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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890689/developmental-toxicity-of-nicotine-a-transdisciplinary-synthesis-and-implications-for-emerging-tobacco-products
#1
REVIEW
Lucinda J England, Kjersti Aagaard, Michele Bloch, Kevin Conway, Kelly Cosgrove, Rachel Grana, Thomas J Gould, Dorothy Hatsukami, Frances Jensen, Denise Kandel, Bruce Lanphear, Frances Leslie, James R Pauly, Jenae Neiderhiser, Mark Rubinstein, Theodore A Slotkin, Eliot Spindel, Laura Stroud, Lauren Wakschlag
While the health risks associated with adult cigarette smoking have been well described, effects of nicotine exposure during periods of developmental vulnerability are often overlooked. Using MEDLINE and PubMed literature searches, books, reports and expert opinion, a transdisciplinary group of scientists reviewed human and animal research on the health effects of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy and adolescence. A synthesis of this research supports that nicotine contributes critically to adverse effects of gestational tobacco exposure, including reduced pulmonary function, auditory processing defects, impaired infant cardiorespiratory function, and may contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits in later life...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830992/factors-predictive-of-a-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-neuropsychological-assessment
#2
Leah N Enns, Nicole M Taylor
A variety of neurodevelopmental impairments related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnoses have been consistently documented. However, it is not clear whether such variables are predictive of a diagnosis. The purpose of the present study is to use logistic regressions to identify predictors of FASD in neuropsychological assessment. Charts of 180 children and adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who underwent psychological and diagnostic assessment for FASD were retrospectively reviewed...
November 10, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809665/executive-abilities-in-children-with-congenital-visual-impairment-in-mid-childhood
#3
Joe Bathelt, Michelle De Haan, Alison Salt, Naomi Jane Dale
The role of vision and vision deprivation in the development of executive function (EF) abilities in childhood is little understood; aspects of EF such as initiative, attention orienting, inhibition, planning and performance monitoring are often measured through visual tasks. Studying the development and integrity of EF abilities in children with congenital visual impairment (VI) may provide important insights into the development of EF and also its possible relationship with vision and non-visual senses. The current study investigates non-visual EF abilities in 18 school-age children of average verbal intelligence with VI of differing levels of severity arising from congenital disorders affecting the eye, retina, or anterior optic nerve...
November 3, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665293/an-rct-into-the-effects-of-neurofeedback-on-neurocognitive-functioning-compared-to-stimulant-medication-and-physical-activity-in-children-with-adhd
#4
Katleen Geladé, Marleen Bink, Tieme W P Janssen, Rosa van Mourik, Athanasios Maras, Jaap Oosterlaan
Neurofeedback (NFB) is a potential alternative treatment for children with ADHD that aims to optimize brain activity. Whereas most studies into NFB have investigated behavioral effects, less attention has been paid to the effects on neurocognitive functioning. The present randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared neurocognitive effects of NFB to (1) optimally titrated methylphenidate (MPH) and (2) a semi-active control intervention, physical activity (PA), to control for non-specific effects. Using a multicentre three-way parallel group RCT design, children with ADHD, aged 7-13, were randomly allocated to NFB (n = 39), MPH (n = 36) or PA (n = 37) over a period of 10-12 weeks...
September 24, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622982/are-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-symptoms-associated-with-executive-functioning-in-preschoolers
#5
Leanne Tamm, Sarah B Brenner, Morgan E Bamberger, Stephen P Becker
The aim of this study is to investigate whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms are associated with neurocognitive task performance and ratings of real-world executive functioning (EF) in preschoolers at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The associations between parent- and teacher-rated SCT symptoms and neuropsychological task performance and ratings of EF in 61 4-year-old preschool children (51 boys, 10 girls) with self-regulation difficulties were examined, with regression analyses controlling for the effects of ADHD inattention symptoms...
September 13, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622854/exercise-during-pregnancy-enhances-cerebral-maturation-in-the-newborn-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Elise Labonte-Lemoyne, Daniel Curnier, Dave Ellemberg
Accumulating research indicates that the regular practice of physical exercise is beneficial to the human brain. From the improvement of academic achievement in children to the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly, exercise appears beneficial across the developmental spectrum. Recent work from animal studies also indicates that a pregnant mother can transfer the benefits of exercise during gestation to her offspring's brain. Exercising pregnant rats give birth to pups that have better memory and spatial learning as well as increased synaptic density...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594924/automatic-cortical-representation-of-auditory-pitch-changes-in-rett-syndrome
#7
John J Foxe, Kelly M Burke, Gizely N Andrade, Aleksandra Djukic, Hans-Peter Frey, Sophie Molholm
BACKGROUND: Over the typical course of Rett syndrome, initial language and communication abilities deteriorate dramatically between the ages of 1 and 4 years, and a majority of these children go on to lose all oral communication abilities. It becomes extremely difficult for clinicians and caretakers to accurately assess the level of preserved auditory functioning in these children, an issue of obvious clinical import. Non-invasive electrophysiological techniques allow for the interrogation of auditory cortical processing without the need for overt behavioral responses...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592101/assistive-technology-evaluations-remote-microphone-technology-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Erin C Schafer, Suzanne Wright, Christine Anderson, Jessalyn Jones, Katie Pitts, Danielle Bryant, Melissa Watson, Jerrica Box, Melissa Neve, Lauren Mathews, Mary Pat Reed
The goal of this study was to conduct assistive technology evaluations on 12 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to evaluate the potential benefits of remote-microphone (RM) technology. A single group, within-subjects design was utilized to explore individual and group data from functional questionnaires and behavioral test measures administered, designed to assess school- and home-based listening abilities, once with and once without RM technology. Because some of the children were unable to complete the behavioral test measures, particular focus was given to the functional questionnaires completed by primary teachers, participants, and parents...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551263/improving-dorsal-stream-function-in-dyslexics-by-training-figure-ground-motion-discrimination-improves-attention-reading-fluency-and-working-memory
#9
Teri Lawton
There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445676/from-mimicry-to-language-a-neuroanatomically-based-evolutionary-model-of-the-emergence-of-vocal-language
#10
Oren Poliva
The auditory cortex communicates with the frontal lobe via the middle temporal gyrus (auditory ventral stream; AVS) or the inferior parietal lobule (auditory dorsal stream; ADS). Whereas the AVS is ascribed only with sound recognition, the ADS is ascribed with sound localization, voice detection, prosodic perception/production, lip-speech integration, phoneme discrimination, articulation, repetition, phonological long-term memory and working memory. Previously, I interpreted the juxtaposition of sound localization, voice detection, audio-visual integration and prosodic analysis, as evidence that the behavioral precursor to human speech is the exchange of contact calls in non-human primates...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423633/impact-of-co-morbid-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-on-cognitive-function-in-male-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-controlled-study
#11
Cristiano Termine, Chiara Luoni, Stefania Fontolan, Claudia Selvini, Livia Perego, Francesca Pavone, Giorgio Rossi, Umberto Balottin, Andrea E Cavanna
Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are co-morbid neurodevelopmental conditions affecting more commonly male patients. We set out to determine the impact of co-morbid ADHD on cognitive function in male children with TS by conducting a controlled study. Participants included four matched groups of unmedicated children (age range 6-15 years): TS (n=13), TS+ADHD (n=8), ADHD (n=39), healthy controls (n=66). Following clinical assessment, each participant completed a battery of tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Italian Battery for ADHD, the Tower of London test, the Corsi test, and the Digit Span test...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355396/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-profiles-of-children-with-landau-kleffner-syndrome
#12
Cynthia A Riccio, Stephanie M Vidrine, Morris J Cohen, Delmaris Acosta-Cotte, Yong Park
This is a retrospective study of 14 cases of children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), the most prominent feature of which is acquired aphasia. These children were followed at a tertiary care pediatric epilepsy center. From the research data base, all LKS cases with neuropsychological evaluation were extracted. Children ranged in age from 6 to 13 years (M = 9.12; SD = 2.19) at the time of assessment (1 to 10 years post-onset). The majority of the children were white males, and all but one continued to experience seizure activity...
June 29, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049959/neuropsychological-presentation-and-adaptive-skills-in-high-functioning-adolescents-with-visual-impairment-a-preliminary-investigation
#13
R Greenaway, L Pring, A Schepers, D P Isaacs, N J Dale
Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention...
April 6, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989281/relation-between-working-memory-capacity-and-auditory-stream-segregation-in-children-with-auditory-processing-disorder
#14
Yones Lotfi, Saiedeh Mehrkian, Abdollah Moossavi, Soghrat Faghih Zadeh, Hamed Sadjedi
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the relationship between working memory capacity and auditory stream segregation by using the concurrent minimum audible angle in children with a diagnosed auditory processing disorder (APD). METHODS: The participants in this cross-sectional, comparative study were 20 typically developing children and 15 children with a diagnosed APD (age, 9-11 years) according to the subtests of multiple-processing auditory assessment. Auditory stream segregation was investigated using the concurrent minimum audible angle...
March 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26731160/speech-recognition-and-parent-ratings-from-auditory-development-questionnaires-in-children-who-are-hard-of-hearing
#15
Ryan W McCreery, Elizabeth A Walker, Meredith Spratford, Jacob Oleson, Ruth Bentler, Lenore Holte, Patricia Roush
OBJECTIVES: Progress has been made in recent years in the provision of amplification and early intervention for children who are hard of hearing. However, children who use hearing aids (HAs) may have inconsistent access to their auditory environment due to limitations in speech audibility through their HAs or limited HA use. The effects of variability in children's auditory experience on parent-reported auditory skills questionnaires and on speech recognition in quiet and in noise were examined for a large group of children who were followed as part of the Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss study...
November 2015: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714882/good-holders-bad-shufflers-an-examination-of-working-memory-processes-and-modalities-in-children-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Ashley N Simone, Anne-Claude V Bédard, David J Marks, Jeffrey M Halperin
The aim of this study was to examine working memory (WM) modalities (visual-spatial and auditory-verbal) and processes (maintenance and manipulation) in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 63 8-year-old children with ADHD and an age- and sex-matched non-ADHD comparison group (N=51). Auditory-verbal and visual-spatial WM were assessed using the Digit Span and Spatial Span subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Integrated - Fourth Edition...
January 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681772/effects-of-smart-tablet-based-neurofeedback-training-on-cognitive-function-in-children-with-attention-problems
#17
Min-Sup Shin, Hyejin Jeon, Miyoung Kim, Taeho Hwang, Seo Jin Oh, Minsu Hwangbo, Ki Joong Kim
We sought to determine whether smart-tablet-based neurofeedback could improve executive function-including attention, working memory, and self-regulation-in children with attention problems. Forty children (10-12 years old) with attention problems, as determined by ratings on the Conners Parent Rating Scale, were assigned to either a neurofeedback group that received 16 sessions or a control group. A comprehensive test battery that assessed general intelligence, visual and auditory attention, attentional shifting, response inhibition and behavior rating scales were administered to both groups before neurofeedback training...
May 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617547/the-application-of-timing-in-therapy-of-children-and-adults-with-language-disorders
#18
Elzbieta Szelag, Anna Dacewicz, Aneta Szymaszek, Tomasz Wolak, Andrzej Senderski, Izabela Domitrz, Anna Oron
A number of evidence revealed a link between temporal information processing (TIP) and language. Both literature data and results of our studies indicated an overlapping of deficient TIP and disordered language, pointing to the existence of an association between these two functions. On this background the new approach is to apply such knowledge in therapy of patients suffering from language disorders. In two studies we asked the following questions: (1) can the temporal training reduce language deficits in aphasic patients (Study 1) or in children with specific language impairment (SLI, Study 2)? (2) can such training ameliorate also the other cognitive functions? Each of these studies employed pre-training assessment, training application, post-training and follow-up assessment...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26580215/language-and-central-temporal-auditory-processing-in-childhood-epilepsies
#19
Mirela Boscariol, Raquel L Casali, M Isabel R Amaral, Luciane L Lunardi, Carla G Matas, M Francisca Collela-Santos, Marilisa M Guerreiro
Because of the relationship between rolandic, temporoparietal, and centrotemporal areas and language and auditory processing, the aim of this study was to investigate language and central temporal auditory processing of children with epilepsy (rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy) and compare these with those of children without epilepsy. Thirty-five children aged between eight and 14 years old were studied. Two groups of children participated in this study: a group with childhood epilepsy (n=19), and a control group without epilepsy or linguistic changes (n=16)...
December 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26550957/the-role-of-nonverbal-working-memory-in-morphosyntactic-processing-by-school-aged-monolingual-and-bilingual-children
#20
Ishanti Gangopadhyay, Meghan M Davidson, Susan Ellis Weismer, Margarita Kaushanskaya
The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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