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radiologic pattern brain

Olivier Gay, Marion Plaze, Catherine Oppenheim, Raphael Gaillard, Jean-Pierre Olié, Marie-Odile Krebs, Arnaud Cachia
BACKGROUND: Several clinical and radiological markers of early neurodevelopmental deviations have been independently associated with cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to test the cumulative and/or interactive effects of these early neurodevelopmental factors on cognitive control (CC) deficit, a core feature of schizophrenia. METHODS: We recruited patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, who underwent structural MRI...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Elena Laakmann, Isabell Witzel, Verena Scriba, Ulrich Grzyska, Christine Zu Eulenburg, Nicole Burchardi, Tobias Hesse, Florian Würschmidt, Tanja Fehm, Volker Möbus, Gunter von Minckwitz, Sibylle Loibl, Tjoung-Won Park-Simon, Volkmar Mueller
Evidence about distribution patterns of brain metastases with regard to breast cancer subtypes and its influence on the prognosis of patients is insufficient. Clinical data, cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 300 breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BMs) were collected retrospectively in four centers participating in the Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Registry (BMBC) in Germany. Patients with positive estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses, had a significantly lower number of BMs at diagnosis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haifa A Bin Dahman, Abdul-Hakeem M Bin Mubaireek, Zain H Alhaddad
Joubert syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by congenital ataxia, hypotonia, developmental delay and at least one of the following features: neonatal respiratory disturbances and abnormal eye movements; including nystagmus and oculomotor apraxia. Molar tooth appearance is an essential finding for the diagnosis of Joubert syndrome. We report a five-days-old newborn with mild hypotonia, abnormal pattern of respiration, abnormal eye movements and molar tooth sign on brain CT scan...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
H Binder, M Majdan, T M Tiefenboeck, A Fochtmann, M Michel, S Hajdu, W Mauritz, J Leitgeb
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of mortality and acquired neurological impairment in children. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothese that due to adequate treatment of EDH in children and adolescence excellent clinical and functional outcome can be reached. PURPOSE: To evaluate retrospectively our treatment process of EDH and to elucidate the relationship between trauma mechanism, injury pattern, radiological presentation, subsequent therapy and functional outcome...
October 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Maria Zulfiqar, Stacy Kim, Jin-Ping Lai, Yihua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Despite the added radiation exposure and costs, the role of computed tomography (CT) in following pediatric skull fractures has not been fully evaluated. METHODS: We reviewed the radiology reports and images of the initial and follow-up head CT examinations of children with skull fractures to determine whether any interval changes in the fracture morphology and associated complications necessitate a change in clinical management. RESULTS: A total of 316 pediatric cases of skull fractures were identified, including 172 patients with and 144 without follow-up scans...
August 16, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
G Grolez, C Moreau, V Danel-Brunaud, C Delmaire, R Lopes, P F Pradat, M M El Mendili, L Defebvre, D Devos
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease that mainly affects the motor system. A number of potentially neuroprotective and neurorestorative disease-modifying drugs are currently in clinical development. At present, the evaluation of a drug's clinical efficacy in ALS is based on the ALS Functional Rating Scale Revised, motor tests and survival. However, these endpoints are general, variable and late-stage measures of the ALS disease process and thus require the long-term assessment of large cohorts...
2016: BMC Neurology
Bo Yang, Bo Xu Ren, Feng Ru Tang
Embryo/fetus is much more radiosensitive than neonatal and adult human being. The main potential effects of pre-natal radiation exposure on the human brain include growth retardation, small head/brain size, mental retardation, neocortical ectopias, callosal agenesis and brain tumor which may result in a lifetime poor quality of life. The patterns of prenatal radiation-induced effects are dependent not only on the stages of fetal development, the sensitivity of tissues and organs, but also on radiation sources, doses, dose rates...
August 12, 2016: Brain & Development
Vanessa van der Linden, Epitacio Leite Rolim Filho, Otavio Gomes Lins, Ana van der Linden, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco Aragão, Alessandra Mertens Brainer-Lima, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa Cruz, Maria Angela Wanderley Rocha, Paula Fabiana Sobral da Silva, Maria Durce Costa Gomes Carvalho, Fernando José do Amaral, Joelma Arruda Gomes, Igor Colaço Ribeiro de Medeiros, Camila V Ventura, Regina Coeli Ramos
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. SETTING: Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Praveen Kumar Srikanteswara, Praveen Kumar Pampapati, Kalpana Ramesh Yelsangikar
INTRODUCTION: Case reports pertaining to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) diagnosis of en-plaque tuberculoma are limited. To the best of our knowledge, descriptions about en-plaque tuberculoma are limited to few isolated case reports. This paper comprehensively depicts the clinical and radiological features in such patients and may serve not to miss this uncommon manifestation of a common central nervous system infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive documentation of the patient cohort with a detailed history and neurological examination were carried out in all the patients...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
A Tzankov
The mediastinum is a complex body region of limited space but containing numerous organs of different embryonic origins. A variety of lesions that are difficult to distinguish from each other can occur here. Non-neoplastic lesions of the mediastinum represent important differential diagnostic pitfalls to mediastinal tumors, clinically, radiologically and histopathologically. It is important to bear these lesions in mind and to adequately verify or exclude them before starting further differential diagnostic considerations on mediastinal neoplasms...
September 2016: Der Pathologe
D Daniels, D Guez, D Last, C Hoffmann, D Nass, A Talianski, G Tsarfaty, S Salomon, A A Kanner, D T Blumenthal, F Bokstein, S Harnof, D Yekutieli, S Zamir, Z R Cohen, L Zach, Y Mardor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The interpretation of the radiologic response of bevacizumab-treated patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas represents a unique challenge. Delayed-contrast MR imaging was recently introduced for calculating treatment-response-assessment maps in patients with brain tumors, providing clear separation between active tumor and treatment effects. We studied the application of standard and delayed-contrast MR imaging for assessing and predicting the response to bevacizumab...
July 7, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Dhanesh K Gupta, Navratan Suthar, Vikram Singh, Mitesh Bihari, Vijay Kumar, Kamal K Verma, Roop Sidana, Somnath Sengupta, Mahender Singh Bhadoriya
BACKGROUND: There are widespread perceptions that excessive and unnecessary investigations are done in many patients with mental illnesses. There are no studies from India looking into this issue. AIMS: (i) To study the frequency and pattern of various investigations such as electroencephalography (EEG), computerized tomography (CT) scan of head, magnetic resolution imaging (MRI) scan of brain, and blood investigations carried out by the previous doctors on patients seeking treatment in three different settings...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Antonio Di Ieva, Pierre-Jean Le Reste, Béatrice Carsin-Nicol, Jean-Christophe Ferre, Michael D Cusimano
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) of brain tumors provides information about neoplastic vasculature and intratumoral micro- and macrobleedings. Low- and high-grade gliomas can be distinguished by SWI due to their different vascular characteristics. Fractal analysis allows for quantification of these radiological differences by a computer-based morphological assessment of SWI patterns. OBJECTIVE: To show the feasibility of SWI analysis on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish different kinds of brain tumors...
June 21, 2016: Neurosurgery
B B Hassan, S M Elshafae, W Supsavhad, J K Simmons, W P Dirksen, S M Sokkar, T J Rosol
Feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is similar to human breast cancer in the late age of onset, incidence, histopathologic features, biological behavior, and pattern of metastasis. Therefore, FMC has been proposed as a relevant model for aggressive human breast cancer. The goals of this study were to develop a nude mouse model of FMC tumor growth and metastasis and to measure the expression of genes responsible for lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, tumor progression, and lymph node metastasis in FMC tissues and cell lines...
June 8, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Tsang-Wei Tu, Rashida A Williams, Jacob D Lescher, Neekita Jikaria, L Christine Turtzo, Joseph A Frank
OBJECTIVE: Metrics of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) can detect diffuse axonal injury in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The relationship between the changes in these imaging measures and the underlying pathologies is still relatively unknown. This study investigated the radiological-pathological correlation between these imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry using a closed head rat model of TBI. METHODS: TBI was performed on female rats followed longitudinally by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) out to 30 days postinjury, with a subset of animals selected for histopathological analyses...
June 2016: Annals of Neurology
Miriam E Van Dyke, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Michele M Doody, Hyeyeun Lim, Norman E Bolus, Steven L Simon, Bruce H Alexander, Cari M Kitahara
The authors evaluated historical patterns in the types of procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and the associated radiation safety practices used from 1945-2009 in a sample of U.S. radiologic technologists. In 2013-2014, 4,406 participants from the U.S. Radiologic Technologists (USRT) Study who previously reported working with medical radionuclides completed a detailed survey inquiring about the performance of 23 diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide procedures and the use of radiation safety practices when performing radionuclide procedure-related tasks during five time periods: 1945-1964, 1965-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2009...
July 2016: Health Physics
Noah D Sabin, Thomas E Merchant, Xingyu Li, Yimei Li, Paul Klimo, Frederick A Boop, David W Ellison, Robert J Ogg
PURPOSE: Imaging descriptions of posterior fossa ependymoma in children have focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal and local anatomic relationships with imaging location only recently used to classify these neoplasms. We developed a quantitative method for analyzing the location of ependymoma in the posterior fossa, tested its effectiveness in distinguishing groups of tumors, and examined potential associations of distinct tumor groups with treatment and prognostic factors...
August 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Christian Engwer, Markus Knappitsch, Christina Surulescu
Glioma is a broad class of brain and spinal cord tumors arising from glia cells, which are the main brain cells that can develop into neoplasms. They are highly invasive and lead to irregular tumor margins which are not precisely identifiable by medical imaging, thus rendering a precise enough resection very difficult. The understanding of glioma spread patterns is hence essential for both radiological therapy as well as surgical treatment. In this paper we propose a multiscale model for glioma growth including interactions of the cells with the underlying tissue network, along with proliferative effects...
April 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Sergio Cavalheiro, Amanda Lopez, Suzana Serra, Arthur Da Cunha, Marcos Devanir S da Costa, Antonio Moron, Henrique M Lederman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe some radiological features in the newborns with microcephaly caused by Zika virus infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We radiologically analyzed 13 cases of newborns with microcephaly born to mothers who were infected by the Zika virus in the early stage of pregnancy. RESULTS: The most frequently observed radiological findings were microcephaly and decreased brain parenchymal volume associated with lissencephaly, ventriculomegaly secondary to the lack of brain tissue (not hypertensive), and coarse and anarchic calcifications mainly involving the subcortical cortical transition, and the basal ganglia...
June 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Maria de Fatima Vasco Aragao, Vanessa van der Linden, Alessandra Mertens Brainer-Lima, Regina Ramos Coeli, Maria Angela Rocha, Paula Sobral da Silva, Maria Durce Costa Gomes de Carvalho, Ana van der Linden, Arthur Cesario de Holanda, Marcelo Moraes Valenca
OBJECTIVE: To report radiological findings observed in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the first cases of congenital infection and microcephaly presumably associated with the Zika virus in the current Brazilian epidemic. DESIGN: Retrospective study with a case series. SETTING: Association for Assistance of Disabled Children (AACD), Pernambuco state, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 23 children with a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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