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Karin Vered, Caroline Durrant, Richard Mott, Fuad A Iraqi
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is a bacterium causing severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts and is often associated with sepsis. With the rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria, there is a need for new effective and affordable control methods; understanding the genetic architecture of susceptibility to Kp will help in their development. We performed the first quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study of host susceptibility to Kp infection in immunocompetent Collaborative Cross mice (CC)...
2014: BMC Genomics
Daniela Cejas, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Giovanna Rincón Cruz, Alan X Elena, Ivana Maldonado, Gabriel O Gutkind, Marcela A Radice
KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates mainly correspond to clonal complex 258 (CC258); however, we describe KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates belonging to invasive sequence type 23 (ST23). KPC-2 has scarcely been reported to occur in ST23, and this report describes the first isolation of this pathogen in the Americas. Acquisition of resistant markers in virulent clones could mark an evolutionary step toward the establishment of these clones as major nosocomial pathogens.
September 2014: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Johann D D Pitout
Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of nosocomial and community-acquired bacterial infections including urinary tract infections, enteric infections and systemic infections in humans. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) had emerged during the 2000s as an important player in the resistance to antibiotics, especially to the cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Most importantly, among ExPEC is the increasing recognition of isolates producing 'newer β-lactamases' that consist of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (e...
October 2012: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Y Kakinuma, Y Maeda, C Mason, C E Goldsmith, W A Coulter, M Matsuda, J S G Dooley, C J Lowery, J E Moore
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Currently, empirical treatment with quinolones is being used due to the emergence of beta-lactam and macrolide resistance in S. pneumonaie. Although the prevalence of quinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae remains low, increasing numbers of resistant isolates are being seen. Genetic mechanisms leading to fluoroquinolone resistance in pneumococci are complex. This study aims to use molecular methods to characterise all isolates through sequence analysis of their QRDR regions...
2012: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Sobhan Ghafourian, Zamberi Bin Sekawi, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Reza Mohebi, Vasantah Kumari Neela, Abbas Maleki, Ali Hematian, Mohammad Rhabar, Mohammad Raftari, Reza Ranjbar
Aims of this study were to investigate on antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of K.pneumoniae producing ESBLs isolates of respiratory tract infections in some major hospitals in Iran. K.pneumonaie were obtained of patients with RTI. K. pneumoniae producing ESBLs detected by screening, confirming and PCR methods. During the 12-month period, a total of one hundred and thirteen of K.pneumoniae were found from RTI in three cities in different region of Iran which Sixty seven strains (59.2%) were ESBLs producer...
2011: Open Microbiology Journal
Yoko Hirai, Sho Takahata, Keiko Yamada, Takashi Ida, Kazunori Maebashi
We have correlated the binding affinities of ME1036, a carbapenem, to the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) from Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, with its bactericidal potency against those same strains. Certain mutations in the PBPs from S. pneumonaie strains decrease the binding affinities of β-lactams for PBPs, which gives rise to clinical resistance to those β-lactams. ME1036 has been shown to be strongly active against genotypic penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (gPISP) strains and genotypic penicillin-resistant S...
November 2011: Journal of Antibiotics
Irina Codiţă, Cristina Delcaru, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Anca Michaela Israil, Dorina Tatu-Chiţoiu, Vasilica Ungureanu, Marina Pană, Maria Ghiţă, Lixandru Brânduşa, Maria Nica
EARSS (European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System) is the biggest antimicrobial resistance surveillance project in the world financed from public finds, aiming to provide validated and comparable official data on antimicrobial resistance of invasive microbial strains (isolated from blood and CSF), belonging to 6 indicator bacterial species, i.e.: S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecium/faecalis, Str. pneumoniae, Ps. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae. Romania reported data to EARSS since 2002 so far. Though the number of participating laboratories increased progressively from 12 to 35, the number of hospitals which reported for EARSS...
April 2010: Bacteriologia, Virusologia, Parazitologia, Epidemiologia
Francesco Blasi
The possible usefulness of levofloxacin in the empirical therapy of community acquired pneumonia, as monotherapy, (as alternative to the beta-lactam + macrolide combination) in once-a-day administration is supported by a body of evidence emerged from a wide world clinical documentation. Related to its possible use in sequential therapy, clinical and economic advantages are also been shown. In fact, a number of clinical experimental studies have evidenced that levofloxacin allows an earlier attainment of clinical stabilization, and resulting therapeutic switch, and is also associated with a more rapid and efficient achievement of outcomes, either early (microbiological response, time to clinical stabilization, length of stay) or late (clinical cure, radiological resolution, and mortality indexes), revealing a very favourable impact on cost-efficacy ratio...
December 2009: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Kenichi Izumi, Takahiro Takuma, Takanori Okada, Eisuke Yokota, Masataka Nishiyama
We report a rare case of multiple vertebral osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. A 73-year-old man admitted for back pain and a low-grade fever was found in laboratory studies to have severe leukocytosis and increased C-reactive protein, but neither computed tomography (CT) nor vertebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clarified the cause of infection in the painful hip lesion, and paralysis developed. in the left leg MRI eventually indicated a vertebral abscess involving multiple lesions at C4-7 and L4-5...
March 2008: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth M Nolan, Michael A Fischbach, Alexander Koglin, Christopher T Walsh
The present work reveals that four proteins, MceCDIJ, encoded by the MccE492 gene cluster are responsible for the remarkable post-translational tailoring of microcin E492 (MccE492), an 84-residue protein toxin secreted by Klebsiella pneumonaie RYC492 that targets neighboring Gram-negative species. This modification results in attachment of a linearized and monoglycosylated derivative of enterobactin, a nonribosomal peptide and iron scavenger (siderophore), to the MccE492m C-terminus. MceC and MceD derivatize enterobactin by C-glycosylation at the C5 position of a N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)serine (DHB-Ser) moiety and regiospecific hydrolysis of an ester linkage in the trilactone scaffold, respectively...
November 21, 2007: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Thomas M Krunkosky, Jarrat L Jordan, Emily Chambers, Duncan C Krause
The interaction between Mycoplasma pneumonaie and the airway epithelium in vivo is complex and multifaceted. While multiple in vitro studies have been conducted studying this interaction with cell lines and animal cell and organ culture models, the interactions between M. pneumoniae and fully differentiated human airway epithelium in air-liquid interface culture remains unexplored. In the present study we investigated M. pneumoniae interactions with airway epithelium utilizing an air-liquid interface culture of differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells...
February 2007: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
BACKGROUND: This study describes the resistance pattern of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates obtained from pediatric patients in a Saudi Arabian hospital. MATERIAL/METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae isolates (n=141) obtained from children in a Saudi Arabian hospital 1999-2004. Clinical data and antibiotic sensitivity were retrieved from microbiology data and analyzed. RESULTS: Of the total isolates of S...
November 2006: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
G Herbert, M Ndiritu, R Idro, J B Makani, J Kitundu
Lumbar puncture (LP) is an important diagnostic tool for investigating neurological conditions/diseases. This study was carried out to compare the indications for lumbar puncture and findings of cerebrospinal fluid examination in children admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania and Kilifi District Hospital (KDH) in Kenya. Records of all children admitted to the paediatric wards of the two hospitals from 1st November 2004 to 30th April 2005 with suspected central nervous system infections and had LPs performed were analysed...
January 2006: Tanzania Health Research Bulletin
Romuald Carewicz, Andrzej Chciałowski
The pathogens of atypical respiratory infections form a big heterogeneous group of different microorganisms. The classical ones belong to bacterial species of Mycoplasma pneumonaie, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. This category comprises also some viruses and rickettsia. In many cases they are responsible for the asthma course exacerbation. Their contribution in the asthma development is suspected, too. Potential protecting effect against atopy and asthma is a subject of speculations. The authors discuss all three aspects, reporting own observations...
January 2006: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Muneki Hotomi, Noboru Yamanaka, Dewan S Billal, Akihiro Sakai, Kazuma Yamauchi, Masaki Suzumoto, Shin Takei, Noriyo Yasui, Sotomi Moriyama, Kinoyori Kuki
Twenty-eight isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 30 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from paired nasopharynx and middle ear fluids of 21 children with acute otitis media (AOM) were evaluated to determine genotypes by polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 28 isolates of S. pneumonaie, 21 isolates (75.0%) possessed mutations in the pbp1a,pbp2x, and pbp2b genes, and 7 isolates (25%) had mutations in the pbp2x gene. Nineteen isolates (67.9%) expressed the mefE gene, and 5 isolates (17...
2004: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
By using the indirect method of fluorescent staining to study the antibody response in patients with primary atypical pneumonai associated with the development of cold agglutinin, it was found that the PAP antibody developed during the 2nd and 3rd week of the illness, and persisted for over a year, and is not related to the cold and streptococcus MG agglutinins. The development of the PAP fluorescent staining antibody paralleled the neutralizing antibody for the PAP virus as tested in cotton rats. The sensitivity of this specific serological test was indicated by the observation that 67 to 92 per cent of the patients in several outbreaks of PAP showed a rise of antibody titer during convalescence...
June 1, 1959: Journal of Experimental Medicine
G Alloing, B Martin, C Granadel, J P Claverys
Competence for genetic transformation in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a transient physiological property. A competence-stimulating peptide, CSP, was recently identified as the processed product of the comC gene. As conflicting results have been reported regarding CSP autoinduction, we monitored the CSP-induced expression of comCDE in derivatives of strain R6 using comC::lacZ fusions. Autoinduction was demonstrated in this genetic background. The kinetics of CSP-induced transcription of comCDE and of a late competence-induced (cin) operon were compared...
July 1998: Molecular Microbiology
J Z Montgomerie, D S Gilmore, I E Graham, D G Schick, M A Ashley, J W Morrow, S K Bruce
Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization of 53 patients with spinal cord injury was studied. Cultures of multiple body sites from patients, the environment, food, and hospital personnel were obtained. K. pneumonaie was cultured from one or more body sites in 46% of male patients. Significant bacteriuria was found in 10% of male patients. Positive cultures of the urethra and perineum for K. pneumoniae were significantly associated with the use of the external condom catheter (p less than 0.05, Fisher's exact test)...
August 1987: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
W Dittrich, M Betzler, H Schrempf
A genetically unstable chloramphenicol resistance gene from Streptomyces lividans 1326 was cloned and characterized. This gene and adjacent DNA regions can be lost spontaneously or amplify within variants. Biochemical studies proved that chloramphenicol is not modified by an acetyltransferase or any other enzyme and that ribosomes of the resistant strain are sensitive to chloramphenicol. Sequence data revealed that the resistance gene encodes a hydrophobic protein predicted to have 12 membrane-spanning alpha-helices and a hydropathic profile similar to the membrane of proteins required for the efflux of tetracycline...
November 1991: Molecular Microbiology
L C Olson, P Sithisarn, N K Djinawi
Mice develop age-dependent resistance to intraperitoneal infection with Wesselsbron virus, but not with Germiston virus. This resistance correlates with the capacity of peritoneal macrophages from older mice rapidly inacativated the infectivity of Wesselsbron virus, whereas Germiston virus replicated in these cells. Peritoneal macrophages from older mice protected cell cultures against Wesselsbron virus infection, but macrophages from newborn mice did not. Electron microscopic observations suggested that Wesselsbron virus was actively phagocytosed by macrophages, whereas Germiston virus entered the cells by other means and thus, presumably, circumvented the normal killing mechanisms of these cells...
February 1975: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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