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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801754/expression-profiling-of-tas2r-genes-reveals-a-complex-pattern-along-the-mouse-gi-tract-and-the-presence-of-tas2r131-in-a-subset-of-intestinal-paneth-cells
#1
Simone Prandi, Anja Voigt, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens
The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the expression of the Tas2r131 locus is not restricted to this region...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800488/benzo-a-pyrene-induced-a-mitochondria-independent-apoptosis-of-liver-in-juvenile-chinese-rare-minnows-gobiocypris-rarus
#2
Jinmiao Zha, Xiangsheng Hong, Haiou Rao, Lilai Yuan, Zijian Wang, Satyanarayanan Senthil Kumaran
To examine the effects of BaP on tissue apoptosis, laboratory studies were conducted using juvenile Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to 1, 5, 20, and 80 μg/L of BaP for 28 days. The post-treatment pathological findings in the liver were associated with hepatocyte swelling, karyopyknosis, and karyorrhexis. Moreover, an increase in the goblet cells in the intestine, epithelial hyperplasia of the gills and fusion of gill lamellae were observed. Significant increases in hepatocyte apoptosis using the TUNEL stain were observed in the liver tissue but not in the intestine and gills...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798951/histomorphological-description-of-the-digestive-system-of-pebbly-fish-alestes-baremoze-joannis-1835
#3
Nasser Kasozi, Gerald Iwe Degu, Julius Mukalazi, Charles Drago Kato, Majid Kisekka, Akisoferi Owori Wadunde, Godfrey Kityo, Victoria Tibenda Namulawa
Histomorphological studies of the digestive system of Alestes baremoze captured from Lake Albert, Uganda, were done using standard procedures. These revealed that A. baremoze has a fleshy-lipped terminal small mouth, large molar, short oesophagus, a three-lobed liver, pouch-like stomach, a nine-fingered caeca, and a long tubular intestine. A stratified squamous epithelium with numerous mucus-secreting cells lined the lips with no taste buds. Stratified squamous epithelia lined the oesophagus in the anterior portion which turned into a columnar epithelium towards the stomach...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797733/propagation-of-respiratory-viruses-in-human-airway-epithelia-reveals-persistent-virus-specific-signatures
#4
Manel Essaidi-Laziosi, Francisco Brito, Sacha Benaoudia, Léna Royston, Valeria Cagno, Mélanie Fernandes-Rocha, Isabelle Piuz, Evgeny Zdobnov, Song Huang, Samuel Constant, Marc-Olivier Boldi, Laurent Kaiser, Caroline Tapparel
BACKGROUND: Leading etiologies of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses typically cause self-limited diseases, though severe complications can occur in fragile patients. Rhinoviruses, respiratory enteroviruses, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but due to the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To compare infections by respiratory viruses isolated from clinical specimens using reconstituted human airway epithelia...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790246/-ciliated-muconodular-papillary-tumor-of-the-lung
#5
Masataka Segawa, Yoshinori Doki, Yoshifumi Shimada, Hiroki Tatsu, Katsuhiko Saito, Masayoshi Touge
A ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) has been reported to be a low-grade malignant tumor or benign tumor, consisting of ciliated columnar cells and goblet cells with basaloid cell proliferation, occur in the peripheral lung. We present a case of CMPT in this report. A 42-year-old male was referred to our department due to a nodule detected in the peripheral left lower lobe of lung. The nodule was resected via wedge resection based on a suspected diagnosis of carcinoma. Intraoperative analysis of the frozen sections was suggestive of mucinous adenocarcinoma...
August 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783701/ppar-%C3%AE-promotes-type-2-immune-responses-in-allergy-and-nematode-infection
#6
Ting Chen, Christopher A Tibbitt, Xiaogang Feng, Julian M Stark, Leona Rohrbeck, Lisa Rausch, Saikiran K Sedimbi, Mikael C I Karlsson, Bart N Lambrecht, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Rudi W Hendriks, Benedict J Chambers, Susanne Nylén, Jonathan M Coquet
A hallmark of immunity to worm infections and many allergies is a strong type 2 immune response. This is characterized by the production of cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 by adaptive T helper 2 (TH2) cells and/or type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is typically regarded as an anti-inflammatory factor. We report that TH2 cells express high levels of PPAR-γ in response to the allergen house dust mite and after infection with the parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus Mice lacking PPAR-γ in T cells failed to effectively differentiate into IL-5- and IL-13-secreting cells and, hence, did not develop TH2 cell-associated pathologies, including goblet cell metaplasia and eosinophilia, in response to allergen challenge...
March 10, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781771/the-impact-of-synbiotic-administration-through-in-ovo-technology-on-the-microstructure-of-a-broiler-chicken-small-intestine-tissue-on-the-1-st-and-42-nd-day-of-rearing
#7
A Sobolewska, J Bogucka, A Dankowiakowska, G Elminowska-Wenda, K Stadnicka, M Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Application the innovative method which is in ovo technology provides a means of modulating the immune system at early embryonic stages. The aim of study was to determine influence of the in ovo stimulation, on d 12 of incubation, with synbiotics (synbiotic 1- L. salivarius IBB3154 + Bi(2)tos, Clasado Ltd. and the synbiotic 2 - L. plantarum IBB3036 + lupin RFOs) on the microstructure of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the 1(st) and 42(nd) day of rearing. RESULTS: On the 1(st) day of chickens life, in the duodenum of both experimental groups (SYN1 and SYN2), a significantly higher and wider intestinal villi as well as a significantly larger absorbent surface of these villi were found in comparison with the Control group (P ≤ 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775364/dnp2-ctctla-4-inhibits-german-cockroach-extract-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-hyper-responsiveness-via-inhibition-of-th2-responses
#8
Sangho Lim, Jung Ho Sohn, Ja-Hyun Koo, Jung-Won Park, Je-Min Choi
German cockroaches are major household allergens that can trigger allergic airway inflammatory diseases with sensitive T-cell responses. Although the use of immune modulatory biologics, such as antibodies, to mediate allergic responses has recently been examined, only systemic administration is available because of the size limitations on intranasal administration. Here we utilized a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, to deliver the cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctCTLA-4) through the airway epithelium to modulate Th2 responses in a German cockroach extract (GCE)-induced allergic airway inflammation model...
August 4, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774831/acoustic-stress-induces-long-term-severe-intestinal-inflammation-in-the-mouse
#9
Silvia Miranda, María Estela Roux
The influence of noise on the presentation and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases has been poorly analyzed. We designed this study to investigate immediate and late effects of acoustic stress (AS) on small intestine. To this aim, CBA/J, BALB/c and DBA/2 mice were divided into AS and control groups. AS mice were exposed to noise (300Hz-70dB) during 24hs and randomized into: A) Acute effects group: mice were killed after AS; L) Late effects group: mice were killed 3 weeks after AS and O) Over-exposed effects group: mice were submitted to AS once a week during a month and killed...
July 31, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774728/lactobacillus-plantarum-culture-supernatants-improve-intestinal-tissue-exposed-to-deoxynivalenol
#10
L G Maidana, J Gerez, F Pinho, S Garcia, A P F L Bracarense
In the present study, histological, morphometrical and ultrastructural analysis were performed to investigate intestinal mucosa changes in piglets exposed to deoxynivalenol alone or associated with two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and the respective culture supernatants. Jejunal explants were incubated for 4h in culture medium with a) only culture medium (DMEM, control group), b) deoxynivalenol (DON, 10μM), c) heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum strain1 - LP1 (1.1×10(8) CFU/ml) plus DON, d) heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum strain2-LP2 (2...
July 31, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771730/in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-regulates-intestinal-barrier-functions-of-posthatch-broilers-by-activating-the-mtor-signaling-pathway
#11
Tian Gao, Minmeng Zhao, Lin Zhang, Jiaolong Li, Lanlin Yu, Feng Gao, Guanghong Zhou
BACKGROUND: During the last phase of incubation, dramatic physiological and metabolic changes occur in chick embryos, and the supplies of the nutrients and energy are always insufficient. This study was to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of L-arginine (Arg) on the hatchability, growth performance, intestinal development and functions of posthatch broilers. RESULTS: The IOF of Arg increased (P<0.05) the feed intake and body weight gain during 1-21 d and 1-42 d, the intestinal weight of 7 and 21-d-old broilers compared with NC and DG groups...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764781/effects-of-the-combined-extracts-of-herba-epimedii-and-fructus-ligustrilucidi-on-airway-remodeling-in-the-asthmatic-rats-with-the-treatment-of-budesonide
#12
Xiufeng Tang, Honglei Nian, Xiaoxi Li, Yan Yang, Xiujuan Wang, Liping Xu, Haotian Shi, Xinwei Yang, Renhui Liu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, leading to structura1 changes in the airway, collectively termed airway remodeling. Airway remodeling is thought to contribute to airway hyper responsiveness and irreversible airflow limitation. The combination of Herba Epimedii (HE) and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) decoction and the systemic administration of glucocorticoids (GC) had a synergistic inhibitory action on airway inflammation in the asthmatic model rats...
August 1, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761642/frequency-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-appendicular-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-cross-sectional-study-from-an-academic%C3%A2-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
Abdelrahman Abdelaal, Walid El Ansari, Issam Al-Bozom, Mahwish Khawar, Fakhar Shahid, Ammar Aleter, Mohammed Rasoul Abunuwar, Ayman El-Menyar
BACKGROUND: Appendicular neuroendocrine tumors (NET, Carcinoid tumors) of the appendix are rare and mostly diagnosed incidentally on the post-operative histopathological examination. NET are usually associated with good 5-year survival rates. We aimed to assess our experience for the diagnosis and management of NET over 11 years. METHOD: It is a retrospective chart review of all clinically suspected patients with acute appendicitis who underwent emergent appendectomy with intention to treat between January 2004-December 2014, and were clinically followed up until 2016...
September 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761086/serotonin-hormonally-regulates-lacrimal-gland-secretory-function-via-the-serotonin-type-3a-receptor
#14
Toshihiro Imada, Shigeru Nakamura, Ryuji Hisamura, Yusuke Izuta, Kai Jin, Masataka Ito, Naoki Kitamura, Kenji F Tanaka, Masaru Mimura, Izumi Shibuya, Kazuo Tsubota
Tears are extracellular fluid secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG). Tears consist of a dynamic tri-layered film composed of secretions from the LG, Meibomian gland, and conjunctival goblet cells. The LG secretes the aqueous component of the tear, the Meibomian gland secretes the lipid component, and conjunctival goblet cells secrete mucin. The regulation of LG activity via the autonomic nervous system has been recognized as fundamental to maintaining aqueous tear flow. Here, we describe the role of a hormone, peripheral serotonin, in tear secretion...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756875/glycopattern-analysis-of-acidic-secretion-in-the-intestine-of-the-red-eared-slender-turtle-trachemys-scripta-elegans-testudines-emydidae
#15
Giovanni Scillitani, Donatella Mentino, Maria Mastrodonato
The secretion of the goblet cells in the intestine of Trachemys scripta elegans was studied in situ by histochemical methods to analyze the diversity of sugar chains, with particular regard to the acidic glycans. Conventional histochemical stains (Periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian Blue pH 2.5, High Iron Diamine) and binding with ten FITC-labelled lectins combined with chemical and enzymatic pre-treatments were used to characterize the oligosaccharidic chains. The intestine can be divided into three regions, i.e...
July 23, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751521/the-third-pathway-of-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Carlos A Rubio, Giacomo Puppa, Giovanni de Petris, Lorand Kis, Peter T Schmidt
AIMS: The majority of the colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in a vast mucosal area built with columnar cells and mucus-producing goblet cells. These carcinomas evolve via the conventional (tubular/villous) adenoma-carcinoma pathway, or the serrated adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Much less frequently CRC arise in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain via the third pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: All publications on human colorectal GALT carcinomas in the literature were reviewed...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749264/pulmonary-lesions-caused-by-the-lungworm-didelphostrongylus-hayesi-in-the-opossum-didelphis-virginiana-in-colima-mexico
#17
Rubén A López-Crespo, Alfonso López-Mayagoitia, Rafael Ramírez-Romero, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Omar F Prado-Rebolledo, Luis J García-Márquez
Didelphostrongylus hayesi is an important and prevalent pulmonary nematode in the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ). An in-depth description of the pulmonary lesions caused by this nematode is lacking. The objective of this investigation was to make a detailed account of the gross, subgross, and microscopic changes that occur in the lungs of opossums naturally infected with D. hayesi. Forty-four opossums trapped in the state of Colima, Mexico, were euthanized by an overdose of barbiturates. Following a postmortem examination, the right lung was cut from the main bronchi and placed in a Petri dish containing a saline solution for the detection and identification of live parasites...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746986/the-histopathological-classification-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis-of-mucinous-appendiceal-neoplasms-appendiceal-adenocarcinomas-and-pseudomyxoma-peritonei
#18
REVIEW
Norman J Carr, Frederic Bibeau, Robert F Bradley, Peggy Dartigues, Roger M Feakins, Kim R Geisinger, Xianyong Gui, Sylvie Isaac, Massimo Milione, Joseph Misdraji, Reetesh K Pai, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Leslie H Sobin, Marie-Louise F van Velthuysen, Rhonda K Yantiss
The vermiform appendix is the primary site of several distinctive benign and malignant neoplasms. Some can produce the clinical syndrome of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). A consensus on their terminology was reached by an international panel of pathologists and clinicians working under the auspices of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) and this review discusses the application of the PSOGI classification to routine reporting. We discuss diagnosis and differential diagnosis together with implications for patient management, covering low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms, high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms, serrated polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas...
July 26, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736339/tfos-dews-ii-pain-and-sensation-report
#19
REVIEW
Carlos Belmonte, Jason J Nichols, Stephanie M Cox, James A Brock, Carolyn G Begley, David A Bereiter, Darlene A Dartt, Anat Galor, Pedram Hamrah, Jason J Ivanusic, Deborah S Jacobs, Nancy A McNamara, Mark I Rosenblatt, Fiona Stapleton, James S Wolffsohn
Pain associated to mechanical and chemical irritation of the eye surface is mediated by trigeminal ganglia mechano- and polymodal nociceptor neurons while cold thermoreceptors detect wetness and reflexly maintain basal tear production and blinking rate. These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects of ocular pain and reflex blinking. ViVc ocular neurons project to brain regions that control lacrimation and spontaneous blinking and to the sensory thalamus...
May 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733649/an-in-vitro-model-for-the-ocular-surface-and-tear-film-system
#20
Qiaozhi Lu, Hongbo Yin, Michael P Grant, Jennifer H Elisseeff
Dry eye is a complicated ocular surface disease whose exact pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. For the therapeutic evaluation and pathogenesis study of dry eye, we established an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) coculture model for the ocular surface. It is composed of rabbit conjunctival epithelium and lacrimal gland cell spheroids, and recapitulates the aqueous and mucin layers of the tear film. We first investigated the culture conditions for both cell types to optimize their secretory functions, by employing goblet cell enrichment, air-lifting culture, and 3D spheroid formation techniques...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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