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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346656/host-responses-to-intestinal-nematodes
#1
Koubun Yasuda, Kenji Nakanishi
Helminth infection remains common in developing countries, where residents who suffer from the consequences of such infections can develop serious physical and mental disorders and often persist in the face of serious economic problems. Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B cell IgE response; additionally, this infection induces an increase in the numbers and activation of various types of effector cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, as well as the induction of goblet cell hyperplasia, antimicrobial peptide production and smooth muscle contraction, all of which contribute to expel nematodes...
January 13, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346345/the-cytosolic-sensor-sting-is-required-for-intestinal-homeostasis-and-control-of-inflammation
#2
M C C Canesso, L Lemos, T C Neves, F M Marim, T B R Castro, É S Veloso, C P Queiroz, J Ahn, H C Santiago, F S Martins, J Alves-Silva, E Ferreira, D C Cara, A T Vieira, G N Barber, S C Oliveira, A M C Faria
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a cytosolic sensor for cyclic dinucleotides and also an adaptor molecule for intracellular DNA receptors. Although STING has important functions in the host defense against pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, its physiological relevance in intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. In this study, we show that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346129/high-inflammatory-infiltrate-correlates-with-poor-symptomatic-improvement-after-surgical-treatment-for-superior-limbic-keratoconjunctivitis
#3
Pablo Zoroquiain, Debra-Meghan Sanft, Evangelina Esposito, Devinder Cheema, Ana Beatriz Dias, Miguel N Burnier
PURPOSE: Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK) is a chronic and recurrent condition of unknown etiology. It is often managed conservatively, but there is a high rate of success with surgical management for severe or recalcitrant cases. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze clinicopathological features of patients with SLK who underwent surgical treatment and their association with the clinical outcome. METHODS: A total of 22 eyes from 18 patients who underwent surgical SLK management were retrospectively analyzed...
January 17, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343879/ccn3-expression-marks-a-sulfomucin-nonproducing-unique-subset-of-colonic-goblet-cells-in-mice
#4
Shintaro Akiyama, Wakana Mochizuki, Yoichi Nibe, Yuka Matsumoto, Kei Sakamoto, Shigeru Oshima, Mamoru Watanabe, Tetsuya Nakamura
Intestinal goblet cells are characterized by their unique morphology and specialized function to secrete mucins. Although it is known that they are a heterogeneous population of cells, there have been few studies that relate the expression of a particular gene with functionally distinct subpopulations of intestinal goblet cells. Here we show that CCN3, a gene encoding a member of the CCN family proteins, is induced by inhibition of Notch signaling in colonic epithelial cells and expressed in goblet cells in mice...
December 26, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342458/glucocorticoids-modulate-th1-and-th2-responses-in-asthmatic-mouse-models-by-inhibition-of-notch1-signaling
#5
Chengping Hu, Zhifang Li, Juntao Feng, Yongjun Tang, Ling Qin, Xinyue Hu, Yan Zhang, Ruoxi He
BACKGROUND: Notch1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma due to its contribution on Th1/Th2 imbalance. γ-Secretase inhibitor (GSI) acts as an effective blocker of Notch1 signaling. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs for asthma. The present study investigated the involvement of the Notch1 pathway in the anti-inflammatory effect of GCs and its association with Th1/Th2 balance. METHODS: The asthma model was established in BALB/c mice by sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA)...
January 18, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341972/ocular-surface-and-tear-film-characteristics-in-a-sclerodermatous-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-mouse-model
#6
Jingliang He, Mio Yamane, Shinsuke Shibata, Masaki Fukui, Eisuke Shimizu, Tetsuya Yano, Shin Mukai, Yutaka Kawakami, Shaowei Li, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ogawa
PURPOSE: To report the characteristics of the ocular surface in a previously established sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) mouse model. METHODS: The ocular surface features and tear film parameters of the mouse model were assessed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: The mice exhibited loss of body weight and decreased tear secretion (P < 0...
January 16, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341450/characterization-of-a-novel-papain-inducible-murine-model-of-eosinophilic-rhinosinusitis
#7
Anuj Tharakan, Alex Dobzanski, Nyall R London, Syed M Khalil, Nitya Surya, Andrew P Lane, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and a local type 2 cytokine milieu. Current animal models fail to recapitulate many of the innate and adaptive immunologic hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering the development of effective therapeutics. In the present study, mice were exposed intranasally to the cysteine protease papain, which shares functional similarities with parasitic proteases and aeroallergens, to generate a rapidly inducible murine model of eosinophilic rhinosinusitis...
January 17, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335251/goblet-cell-carcinomas-of-the-appendix-rare-but-aggressive-neoplasms-with-challenging-management
#8
Ashley Kieran Clift, Oskar Kornasiewicz, Panagiotis Drymousis, Omar Faiz, Harpreet Wasan, James Kinross, Thomas Cecil, Andrea Frilling
Goblet cell carcinomas (GCC) are a rare, aggressive sub-type of appendiceal tumours with neuroendocrine features, and controversy exists with regards to therapeutic strategy. We undertook a retrospective review of GCC patients surgically treated at two tertiary referral centres. Clinical and histopathological data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. Survival analyses utilised Kaplan-Meier methodology. Twenty-one patients were identified (9 females). Median age at diagnosis was 55years (range 32-77)...
January 15, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335106/preoperative-optimization-of-ocular-surface-disease-before-cataract-surgery
#9
REVIEW
Jasmine Chuang, Kendrick Co Shih, Tommy C Chan, Kelvin H Wan, Vishal Jhanji, Louis Tong
An impaired ocular surface adversely affects preoperative planning for cataract surgery, including intraocular lens (IOL) calculations, toric IOL axis and magnitude estimates, keratometry, and topography measurements. It also increases surgical difficulty. We performed a review to evaluate the connection between cataract surgery and dry eye and to determine the best management for these patients. Of the 16 papers included in this review, 6 were randomized controlled trials. Cataract surgery was shown to worsen ocular parameters and aggravate dry-eye disease...
December 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333697/lactic-acid-bacteria-may-impact-intestinal-barrier-function-by-modulating-goblet-cells
#10
Chengcheng Ren, Jelleke Dokter-Fokkens, Susana Figueroa Lozano, Qiuxiang Zhang, Bart J de Haan, Hao Zhang, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are recognized to promote gastrointestinal health by mechanisms that are not fully understood. LABs might modulate the mucus and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function. Herein, we investigated effects of different LAB strains and species on goblet cell genes involved in mucus synthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression profiles of goblet cell-associated products (mucin MUC2, trefoil factor 3, resistin-like molecule β, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 5, and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2) induced by LAB or their derived conditioned medium in human goblet cell line LS174T were studied...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331497/dietary-antioxidant-micronutrients-alter-mucosal-inflammatory-risk-in-a-murine-model-of-genetic-and-microbial-susceptibility
#11
Joseph F Pierre, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Romain Bouziat, Nathan A Hubert, Vanessa Leone, Jun Miyoshi, Bana Jabri, Eugene B Chang
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by the convergence of microbial, environmental, and genetic factors. Diet significantly alters these interactions by affecting both the host and microbiome. Using a mucosal inflammatory model that resembles the human condition of ileal pouchitis, we investigated the effects of Control (CONT) or Antioxidant (AOX) diet, containing pharmacologically relevant levels of 4 micronutrients, on disease risk in wild-type and IL-10-/- animals following surgical self-filling (SF) ileal blind loop placement...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327707/appendiceal-goblet-cell-carcinoids-and-adenocarcinomas-ex-goblet-cell-carcinoid-are-genetically-distinct-from-primary-colorectal-type-adenocarcinoma-of-the-appendix
#12
Moritz Jesinghaus, Björn Konukiewitz, Sebastian Foersch, Albrecht Stenzinger, Katja Steiger, Alexander Muckenhuber, Claudia Groß, Martin Mollenhauer, Wilfried Roth, Sönke Detlefsen, Wilko Weichert, Günter Klöppel, Nicole Pfarr, Anna Melissa Schlitter
The appendix gives rise to goblet cell carcinoids, which represent special carcinomas with distinct biological and histological features. Their genetic background and molecular relationship to colorectal adenocarcinoma is largely unknown. We therefore performed a next-generation sequencing analysis of 25 appendiceal carcinomas including 11 goblet cell carcinoids, 7 adenocarcinomas ex-goblet cell carcinoid, and 7 primary colorectal-type adenocarcinomas, using a modified Colorectal Cancer specific Panel comprising 32 genes linked to colorectal and neuroendocrine tumorigenesis...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324644/nanocomposite-of-half-fin-anchovy-hydrolysates-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-exhibits-actual-non-toxicity-and-regulates-intestinal-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-and-oxidative-status-in-mice
#13
Ru Song, Jianbin Yao, Qingqing Shi, Rongbian Wei
The nanocomposite of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (named as HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs) demonstrated increased antibacterial activity compared to either HAHp(3.0) or ZnO NPs as per our previous studies. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in Escherichia coli cells after treatment with HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of this nanocomposite and to investigate its effect on intestinal microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and oxidative status in healthy mice...
January 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324356/inflammation-induced-er-stress-affects-absorptive-intestinal-epithelial-cells-function-and-integrity
#14
Sucheera Chotikatum, Hassan Y Naim, Nahed El-Najjar
Recent studies have linked impairment of intestinal epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease to the disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis (ER) in response to stress. Most studies are on goblet and Paneth cells, which are considered more susceptible to stress due to their role in the protection of intestinal epithelium against microbes and harmful substances. However, studies on the role of inflammation-induced ER stress in absorptive intestinal cells are scarce. In this study, we show, using Caco-2 cells as a model of intestinal epithelial barrier, that inducing ER stress using a cocktail mixture of pro-inflammatory mediators [TNFα (50ng/ml), MCP1 (50ng/ml), and IL-1β (25ng/ml)] as observed in IBD patients induces ER stress and leads to significant changes in key proteins of the apical (sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPPIV), and ezrin) and basolateral (E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and connexin-43) membranes...
January 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319231/temporal-and-spatial-expression-of-insulin-like-peptide-insl5a-and-insl5b-paralog-genes-during-the-embryogenesis-of-danio-rerio
#15
Massimo Venditti, Aldo Donizetti, Marcella Fiengo, Chiara Fasano, Alessandra Santillo, Francesco Aniello, Sergio Minucci
Relaxin (RLN) and insulin (INSL)-like peptides are member of the INSL/RLN superfamily, which are encoded by seven genes in humans and can activate the G-protein coupled receptor RXFP 1-4. These peptides evolved from a common ancestor, RLN3-like gene. Two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in early vertebrate evolution, together with an additional WGD in the teleost lineage, caused an expansion of RLN genes set in the genome of Danio rerio. In particular, six RLN genes are present: a single copy of rln and insl3 genes, and two paralogs for the rln3 gene (rln3a and rln3b), and the insl5 gene (insl5a and insl5b)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318574/prophylactic-benefits-of-systemically-delivered-simvastatin-treatment-in-a-house-dust-mite-challenged-murine-model-of-allergic-asthma
#16
Aruni Jha, Min H Ryu, O O Ojo, Hilary J Bews, Jules C Carlson, Jacquie Schwartz, Sujata Basu, Charles S Wong, Andrew J Halayko
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systemically delivered statins can blunt airway inflammation in ovalbumin-challenged mice; however, in asthma clinical trials the beneficial effects of introducing oral statins are not compelling. We aim to reconcile this discrepancy using a clinically relevant murine model of allergic asthma, and by including a prophylactic study arm. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Adult mice were: 1) challenged with house dust mite (HDM) alone or with subcutaneous (s...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318025/feline-dry-eye-syndrome-of-presumed-neurogenic-origin-a-case-report
#17
Lionel Sebbag, Patricia A Pesavento, Sebastian E Carrasco, Christopher M Reilly, David J Maggs
Case summary: A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314441/alterations-in-the-gut-barrier-and-involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-murine-postoperative-ileus
#18
S-S Lin, R-Q Zhang, L Shen, X-J Xu, K Li, A-V Bazhin, J Fichna, Y-Y Li
BACKGROUND: The changes in the gut barrier (GB) and associated mechanisms in postoperative ileus (POI) are still unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in inflammation, which may cause GB dysfunction and POI. Here, the roles of the GB in POI in relation to TLR4-dependent signaling pathways were explored. METHODS: POI was induced by small bowel manipulation in wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. Twenty-four hours after manipulation, indices of gastrointestinal (GI) transit, GB structure and function, inflammation, and related signaling pathways were analyzed...
January 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311494/immunohistochemical-study-on-the-distribution-of-%C3%AE-defensin-1-and-%C3%AE-defensin-2-throughout-the-respiratory-tract-of-healthy-rats
#19
Natsumi Masuda, Youhei Mantani, Hideto Yuasa, Chiaki Yoshitomi, Masaya Arai, Miho Nishida, Wang-Mei Qi, Junichi Kawano, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The distributions of β-defensin 1 and 2 in secretory host defense system throughout respiratory tract of healthy rats were immunohistochemically investigated. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NCs) were immunopositive for both β-defensin 1 and 2, whereas a small number of goblet cells (GCs) were immunopositive only for β-defensin 1. Beta-defensin 2-immunopositive GCs were few. In the nasal glands, a small number of acinar cells and a large number of ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both β-defensins...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301746/cyclic-gmp-elevating-agents-suppress-polyposis-in-apc-min-mice-by-targeting-the-preneoplastic-epithelium
#20
Sarah K Sharman, Bianca N Islam, Yali Hou, Nagendra Singh, Franklin G Berger, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Wonsuk Yoo, Darren D Browning
The cGMP signaling axis has been implicated in the suppression of intestinal cancers but the inhibitory mechanism and the extent to which this pathway can be targeted remains poorly understood. The present study has tested the effect of cGMP-elevating agents on tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal cancer. Treatment of ApcMin/+ mice with the receptor guanylyl-cyclase C (GCC) agonist linaclotide, or the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil, significantly reduced the number of polyps per mouse (67% and 50% respectively)...
January 4, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
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