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Goblet cell

E Trybus, G Krol, T Obarzanowski, W Trybus, A Kopacz-Bednarska, M Obarzanowski, T Krol
Most studies on the effects of glucocorticosteroid therapy in rhinitis relate to their inhibitory effect on activation and the number of inflowing cells that are involved in the development and maintenance of inflammation. It is also very important to determine the range of effect of budesonide on residing cells (epithelial cells). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of local budesonide therapy on the cytological image of the nasal mucosa, with attention paid to columnar cells in patients with rhinitis...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Guanyu Chen, Darren Svirskis, Weiyue Lu, Man Ying, Yuan Huang, Jingyuan Wen
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue effective against a number of cancers. However, the full potential of this drug has not been realised, in part due to low oral bioavailability and frequent dosing requirements. This study reports the synthesis, in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation of trimethyl chitosan (TMC) - CSKSSDYQC (CSK) peptide conjugates capable of enhancing the oral bioavailability of gemcitabine due to the ability to target intestinal goblet cells and promote intestinal cellular uptake. TMC was synthesized by a novel two-step methylation method to improve quanternization and yield...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Gore Ariel, Horwitz Vered, Cohen Maayan, Gutman Hila, Cohen Liat, Gez Relli, Kadar Tamar, Dachir Shlomit
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of ziv-aflibercept as a treatment for established corneal neovascularization (NV) and to compare its efficacy to that of bevacizumab following ocular chemical insult of sulfur mustard (SM) in the rabbit model. METHODS: Chemical SM burn was induced in the right eye of NZW rabbits by vapor exposure. Ziv-aflibercept (2 mg) was applied once to neovascularized eyes by subconjunctival injection while subconjunctival bevacizumab (5 mg) was administered twice a week, for 3 weeks...
March 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Adelaide Tawiah, Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Hayley Gorman, Manish Kumar, Sameer Tiwari, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is a large glycoprotein produced by goblet cells that forms the protective mucus blanket overlying the intestinal epithelium as the first line of innate host defense. High MUC2 production in inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis depletes goblet cells and the mucus layer by an unknown mechanism. Here, we analyzed the effect of high MUC2 biosynthesis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in goblet cells using a high MUC2-producing human goblet cell line (HT29-H) and a HT29-H clone (HT29-L) silenced for MUC2 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, S Harris, H Syakuri, A Jung, I Irnazarow, D Steinhagen
The effect of dietary β-glucan on the bacterial community in the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined after oral application of Aeromonas hydrophila. Carp received either feed supplemented with 1% MacroGard® , a β-1,3/1,6-glucan, or a β-glucan-free diet. Fourteen days after feeding, half of the carp from each group were intubated with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogenic strain of A. hydrophila. Gut samples were taken 12 hr to 7 days after application and analysed using microbiological and molecular biological techniques (NGS, RT-PCR-DGGE)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Mehmet Özbek, Emel Ergün, Feyzullah Beyaz, Levent Ergün, Nuh Y Ld R M, Özge Özgenç, Füsun Erhan
The object of this study was to describe the prenatal development and histochemical properties of mucins in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. To determine changes in the mucin profile, the sections were stained with specific histochemical stains for carbohydrates. While neutral and mixed mucins were observed in the superficial epithelial cells of the abomasal pyloric region, acidic mucins were detected in the secretory ducts and corpus of the glands. Acidic mucins consisted predominantly of sialomucins. In the duodenal villi, the number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins increased toward the end of gestation, whereas Brunner's glands contained acidic mucins until the 95th day of gestation and both acidic and neutral mucins thereafter...
March 14, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Sheng Y Ang, Bronwyn A Evans, Daniel P Poole, Romke Bron, Jesse J DiCello, Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Dana S Hutchinson, Roger J Summers
Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a newly discovered gut hormone expressed in colonic enteroendocrine L-cells but little is known about its biological function. Here, we show using RT-qPCR and in situ hybridisation that Insl5 mRNA is highly expressed in the mouse colonic mucosa, colocalised with proglucagon immunoreactivity. In comparison, mRNA for RXFP4 (the cognate receptor for INSL5) is expressed in various mouse tissues, including the intestinal tract. We show that the human enteroendocrine L-cell model NCI-H716 cell line, and goblet-like colorectal cell lines SW1463 and LS513 endogenously express RXFP4...
April 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Swapna Upadhyay, Lena Palmberg
Air pollution leads to inhalation of several pulmonary stimulants that includes particulate matter (PM), and gaseous substances contributing significantly to the development of chronic lung diseases. However, the pathophysiological mechanism of air pollutant mediated pulmonary toxicity remains unclear. This is primarily due to the lack of efficient test systems, mimicing human inhalation exposure scenarios to air pollutants. The majority of the pulmonary in vitro-studies have been conducted using cell lines in submerged cell culture conditions and thereby overlooking the pulmonary physiology...
March 9, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Bingqing Xie, Bharathi Laxman, Somaye Hashemifar, Randi Stern, T Conrad Gilliam, Natalia Maltsev, Steven R White
Basal airway epithelial cells (AEC) constitute stem/progenitor cells within the central airways and respond to mucosal injury in an ordered sequence of spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation to needed cell types. However, dynamic gene transcription in the early events after mucosal injury has not been studied in AEC. We examined gene expression using microarrays following mechanical injury (MI) in primary human AEC grown in submersion culture to generate basal cells and in the air-liquid interface to generate differentiated AEC (dAEC) that include goblet and ciliated cells...
2018: PloS One
Hong-Yi Li, Jing-Xia Meng, Zhen Liu, Xiao-Wen Liu, Yu-Guang Huang, Jing Zhao
Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic agent widely used in clinical practice, is the preferred anesthetic for asthmatic patients. This study was designed to determine the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of propofol on airway inflammation in a mast cell-dependent mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) without alum and challenged with OVA three times. Propofol was given intraperitoneally 0.5 h prior to OVA challenge. The inflammatory cell count and production of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected...
March 12, 2018: Inflammation
Frank J Simutis, Thomas P Sanderson, Gary D Pilcher, Michael J Graziano
The toxicity of avagacestat, a sulfonamide-based gamma (γ)-secretase inhibitor that was in development as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, was evaluated in a comprehensive nonclinical toxicology program that included 6-month and 1-year repeat-dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs, respectively. There was a spectrum of mechanism-based changes attributed to inhibition of Notch signaling that regulates the differentiation and proliferation of cells throughout development and in adult tissues. In both rats and dogs, ovarian follicular degeneration and atrophy and a low incidence of granulosa cell hyperplasia and benign granulosa-thecal cell tumors were observed...
February 24, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Muhammad Fiaz, Luis Carlos Martínez, Marilza da Silva Costa, Jamile Fernanda Silva Cossolin, Angelica Plata-Rueda, Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Antônio Euzébio Goulart Sant'Ana, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC50 and LC90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC50 and LC90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Naoki Ueda, Hajime Isomoto, Yuichiro Ikebuchi, Hiroki Kurumi, Koichiro Kawaguchi, Kazuo Yashima, Masaru Ueki, Kayoko Matsushima, Taro Akashi, Ryohei Uehara, Fuminao Takeshima, Tomayoshi Hayashi, Kazuhiko Nakao
The present study was conducted to explore the association of endocytoscopy (EC) classification with microscopic inflammatory features of ulcerative colitis (UC) and disease relapse.EC was performed for mild-to-moderate UC 32 cases from January 2010 to August 2016. EC appearance was stratified into 4 categories: EC-A, regular arrangement of round to oval pits; EC-B, irregular arrangement with/without enlarged spaces between regular pits; EC-C, deformed pits with distorted crypt lumen which are unordered in arrangement but not disrupted; and EC-D, disruptive or disappeared pits...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shotaro Nakagun, Akira Shiozaki, Mari Ochiai, Ayaka Matsuda, Yuko Tajima, Takashi Matsuishi, Kenichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Beaked whales are among the least known group of cetaceans, and information regarding their pathology and parasitology is especially scarce. We describe a case of significant parasitism by a trematode found in the liver of an adult male Hubbs' beaked whale Mesoplodon carlhubbsi that stranded in Hokkaido, Japan. Post-mortem examinations revealed a localised area of discolouration restricted to the hilar region of the left hepatic lobe, where spindle-shaped trematodes occupied the dilated and hypertrophic bile ducts...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
D Betty Lew, Kim S LeMessurier, Maneesha Palipane, Yanyan Lin, Amali E Samarasinghe
Severe asthma with fungal sensitization predominates in the population suffering from allergic asthma, to which there is no cure. While corticosteroids are the mainstay in current treatment, other means of controlling inflammation may be beneficial. Herein, we hypothesized that mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae would dampen the characteristics of fungal allergic asthma by altering the pulmonary immune responses. Using wild-type and transgenic mice expressing the human mannose receptor on smooth muscle cells, we explored the outcome of mannan administration during allergen exposure on the pathogenesis of fungal asthma through measurement of cardinal features of disease such as inflammation, goblet cell number, and airway hyperresponsiveness...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ta C Chang, Linda Y Huang, Kara M Cavuoto
Purpose: We describe a case of secondary open-angle glaucoma due to mucin-producing congenital iris stromal cyst in a 4 year old patient. Observations: A 4-year old female patient with a history of unilateral congenital iris stromal cyst presented with sudden-onset eye pain and redness, with markedly elevated intraocular pressure and evidence of early optic nerve damage. During the examination under anesthesia, the anterior chamber angle was open and there was no evidence of pupillary block...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Sanming Li, Ke Ning, Jing Zhou, Yuli Guo, Houjian Zhang, Yu Zhu, Liying Zhang, Changkai Jia, Yongxiong Chen, Peter Sol Reinach, Zuguo Liu, Wei Li
Sleep deficiency is a common public health problem associated with many diseases, such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we established a sleep deprivation (SD) mouse model using a 'stick over water' method and observed the effect of sleep deficiency on ocular surface health. We found that SD decreased aqueous tear secretion; increased corneal epithelial cell defects, corneal sensitivity, and apoptosis; and induced squamous metaplasia of the corneal epithelium. These pathological changes mimic the typical features of dry eye...
March 2, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Daniela Moura Dos Santos, Marcela Aldrovani, Marcella Rosa Filezio, Thais Guimarães Morato Abreu, Camila Pinho Balthazar da Silveira, Nathan Rocha das Neves Cruz, José Luiz Laus
OBJECTIVE: To study parameters related to nuclear morphology and chromatin remodeling in epithelial cells and lymphocytes from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva of dogs with and without keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). ANIMALS STUDIED: Thirty-two dogs (64 eyes) were included in the study. Based on the tear production measured by Schirmer tear test 1, the dogs were distributed into control and KCS groups. PROCEDURES: Epithelial cells and lymphocytes were collected by conjunctival brush cytology, fixed on glass slides, and subjected to the Feulgen reaction, a topochemical method specific for DNA/chromatin...
March 1, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Leticia Tordesillas, M Cecilia Berin
Oral tolerance is a state of systemic unresponsiveness that is the default response to food antigens in the gastrointestinal tract, although immune tolerance can also be induced by other routes, such as the skin or inhalation. Antigen can be acquired directly by intestinal phagocytes, or pass through enterocytes or goblet cell-associated passages prior to capture by dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria. Mucin from goblet cells acts on DCs to render them more tolerogenic. A subset of regulatory DCs expressing CD103 is responsible for delivery of antigen to the draining lymph node and induction of Tregs...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Dan Yang, Dechun Liu, Mengmeng Qin, Binlong Chen, Siyang Song, Wenbing Dai, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Yiguang Wang, Bing He, Xing Tang, Qiang Zhang
Mucus, secreted by the goblet cells of enterocytes, constitutes the first obstacle encountered for the intestinal absorption of nanomedicines. For decades, mucus has simply been regarded as a physical barrier that hinders the permeation and absorption of drugs because of its high viscosity and reticular structure, whereas the interaction of mucus ingredients with nanomedicines is usually neglected. It is unclear whether glycoproteins, as the main components of mucus, interact with nanomedicines. We also do not know how the potential interaction affects the subsequent transportation of nanomedicines through the intestinal epithelium...
February 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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