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Francesca Salamanna, Veronica Borsari, Silvia Brogini, Gianluca Giavaresi, Annapaola Parrilli, Simona Cepollaro, Matteo Cadossi, Lucia Martini, Antonio Mazzotti, Milena Fini
One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Markus Hoffmann, Asita Fazel, Kai-Gerrit Mews, Petra Ambrosch
OBJECTIVES: To underline the value of the microendoscopic CO2 -Laser assisted treatment (MEDCO2 ) of Zenker's diverticulum by investigating a large patient cohort treated in a single medical center. DESIGN: Retrospective Cohort Study of consecutive patients. SETTING: Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Germany. PARTICIPANTS: 227 patients with Zenkers' diverticulum were treated by MEDCO2 and the results were compared with those reported in the literature for the open transcervical approach (OTA) and the endoscopic staple-assisted esophagodiverticulostomy (ESED)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
J Vickress, J Battista, R Barnett, J Morgan, S Yartsev
Deformable image registration (DIR) has become a common tool in medical imaging across both diagnostic and treatment specialties, but the methods used offer varying levels of accuracy. Evaluation of DIR is commonly performed using manually selected landmarks, which is subjective, tedious and time consuming. We propose a semi-automated method that saves time and provides accuracy comparable to manual selection. Three landmarking methods including manual (with two independent observers), scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), and SIFT with manual editing (SIFT-M) were tested on 10 thoracic 4DCT image studies corresponding to the 0% and 50% phases of respiration...
October 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jin Chen, Zheng-Wen Shen, Wei-Wen Xi, Yu Zhang
Four-dimensional computer tomography (4D-CT) has a great value in lung cancer radiotherapy for its capability in providing lung information with respiratory motion. We employed a global graph cuts super-resolution (SR) reconstruction method to reconstruct high-resolution lung 4D-CT images. First, the high-resolution images reconstruction energy function was built based on a Maximum a posteriori Markov Random Field (MAP-MRF) formulation. The energy function was then transformed to a graph formulation, which was solved using graph cut algorithm...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Jianbing Yi, Hao Yang, Xuan Yang, Guoliang Chen
We propose a deformable registration approach to estimate patient-specific lung motion during free breathing for four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) based on point matching and tracking between images in different phases. First, a robust point matching (RPM) algorithm coarsely aligns the source phase image onto all other target phase images of 4D CT. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is introduced into the cost function in order to accelerate and stabilize the convergence of the point matching...
September 20, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Saeed Mirsadraee, John H Reid, Martin Connell, William MacNee, Nikhil Hirani, John T Murchison, Edwin J van Beek
OBJECTIVE: Resolution and long-term functional effects of pulmonary emboli are unpredictable. This study was carried out to assess persisting vascular bed perfusion abnormalities and resolution of arterial thrombus in patients with recent pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS AND MATERIALS: 26 Patients were prospectively evaluated by dynamic (4D) contrast enhanced CT perfusion dynamic pulmonary CT perfusion. Intermittent volume imaging was performed every 1.5-1.7s during breath-hold and perfusion values were calculated by maximum-slope technique...
October 2016: European Journal of Radiology
E M J van Disseldorp, N J Petterson, M C M Rutten, F N van de Vosse, M R H M van Sambeek, R G P Lopata
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform wall stress analysis (WSA) using 4D ultrasound (US) in 40 patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The geometries and wall stress results were compared with computed tomography (CT) in seven patients. Additionally, the WSA models were calibrated using 4D motion estimation, resulting in patient specific material parameters that were compared among patients. METHODS: 4D-US images were acquired for 40 patients (AAA diameter 27-52 mm)...
September 22, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
S Sho, M Yilma, M W Yeh, M Livhits, J X Wu, J K Hoang, A R Sepahdari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with multigland primary hyperparathyroidism are at higher risk for missed lesions on imaging and failed parathyroidectomy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively validate the ability of previously derived predictive score systems, the composite multigland disease score, and the multiphase multidetector contrast-enhanced CT (4D-CT) composite multigland disease score, to identify patients with a high likelihood of multigland disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 71 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent 4D-CT and successful parathyroidectomy...
September 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
N Reynaert, B Demol, M Charoy, S Bouchoucha, F Crop, A Wagner, T Lacornerie, F Dubus, E Rault, P Comte, R Cayez, C Boydev, D Pasquier, X Mirabel, E Lartigau, T Sarrazin
PURPOSE: The main focus of the current paper is the clinical implementation of a Monte Carlo based platform for treatment plan validation for Tomotherapy and Cyberknife, without adding additional tasks to the dosimetry department. METHODS: The Monte Carlo platform consists of C++ classes for the actual functionality and a web based GUI that allows accessing the system using a web browser. Calculations are based on BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and/or GATE and are performed automatically after exporting the dicom data from the treatment planning system...
September 19, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Daniel Markel, Ives Levesque, Joe Larkin, Pierre Léger, Issam El Naqa
At present, there exists few openly available methods for evaluation of simultaneous segmentation and registration algorithms. These methods allow for a combination of both techniques to track the tumor in complex settings such as adaptive radiotherapy. We have produced a quality assurance platform for evaluating this specific subset of algorithms using a preserved porcine lung in such that it is multi-modality compatible: positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Luis Munoz, Amy Ziebell, Jason Morton, Madhava Bhat
An in-house solution for the verification of dose delivered to a moving phantom as required for the clinical implementation of lung stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy was developed. The superior-inferior movement required to simulate tumour motion during a normal breathing cycle was achieved via the novel use of an Arduino Uno™, a low-cost open-source microcontroller board connected to a high torque servo motor. Slow CT imaging was used to acquire the image set and a 4D cone beam CT (4D-CBCT) verified the efficacy of contoured margins before treatment on the moving phantom...
September 15, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Houda Bahig, Jacques de Guise, Toni Vu, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Danis Blais, Martin Lebeau, Nhu-Tram Nguyen, David Roberge
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of displacement of the pulmonary vein antrums resulting from the intrinsic motion of the heart using 4D cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). METHODS: Ten consecutive female patients were enrolled in this prospective planning study. In breath-hold, a contrast-injected cardiac 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) synchronized to the electrocardiogram was obtained using a prospective sequential acquisition method including the extreme phases of systole and diastole...
2016: Curēus
Cyril Mory, Guillaume Janssens, Simon Rit
Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) of the free-breathing thorax is a valuable tool in image-guided radiation therapy of the thorax and the upper abdomen. It allows the determination of the position of a tumor throughout the breathing cycle, while only its mean position can be extracted from three-dimensional CBCT. The classical approaches are not fully satisfactory: respiration-correlated methods allow one to accurately locate high-contrast structures in any frame, but contain strong streak artifacts unless the acquisition is significantly slowed down...
September 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Oliver Blanck, Svenja Ipsen, Mark K Chan, Ralf Bauer, Matthias Kerl, Peter Hunold, Volkmar Jacobi, Ralf Bruder, Achim Schweikard, Dirk Rades, Thomas J Vogl, Peter Kleine, Frank Bode, Jürgen Dunst
PURPOSE: Robotic guided stereotactic radiosurgery has recently been investigated for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Before moving into human treatments, multiple implications for treatment planning given a potential target tracking approach have to be considered. MATERIALS & METHODS: Theoretical AF radiosurgery treatment plans for twenty-four patients were generated for baseline comparison. Eighteen patients were investigated under ideal tracking conditions, twelve patients under regional dose rate (RDR = applied dose over a certain time window) optimized conditions (beam delivery sequence sorting according to regional beam targeting), four patients under ultrasound tracking conditions (beam block of the ultrasound probe) and four patients with temporary single fiducial tracking conditions (differential surrogate-to-target respiratory and cardiac motion)...
2016: Curēus
Thomas Henzler, Nils Vogler, Bettina Lange, Franz Dally, Mathias Meyer, Stefan O Schoenberg, Maliha Sadick
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic value and radiation dose of time-resolved CT-Angiography (4D-CTA) in pediatric patients with venous malformations using 3rd generation dual-source CT (DSCT) at 70 kVp tube voltage. METHODS: Between November 2014 and August 2015, seven children (2 male, 5 female; median age, 9 years; range 3-12 years) with suspected peripheral, non-cerebral, venous malformations were included in this feasibility study and underwent US, MRI and 4D-CTA...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Krzysztof C Ciesielski, Caiyun Wu, Joseph M McDonough, David A Mong, Robert M Campbell
PURPOSE: Dynamic or 4D imaging of the thorax has many applications. Both prospective and retrospective respiratory gating and tracking techniques have been developed for 4D imaging via CT and MRI. For pediatric imaging, due to radiation concerns, MRI becomes the de facto modality of choice. In thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), patients often suffer from extreme malformations of the chest wall, diaphragm, and/or spine with inability of the thorax to support normal respiration or lung growth (Campbell et al...
August 13, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
M R Radon, A Chandran, M Bhojak, K V Das
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel technique of 4D CTA for dynamic assessment of the intracranial vessels has a greater radiation burden than conventional CTA. Previous descriptions of the technique used a fixed-duration exposure protocol. This study examines the potential for dose reduction by individualizing exposure time to patient physiology by the use of time-enhancement curve techniques as previously applied in CT angiography and venography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 4D-CTA examinations performed at our institution were retrospectively reviewed...
August 25, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Ryan T Fitzgerald, Manohar Kuruva, Ryan David, Rohan S Samant, Manoj Kumar, Rudy Van Hemert, Edgardo J Angtuaco, Donald Bodenner, Brendan C Stack
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the use of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) for characterization of thyroid nodules. METHODS: Our study drew from 100 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent 4D parathyroid CT imaging for adenoma localization. Included subjects had tissue sampling of a thyroid nodule within 3 months of 4DCT. RESULTS: Twenty subjects (18 women and 2 men) had thyroid nodules that were pathologically confirmed...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Yoshiharu Ohno, Hisanobu Koyama, Ho Yun Lee, Sachiko Miura, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Kazuro Sugimura
Assessment of regional pulmonary perfusion as well as nodule and tumor perfusions in various pulmonary diseases are currently performed by means of nuclear medicine studies requiring radioactive macroaggregates, dual-energy computed tomography (CT), and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques and unenhanced and dynamic first-pass contrast enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as time-resolved three-dimensional or four-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
September 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Anaïs Rameau, Soo Eng, Joseph Vu, Ramin Saket, Peter Jun, Michael Friduss
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The prevalence of multiglandular disease (MGD) of the parathyroid has been reported to be higher in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and low baseline intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (<100 pg/mL). Low baseline PTH is associated with lower localization rate and positive predictive value with both preoperative sestamibi and ultrasound. This study sought to evaluate our experience with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for the localization of abnormal parathyroid glands, including MGD, in patients with low baseline intact PTH (LBiPTH)...
August 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
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