina Gileadi, Martin Philpott, Nicola Burgess-Brown, Na Wu, Jola Kopec, Andrea Nuzzi, Holger Steuber, Ursula Egner, Volker Badock, Shonagh Munro, Nicholas B LaThangue, Sue Westaway, Jack Brown, Nick Athanasou, Rab Prinjha, Paul E Brennan, Udo Oppermann
Members of the KDM5 (also known as JARID1) family are 2-oxoglutarate- and Fe(2+)-dependent oxygenases that act as histone H3K4 demethylases, thereby regulating cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Here we report crystal structures of the catalytic core of the human KDM5B enzyme in complex with three inhibitor chemotypes. These scaffolds exploit several aspects of the KDM5 active site, and their selectivity profiles reflect their hybrid features with respect to the KDM4 and KDM6 families...
July 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Elizabeth Margolskee, Vaidehi Jobanputra, Preti Jain, Jinli Chen, Karthik Ganapathi, Odelia Nahum, Brynn Levy, Julie Morscio, Vundavalli Murty, Thomas Tousseyn, Bachir Alobeid, Mahesh Mansukhani, Govind Bhagat
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T- or NK-cell origin (T/NK-PTLD) are rare entities and their genetic basis is unclear. We performed targeted sequencing of 465 cancer-related genes and high-resolution copy number analysis in 17 T-PTLD and 2 NK-PTLD cases. Overall, 377 variants were detected, with an average of 20 variants per case. Mutations of epigenetic modifier genes (TET2, KMT2C, KMT2D, DNMT3A, ARID1B, ARID2, KDM6B, n=11). and inactivation of TP53 by mutation and/or deletion(n=6) were the most frequent alterations, seen across disease subtypes, followed by mutations of JAK/STAT pathway genes (n=5)...
May 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Sarah Hemming, Dimitrios Cakouros, Kate Vandyke, Melissa J Davis, Andrew C W Zannettino, Stan Gronthos
Histone three lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a critical epigenetic modifier, which regulates gene transcription through the trimethylation of the H3K27 residue leading to chromatin compaction and gene repression. EZH2 has previously been identified to regulate human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) lineage specification. MSC lineage specification is regulated by the presence of EZH2 and its H3K27me3 modification or the removal of the H3K27 modification by lysine demethylases 6A and 6B (KDM6A and KDM6B)...
June 15, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Jianhong Tang, Zhiyan Zhang, Bin Yang, Yuanmei Guo, Huashui Ai, Yi Long, Ying Su, Leilei Cui, Liyu Zhou, Xiaopeng Wang, Hui Zhang, Chengbin Wang, Jun Ren, Lusheng Huang, Nengshui Ding
Teat number is an important reproductive trait that affect the productive efficiency of the pig industry. To date, the genetic mechanisms underlying variation in pig teat number remain poorly understood. Here, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for teat number on three pig populations, including a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population (n = 1743), a Chinese Erhualian pig population (n = 320) and a Chinese Sutai pig population (n = 383). In total, we detected 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that surpassed the genome-wide significant level on Sus Scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 1, 7 and 12 in the F2 resource population, corresponding to four loci for pig teat number...
April 22, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
Hypoxia is an environmental stress at high altitude and underground conditions but it is also present in many chronic age-related diseases, where blood flow into tissues is impaired. The oxygen-sensing system stimulates gene expression protecting tissues against hypoxic insults. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to e.g. enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. Moreover, many stress-related signaling mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and energy metabolic disturbances, as well as the signaling cascades via ceramide, mTOR, NF-κB, and TGF-β pathways, can also induce the expression of HIF-1α protein to facilitate cell survival in normoxia...
March 2016: Aging and Disease
Monica Cabrero, Yue Wei, Hui Yang, Irene Ganan-Gomez, Zach Bohannan, Simona Colla, Matteo Marchesini, Guillermo Montalban Bravo, Koichi Takahashi, Carlos Bueso-Ramos, Guillermo Garcia-Manero
EZH2 genetic mutations are common in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which implies that this gene has a pathophysiological role in the disease. To further characterize molecular alterations of EZH2, and their potential prognostic impact in MDS, we assessed EZH2 RNA expression in primary bone marrow CD34+ cells from 78 patients. We found that 47% of patients have reduced EZH2 expression compared to normal controls. Further analyses revealed that EZH2 is significantly underexpressed in patients bearing chromosome 7 or 7q deletions (7-alt) when compared to controls, diploid patients, and patients with other cytogenetic alterations (p<0...
May 2016: Leukemia Research
Patrick M Perrigue, Joseph Najbauer, Jan Barciszewski
Cellular senescence is defined by an irreversible growth arrest and is an important biological mechanism for suppression of tumor formation. Although deletion/mutation to DNA sequences is one mechanism by which cancer cells can escape senescence, little is known about the epigenetic factors contributing to this process. Histone modifications and chromatin remodeling related to the function of a histone demethylase, jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (JMJD3; also known as KDM6B), play an important role in development, tissue regeneration, stem cells, inflammation, and cellular senescence and aging...
April 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alan S L Wong, Gigi C G Choi, Cheryl H Cui, Gabriela Pregernig, Pamela Milani, Miriam Adam, Samuel D Perli, Samuel W Kazer, Aleth Gaillard, Mario Hermann, Alex K Shalek, Ernest Fraenkel, Timothy K Lu
The orchestrated action of genes controls complex biological phenotypes, yet the systematic discovery of gene and drug combinations that modulate these phenotypes in human cells is labor intensive and challenging to scale. Here, we created a platform for the massively parallel screening of barcoded combinatorial gene perturbations in human cells and translated these hits into effective drug combinations. This technology leverages the simplicity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for multiplexed targeting of specific genomic loci and the versatility of combinatorial genetics en masse (CombiGEM) to rapidly assemble barcoded combinatorial genetic libraries that can be tracked with high-throughput sequencing...
March 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ryohei Yatsu, Shinichi Miyagawa, Satomi Kohno, Benjamin B Parrott, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Yukiko Ogino, Hitoshi Miyakawa, Russell H Lowers, Shuji Shigenobu, Louis J Guillette, Taisen Iguchi
BACKGROUND: The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) displays temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), in which incubation temperature during embryonic development determines the sexual fate of the individual. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this process remain a mystery, including the influence of initial environmental temperature on the comprehensive gonadal gene expression patterns occurring during TSD. RESULTS: Our characterization of transcriptomes during alligator TSD allowed us to identify novel candidate genes involved in TSD initiation...
2016: BMC Genomics
Susan M Westaway, Alex G S Preston, Michael D Barker, Fiona Brown, Jack A Brown, Matthew Campbell, Chun-Wa Chung, Hawa Diallo, Clement Douault, Gerard Drewes, Robert Eagle, Laurie Gordon, Carl Haslam, Thomas G Hayhow, Philip G Humphreys, Gerard Joberty, Roy Katso, Laurens Kruidenier, Melanie Leveridge, John Liddle, Julie Mosley, Marcel Muelbaier, Rebecca Randle, Inma Rioja, Anne Rueger, Gail A Seal, Robert J Sheppard, Onkar Singh, Joanna Taylor, Pamela Thomas, Douglas Thomson, David M Wilson, Kevin Lee, Rab K Prinjha
Optimization of KDM6B (JMJD3) HTS hit 12 led to the identification of 3-((furan-2-ylmethyl)amino)pyridine-4-carboxylic acid 34 and 3-(((3-methylthiophen-2-yl)methyl)amino)pyridine-4-carboxylic acid 39 that are inhibitors of the KDM4 (JMJD2) family of histone lysine demethylases. Compounds 34 and 39 possess activity, IC50 ≤ 100 nM, in KDM4 family biochemical (RFMS) assays with ≥ 50-fold selectivity against KDM6B and activity in a mechanistic KDM4C cell imaging assay (IC50 = 6-8 μM). Compounds 34 and 39 are also potent inhibitors of KDM5C (JARID1C) (RFMS IC50 = 100-125 nM)...
February 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Christine Hofstetter, Justyna M Kampka, Sascha Huppertz, Heike Weber, Andreas Schlosser, Albrecht M Müller, Matthias Becker
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterised by their capacity to self-renew indefinitely while maintaining the potential to differentiate into all cell types of an adult organism. Both the undifferentiated and differentiated states are defined by specific gene expression programs that are regulated at the chromatin level. Here, we have analysed the contribution of the H3K27me2- and H3K27me23-specific demethylases KDM6A and KDM6B to murine ESC differentiation by employing the GSK-J4 inhibitor, which is specific for KDM6 proteins, and by targeted gene knockout (KO) and knockdown...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Magdalena Korczynska, Daniel D Le, Noah Younger, Elisabet Gregori-Puigjané, Anthony Tumber, Tobias Krojer, Srikannathasan Velupillai, Carina Gileadi, Radosław P Nowak, Eriko Iwasa, Samuel B Pollock, Idelisse Ortiz Torres, Udo Oppermann, Brian K Shoichet, Danica Galonić Fujimori
Development of tool molecules that inhibit Jumonji demethylases allows for the investigation of cancer-associated transcription. While scaffolds such as 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA) are potent inhibitors, they exhibit limited selectivity. To discover new inhibitors for the KDM4 demethylases, enzymes overexpressed in several cancers, we docked a library of 600,000 fragments into the high-resolution structure of KDM4A. Among the most interesting chemotypes were the 5-aminosalicylates, which docked in two distinct but overlapping orientations...
February 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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