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HIV-1 induced neuropathy

W Huang, M Calvo, T Pheby, D L H Bennett, A S C Rice
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most frequent manifestation of HIV disease. It often presents with significant neuropathic pain and is associated with previous exposure to neurotoxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, HIV-SN prevalence remains high even in resource-rich settings where these drugs are no longer used. Previous evidence suggests that exposure to indinavir, a protease inhibitor commonly used in antiretroviral therapy, may link to elevated HIV-SN risk. Here we investigated whether indinavir treatment was associated with the development of a "dying back" axonal neuropathy and changes in pain-relevant limb withdrawal and thigmotactic behaviours...
September 23, 2016: Pain
Yan Zhou, Hongmei Tang, Huangui Xiong
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected mononuclear phagocytes (brain macrophages and microglial cells) release proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Elevated levels of chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2, known previously as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) have been detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1-infected individuals and the raised CCL2 in the CSF correlates with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. To understand how elevated CCL2 induces HIV-1-associated neuropathy, we studied effects of CCL2 on excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSCs) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal brain slices using whole-cell patch recording techniques...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
A J Crespillo, B Praena, R Bello-Morales, L Lerma, A Vázquez-Calvo, M A Martín-Acebes, E Tabarés, F Sobrino, J A López-Guerrero
Valproic acid (VPA) is a small fatty acid used for treatment of different neurologic diseases such as epilepsy, migraines or bipolar disorders. VPA modulates different processes of cell metabolism that can lead to alterations in susceptibility of several cell types to the infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as to exert an inhibitory effect on the replication of different enveloped viruses in cultured cells. Taken these data into account and the fact that HSV-1 has been involved in some neuropathies, we have characterized the effect of VPA on this herpesvirus infection of the differentiation/maturation-inducible human oligodendrocyte cell line HOG, which resulted more susceptible to VPA inhibition of virus growth after cell differentiation...
March 2, 2016: Virus Research
Hao Li, Zhen Liu, Heng Chi, Yanwen Bi, Lijun Song, Huaxiang Liu
BACKGROUND: HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 is the main protein that causes HIVassociated sensory neuropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms of gp120-induced neurotoxicity are still unclear. There are lack effective treatments for relieving HIV-related neuropathic symptoms caused by gp120-induced neurotoxicity. METHODS: In the present study, tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk)A, TrkB, and TrkC expression in primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with gp120-induced neurotoxicity was investigated...
2016: Current HIV Research
Hirotsugu Kanda, Shue Liu, Takafumi Iida, Hyun Yi, Wan Huang, Roy C Levitt, David A Lubarsky, Keith A Candiotti, Shuanglin Hao
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play an important role in many cellular and physiologic functions. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, and their fusion and fission regulate cellular signaling, development, and mitochondrial homeostasis. The most common complaint of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-sensory neuropathy is pain on the soles in patients with HIV, but the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV neuropathic pain are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, a GTPase that mediates mitochondrial fission) in the perineural HIV coat glycoprotein gp120-induced neuropathic pain state...
January 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Jennifer Thompson, Godfrey Musoro, Hellen Musana, Abbas Lugemwa, Andrew Kambugu, Aggrey Mweemba, Dickens Atwongyeire, Margaret J Thomason, A Sarah Walker, Nicholas I Paton
Sensory peripheral neuropathy (PN) remains a common complication in HIV-positive patients despite effective combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Data on PN on second-line ART is scarce. We assessed PN using a standard tool in patients failing first-line ART and for 96 weeks following a switch to PI-based second-line ART in a large Randomised Clinical Trial in Sub-Saharan Africa. Factors associated with PN were investigated using logistic regression. Symptomatic PN (SPN) prevalence was 22% at entry (N = 1,251) and was associated (p < 0...
February 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Elizabeth Garcia-Perez, Romà Solà, Mireia Sumalla, Jordi Serra
Painful peripheral neuropathy due to the antiretroviral therapy used to treat HIV is one of the most prevalent side effects occurring in at least 30% of patients living with this infection. We have evaluated the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of d4T and ddC on peripheral large and small nerve fibers in male rats treated with d4T (Sprague-Dawley, 50 mg/kg, twice within 1 week), ddC (Wistar, 50 mg/kg, 3 times per week for 3 weeks), or vehicle. The effect of the interventions was assessed using behavioral measures of mechanical sensitivity, conventional nerve conduction studies, and microneurographic single nerve C-fiber recordings...
September 2015: Pain
Megumi Kanao, Hirotsugu Kanda, Wan Huang, Shue Liu, Hyun Yi, Keith A Candiotti, David A Lubarsky, Roy C Levitt, Shuanglin Hao
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related painful sensory neuropathies primarily consist of the HIV infection-related distal sensory polyneuropathy and antiretroviral toxic neuropathies. Pharmacotherapy provides only partial relief of pain in patients with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome because little is known about the exact neuropathological mechanisms for HIV-associated neuropathic pain (NP). Hypofunction of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) GABAergic inhibitory mechanisms has been reported after peripheral nerve injury...
June 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jennifer T Malon, Eliza Grlickova-Duzevik, James Vaughn, Holly Beaulac, Tyler R Vunk, Ling Cao
C57BL/6 (B6) mice develop peripheral neuropathy post-LP-BM5 infection, a murine model of HIV-1 infection, along with the up-regulation of select spinal cord cytokines. We investigated if calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) contributed to the development of peripheral neuropathy by stimulating glial responses. An increased expression of lumbar spinal cord CGRP was observed in vivo, post-LP-BM5 infection. Consequently, in vitro CGRP co-treatments led to a microglial content-dependent attenuation of viral loads in spinal cord mixed glia infected with selected doses of LP-BM5...
February 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Lin Lu, Haixia Dong, Guixiang Liu, Bin Yuan, Yizhao Li, Huaxiang Liu
Peripheral neuropathy induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy is not only difficult to distinguish in clinical practice, but also difficult to relieve the pain symptoms by analgesics because of the severity of the disease at the later stage. Hence, to explore the mechanisms of HIV-related neuropathy and find new therapeutic options are particularly important for relieving neuropathic pain symptoms of the patients. In the present study, primary cultured embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were used to determine the neurotoxic effects of HIV-gp120 protein and/or antiretroviral drug dideoxycytidine (ddC) and the therapeutic actions of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on gp120- or ddC-induced neurotoxicity...
November 2014: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
P J Moss, W Huang, J Dawes, K Okuse, S B McMahon, A S C Rice
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy (SN) is the most frequent neurological complication of HIV disease. Among the probable mechanisms underlying HIV-SN are neurotoxicity induced by the HIV glycoprotein gp120 and antiretroviral therapies (ART). Since HIV-SN prevalence remains high in patients who have not been exposed to toxic ART drugs, here we focused on gp120-mediated mechanisms underlying HIV-SN. METHODS: We hypothesized that a direct gp120-sensory neurone interaction is not the cause of neurite degeneration; rather, an indirect interaction of gp120 with sensory neurones involving macrophages underlies axonal degeneration...
March 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Wenwen Zheng, Wan Huang, Shue Liu, Roy C Levitt, Keith A Candiotti, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy is a common neurological complication of HIV infection affecting up to 30% of HIV-positive individuals. However, the exact neuropathological mechanisms remain unknown, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments for HIV-related neuropathic pain (NP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of proinflammatory factors with overexpression of interleukin (IL)-10 reduces HIV-related NP in a rat model...
September 2014: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Wenwen Zheng, Wan Huang, Shue Liu, Roy C Levitt, Keith A Candiotti, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50% of HIV patients and is a common peripheral nerve complication of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Evidence shows that painful HIV sensory neuropathy is influenced by neuroinflammatory events that include the proinflammatory molecules, MAP Kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF1α), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). However, the exact mechanisms of painful HIV sensory neuropathy are not known, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments...
2014: Molecular Pain
M D Sanna, A Quattrone, T Mello, C Ghelardini, N Galeotti
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to produce painful neuropathies and to enhance states of pain hypersensitivity produced by HIV-1 infection in patients with AIDS leading to discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy, thus limiting viral suppression strategies. The mechanisms by which NRTIs contribute to the development of neuropathic pain are not known. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that HuD, an RNA binding protein known to be an essential promoter of neuronal differentiation and survival, might be involved in the response to NRTI-induced neuropathy...
November 2014: Experimental Neurology
Jamie L Dorsey, Lisa M Mangus, Jonathan D Oakley, Sarah E Beck, Kathleen M Kelly, Suzanne E Queen, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Robert J Adams, Carl F Marfurt, Joseph L Mankowski
Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent neurological complication of HIV infection, affecting more than one-third of infected patients, including patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. Although emerging noninvasive techniques for corneal nerve assessments are increasingly being used to diagnose and monitor peripheral neuropathies, corneal nerve alterations have not been characterized in HIV. Here, to determine whether SIV infection leads to corneal nerve fiber loss, we immunostained corneas for the nerve fiber marker βIII tubulin...
June 2014: American Journal of Pathology
Wan Huang, Wenwen Zheng, Handong Ouyang, Hyun Yi, Shue Liu, Weian Zeng, Roy C Levitt, Keith A Candiotti, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
BACKGROUND: In the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy, neuropathic pain associated with the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is clinically common. While evidence demonstrates that neuropathic pain is influenced by neuroinflammatory events that include the proinflammatory molecules, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF1-α), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), the detailed mechanisms by which NRTIs contribute to the development of neuropathic pain are not known...
March 2014: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Maree T Smith, Tanya Lau, Victoria C J Wallace, Bruce D Wyse, Andrew S C Rice
Individuals infected with the HIV and taking certain antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication have a high prevalence of neuropathic pain that is not alleviated by analgesic/adjuvant drugs that are often efficacious for the relief of other types of neuropathic pain. There is therefore a great need for new analgesics to alleviate the pain of antiretroviral toxic neuropathy (ATN). Small-molecule angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) antagonists, with ≥1000-fold selectivity over the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, produced analgesia in the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve rat model of peripheral nerve trauma...
April 2014: Behavioural Pharmacology
Milcah Dhoro, Bernard Ngara, Gerald Kadzirange, Charles Nhachi, Collen Masimirembwa
A study was conducted in an HIV/AIDS Zimbabwean cohort to assess possible associations of pharmacogenetic variants with common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during anti-retroviral treatment (ART) and/or tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Genotype and allele frequencies for CYP2B6 G516T, CYP2B6 T983C, CYP2A6*17, ABCB1 rs10276036 C>T, NAT2*5 and NAT2*14 were similar to those reported in literature for other African populations. The CYP2B6 516TT genotype and male gender were significantly associated with occurrence of Efavirenz induced central nervous system disorders (OR 20...
September 2013: Current HIV Research
Han Liu, Jianuo Liu, Shangdong Liang, Huangui Xiong
Plasma gelsolin (pGSN), a secreted form of gelsolin, is constitutively expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are the major sources of pGSN in the CNS. It has been shown that levels of pGSN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are decreased in several neurological conditions including HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although there is no direct evidence that a decreased level of pGSN in CSF is causally related to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, neural cells, if lacking pGSN, are more vulnerable to cell death...
October 24, 2013: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Kristian L Hedstrom, Joshua C Murtie, Kathryn Albers, Nigel A Calcutt, Gabriel Corfas
Small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a disorder of peripheral nerves commonly found in patients with diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and those receiving chemotherapy. The complexity of disease etiology has led to a scarcity of effective treatments. Using two models of progressive SFN, we show that overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in skin keratinocytes or topical application of XIB4035, a reported nonpeptidyl agonist of GDNF receptor α1 (GFRα1), are effective treatments for SFN...
February 11, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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