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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774940/-prognostic-analysis-and-clinicopathological-features-of-20-patients-with-appendiceal-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#1
Weilin Mao, Yang Lyu, Ning Pu, Jian'ang Li, Baobao Xin, Wenqi Chen, Dayong Jin, Wenhui Lou, Xuefeng Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms(a-NEN). METHODS: Clinical data of 20 patients diagnosed with a-NEN at Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Pathological diagnosis was based on the WHO classification criteria of digestive system tumors (2010 edition). Based on the mitotic count and Ki-67 index, a-NENs were divided into grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor (NET G1), grade 2(G2) NET G2) and grade 3 (neuroendocrine carcinoma, NEC)...
May 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770758/dietary-l-threonine-supplementation-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses-and-intestinal-barrier-damage-of-broiler-chickens-at-an-early-age
#2
Yueping Chen, Hao Zhang, Yefei Cheng, Yue Li, Chao Wen, Yanmin Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of l-threonine (l-Thr) supplementation on growth performance, inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier function of young broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 144 1-d-old male chicks were allocated to one of three treatments: non-challenged broilers fed a basal diet (control group), LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet without l-Thr supplementation and LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with 3·0 g/kg l-Thr...
June 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764845/endoscopic-diagnosis-of-a-goblet-cell-carcinoid-tumour-of-the-appendix
#3
Vanessa Falk, Marcia Ballantyne, Sergio Zepeda-Gómez, Ali Kohansal-Vajargah
Primary malignancies of the appendix are rare. Of these, less than 5% are goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumours. The majority of GCC present with findings of acute appendicitis or advanced peritoneal spread. We describe a rare presentation of GCC as subtle mucosal abnormality of the appendiceal orifice seen on colonoscopy performed for iron-deficiency anaemia. Biopsies were interpreted as adenocarcinoma; however, final surgical pathology confirmed GCC of the appendix with caecal involvement. The patient recovered well from surgery, anaemia resolved and follow-up did not show metastatic disease...
May 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756575/effects-of-stress-on-the-mucus-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut
#4
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749623/gastrointestinal-pathologists-perspective-on-managing-risk-in-the-distal-esophagus-convergence-on-a-pragmatic-approach
#5
Andrew M Bellizzi, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, Maria Westerhoff, E Celia Marginean, Robert H Riddell
Here, we discuss recent updates and a continuing controversy in the diagnosis and management of Barrett's esophagus, specifically the recommendation that the irregular Z-line not be biopsied, the diminished status of ultrashort-segment Barrett's esophagus, the evidence basis for excluding and including the requirement of goblet cells for the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus, and the conclusion that histologically confirmed low-grade dysplasia is best managed with endoscopic ablation rather than surveillance...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747318/-effects-of-glycyrrhizic-acid-on-erk1-2-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-a-murine-model-of-asthma
#6
W Y Zhang, Y C Gu, Y Tang, Q Z Wu
Objective: To explore the effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) signaling pathways in a murine model of asthma. Methods: Sixty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups ( n =10 each): a control group, an asthmatic group, two treatment groups with low and high doses of GA, U0126 group and SB203580 group. Within 24 hours after the last OVA challenge, histological studies of lung were conducted with the hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE) and alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS), the relative protein expression of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in vivo ...
April 24, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743551/a-novel-method-for-expansion-and-differentiation-of-mouse-tracheal-epithelial-cells-in-culture
#7
Evelien Eenjes, Tinne C J Mertens, Marjon J Buscop-van Kempen, Yolanda van Wijck, Christian Taube, Robbert J Rottier, Pieter S Hiemstra
Air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) are a well-established model to study airway epithelial cells, but current methods require large numbers of animals which is unwanted in view of the 3R principle and introduces variation. Moreover, stringent breeding schemes are frequently needed to generate sufficient numbers of genetically modified animals. Current protocols do not incorporate expansion of MTEC, and therefore we developed a protocol to expand MTEC while maintaining their differentiation capacity...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739826/luminal-polyethylene-glycol-alleviates-intestinal-preservation-injury-irrespective-of-molecular-size
#8
Anna Casselbrant, John Mackay Softeland, Mats Hellstrom, Mantas Malinauskas, Mihai Oltean
Intestinal preservation injury (IPI) and the resulting mucosal injury raise several serious challenges early after intestinal transplantation (ITx). The current clinical approach using only vascular perfusion allows the shortest preservation period among the abdominal organs. The experimental addition of luminal polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions has been repeatedly suggested to alleviate preservation injury, improve graft quality and prolong the preservation time. We investigated if the size of PEG in the solution influences the development of intestinal preservation injury...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736898/high-fat-diet-consumption-induces-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-intestinal-inflammation-in-zebrafish
#9
Nerea Arias-Jayo, Leticia Abecia, Laura Alonso-Sáez, Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Alfonso Rodriguez, Miguel A Pardo
Energy-dense foods and overnutrition represent major starting points altering lipid metabolism, systemic inflammation and gut microbiota. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) over a period of 25 days on intestinal microbiota and inflammation in zebrafish. Microbial composition of HFD-fed animals was analysed and compared to controls by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative PCR. The expression level on several genes related to inflammation was tested. Furthermore, microscopic assessment of the intestine was performed in both conditions...
May 7, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735652/activation-of-intestinal-tuft-cell-expressed-sucnr1-triggers-type-2-immunity-in-the-mouse-small-intestine
#10
Weiwei Lei, Wenwen Ren, Makoto Ohmoto, Joseph F Urban, Ichiro Matsumoto, Robert F Margolskee, Peihua Jiang
The hallmark features of type 2 mucosal immunity include intestinal tuft and goblet cell expansion initiated by tuft cell activation. How infectious agents that induce type 2 mucosal immunity are detected by tuft cells is unknown. Published microarray analysis suggested that succinate receptor 1 ( Sucnr1 ) is specifically expressed in tuft cells. Thus, we hypothesized that the succinate-Sucnr1 axis may be utilized by tuft cells to detect certain infectious agents. Here we confirmed that Sucnr1 is specifically expressed in intestinal tuft cells but not in other types of intestinal epithelial cells, and demonstrated that dietary succinate induces tuft and goblet cell hyperplasia via Sucnr1 and the tuft cell-expressed chemosensory signaling elements gustducin and Trpm5...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728628/chronic-features-of-allergic-asthma-are-enhanced-in-the-absence-of-resistin-like-molecule-beta
#11
Kim S LeMessurier, Maneesha Palipane, Meenakshi Tiwary, Brian Gavin, Amali E Samarasinghe
Asthma is characterized by inflammation and architectural changes in the lungs. A number of immune cells and mediators are recognized as initiators of asthma, although therapeutics based on these are not always effective. The multifaceted nature of this syndrome necessitate continued exploration of immunomodulators that may play a role in pathogenesis. We investigated the role of resistin-like molecule-beta (RELM-β), a gut antibacterial, in the development and pathogenesis of Aspergillus-induced allergic airways disease...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720977/-enterococcus-faecalis-ahg0090-is-a-genetically-tractable-bacterium-and-produces-a-secreted-peptidic-bioactive-that-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-activation-in-human-gut-epithelial-cells
#12
Páraic Ó Cuív, Rabina Giri, Emily C Hoedt, Michael A McGuckin, Jakob Begun, Mark Morrison
Enterococcus faecalis is an early coloniser of the human infant gut and contributes to the development of intestinal immunity. To better understand the functional capacity of E. faecalis , we constructed a broad host range RP4 mobilizable vector, pEHR513112, that confers chloramphenicol resistance and used a metaparental mating approach to isolate E. faecalis AHG0090 from a fecal sample collected from a healthy human infant. We demonstrated that E. faecalis AHG0090 is genetically tractable and could be manipulated using traditional molecular microbiology approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719637/histopathological-parameters-in-pterygia-and-significant-clinical-correlations
#13
Ahmed Mohamed Reda, Yasmine Maher Mohamed Shaaban, Somaia Ahmad Saad El-Din
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and histopathological parameters of pterygium to determine significant correlations between parameters that can affect management strategies. Methods: A total of 47 pterygia were clinically examined and excised for histopathological evaluation of epithelial and stromal changes. Some samples were immunostained with P53 (a protein of 53 kilodalton used as dysplastic epithelial marker), CD20 (CD/cluster of differentiation, are group of surface receptors providing targets for cellular immunophenotyping, CD20 as a B lymphocyte marker), CD 3 (as T lymphocyte marker) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF/as vascular marker)...
April 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712667/restructuring-of-the-gut-microbiome-by-intermittent-fasting-prevents-retinopathy-and-prolongs-survival-in-db-db-mice
#14
Eleni Beli, Yuanqing Yan, Leni Moldovan, Cristiano P Vieira, Ruli Gao, Yaqian Duan, Ram Prasad, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Fletcher A White, Steven Townsend, Luisa Chan, Caitlin N Ryan, Daniel Morton, Emil G Moldovan, Fang-I Chu, Gavin Y Oudit, Hartmut Derendorf, Luciano Adorini, Xiaoxin X Wang, Carmella Evans-Molina, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Michael E Boulton, Mervin C Yoder, Qiuhong Li, Moshe Levi, Julia V Busik, Maria B Grant
Intermittent fasting (IF) protects against the development of metabolic diseases and cancer, but whether it can prevent diabetic microvascular complications is not known. In db/db mice, we examined the impact of long-term IF on diabetic retinopathy (DR). Despite no change in glycated hemoglobin, db/db mice on the IF regimen displayed significantly longer survival and a reduction in DR endpoints, including acellular capillaries and leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesized that IF mediated changes in the gut microbiota would produce beneficial metabolites and prevent the development of DR...
April 30, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707330/aberrant-epithelial-remodeling-with-impairment-of-cilia-architecture-in-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#15
Zhuang-Gui Chen, Ying-Ying Li, Zhao-Ni Wang, Ming Li, Hui-Fang Lim, Yu-Qi Zhou, Liang-Ming Cai, Ya-Ting Li, Li-Fen Yang, Tian-Tuo Zhang, De-Yun Wang
Background: Aberrant epithelial remodeling and/or abnormalities in mucociliary apparatus in airway epithelium contribute to infection and inflammation. It is uncertain if these changes occur in both large and small airways in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (non-CF bronchiectasis). In this study, we aim to investigate the histopathology and inflammatory profile in the epithelium of bronchi and bronchioles in bronchiectasis. Methods: Excised lung tissue sections from 52 patients with non-CF bronchiectasis were stained with specific cellular markers and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to assess the epithelial structures, including ciliated cells and goblet cells morphology...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705882/severe-peritoneal-sclerosis-after-repeated-pressurized-intraperitoneal-aerosol-chemotherapy-with-oxaliplatin-pipac-ox-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-survey
#16
M Graversen, S Detlefsen, P Pfeiffer, L Lundell, M B Mortensen
Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a new laparoscopic administration of chemotherapy for peritoneal metastasis (PM). PIPAC is repeated every 5th week, and seems to stabilize or improve quality of life, and might improve survival. So far, PIPAC has been well tolerated. With this paper, we aim to highlight a potential severe adverse reaction, as we describe the first cases of severe peritoneal sclerosis (SPS) caused by PIPAC. Patients with isolated PM were included in a prospective PIPAC protocol...
April 28, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703864/farnesyltransferase-inhibition-exacerbates-eosinophilic-inflammation-and-airway-hyperreactivity-in-mice-with-experimental-asthma-the-complex-roles-of-ras-gtpase-and-farnesylpyrophosphate-in-type-2-allergic-inflammation
#17
Jennifer M Bratt, Kevin Y Chang, Michelle Rabowsky, Lisa M Franzi, Sean P Ott, Simone Filosto, Tzipora Goldkorn, Muhammad Arif, Jerold A Last, Nicholas J Kenyon, Amir A Zeki
Ras, a small GTPase protein, is thought to mediate Th2-dependent eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. Ras requires cell membrane association for its biological activity, and this requires the posttranslational modification of Ras with an isoprenyl group by farnesyltransferase (FTase) or geranylgeranyltransferase (GGTase). We hypothesized that inhibition of FTase using FTase inhibitor (FTI)-277 would attenuate allergic asthma by depleting membrane-associated Ras. We used the OVA mouse model of allergic inflammation and human airway epithelial (HBE1) cells to determine the role of FTase in inflammatory cell recruitment...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702174/beneficial-effects-of-extracellular-polysaccharide-from-rhizopus-nigricans-on-the-intestinal-immunity-of-colorectal-cancer-mice
#18
Zhidan Yu, Ge Song, Jing Liu, Jiayue Wang, Pengying Zhang, Kaoshan Chen
An extracellular polysaccharide (EPS1-1) extracted from the fermentation broth of Rhizopus nigricans has been proved to enhance the immunity of immunosuppressed mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of EPS1-1 on the intestinal immunity of mice with colorectal cancer induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The results showed that EPS1-1 could resist hydrolysis in an artificial stomach. Oral EPS1-1 modulated gut microbiota and increased the concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feces of colorectal cancer mice compared with the AOM/DSS only-treated mice...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702100/signaling-pathways-activated-by-resolvin-e1-to-stimulate-mucin-secretion-and-increase-intracellular-ca-2-in-cultured-rat-conjunctival-goblet-cells
#19
Marit Lippestad, Robin R Hodges, Tor P Utheim, Charles N Serhan, Darlene A Dartt
Glycoconjugate mucin secretion from conjunctival goblet cells is tightly regulated by nerves and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) to maintain ocular surface health. Here we investigated the actions of the SPM resolvin E1 (RvE1) on cultured rat conjunctival goblet cell glycoconjugate secretion and intracellular [Ca2+ ] ([Ca2+ ]i ) and the signaling pathways used by RvE1. Goblet cells were cultured from rat conjunctiva in RPMI medium. The amount of RvE1-stimulated glycoconjugate mucin secretion was determined using an enzyme-linked lectin assay with Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin 1 lectin...
April 24, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701117/the-histological-structure-and-histochemistry-of-the-mucosa-of-the-nasal-conchae-in-geese-anser-anser
#20
İ S Harem, M Kocak, E Karadag Sari
We investigated the histological structure and histochemistry of the nasal conchae of geese and compared these structures with those of other avian species. The rostral, middle and caudal conchae were dissected from the nasal cavity of eight geese, fixed in Carnoy's solution and embedded in paraffin. The entrance of the rostral concha was lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which toward the middle concha was replaced by modified keratinized squamous epithelium, the deep layer of which opened into tubular glandular structures containing secretory epithelium on crypt-like invaginations...
April 27, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
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