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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045765/oral-anti-diabetic-agents-for-women-with-established-diabetes-impaired-glucose-tolerance-or-previous-gestational-diabetes-planning-pregnancy-or-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Suzette Coat, William Hague, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: While most guidance recommends the use of insulin in women whose pregnancies are affected by pre-existing diabetes, oral anti-diabetic agents may be more acceptable to women. The effects of these oral anti-diabetic agents on maternal and infant health outcomes need to be established in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, as well as in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus preconceptionally or during a subsequent pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of oral anti-diabetic agents in women with established diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or previous gestational diabetes who are planning a pregnancy, or pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes, on maternal and infant health...
October 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044603/comorbid-masticatory-impairment-delays-recovery-from-acute-cerebral-ischemia-and-locomotor-hypoactivity-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-mice
#2
Ikuho Kojima, Tatsushi Mutoh, Kazumasu Sasaki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Yasuyuki Taki, Tatsuya Ishikawa
Tooth loss and related changes in the functionality may lead to worse outcome of stroke patients, but the link involved in this pathway remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of comorbid masticatory impairment on acute cerebral ischemia and neurobehavioral outcome after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Thirty C57BL/6 mice with (molar-less) or without (control) prior treatment of cutting off the upper molars (separated by at least one week), were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation...
October 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043654/evaluation-of-selected-micrornas-expression-in-remission-phase-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-potential-link-to-cognition-depression-and-disability
#3
Marta Niwald, Monika Migdalska-Sęk, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota, Elżbieta Miller
Accumulating data suggests that miRNAs might play a major role in neuroinflammatory processes. Therefore, our study aimed to first estimate the levels of miR-155, miR-326, and miR-301a in serum of RR-MS patients in the remission phase and then compare the levels of the examined miRNAs at different times after relapse. In this study, 36 RR-MS patients in the remission phase took part. We analyzed two subgroups of RR-MS: one, 1 to 2 months after completing steroid treatment during relapse (post-acute; n = 13) and the other, over 2 years without any relapse (stable; n = 23)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042900/regional-beta-index-of-electroencephalography-may-differentiate-alzheimer-s-disease-from-depression
#4
Kanghee Lee, Ji Won Han, Ki Woong Kim
Differentiating early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from depression with cognitive impairment is challenging in the elderly. To develop a model for differentiating these two conditions using electroencephalography (EEG), we enrolled 11 patients with early probable AD and 11 age- and cognitive function-matched patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and compared the EEG relative powers of 9 scalp regions. Compared to the MDD group, the AD group had a higher global theta relative power (p=0.021). In the MDD group, beta relative power was higher in the mid-central region than in the left or right central regions (p<0...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042877/impaired-social-and-role-function-in-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-schizophrenia-its-relations-with-negative-symptoms
#5
So Jung Lee, Kyung Ran Kim, Su Young Lee, Suk Kyoon An
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial dysfunction was a nettlesome problem of schizophrenia even in their prodromal phase as well as in their first-episode. In addition, its relations with psychopathology were not determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the social and role function impairment was found in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals as well as first-episode schizophrenia patients and to explore its relations with psychopathology. METHODS: Thirty-seven normal controls, 63 UHR participants and 28 young, first-episode schizophrenia patients were recruited...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042297/trek-1-pathway-mediates-isoflurane-induced-memory-impairment-in-middle-aged-mice
#6
Yanhui Cai, Zhengwu Peng, Haiyun Guo, Feng Wang, Yi Zeng
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been widely reported, especially in elderly patients. An association between POCD and inhalational anesthetics, such as isoflurane, has been suggested. The TWIK-related K(+) channel-1 (TREK-1) controls several major cellular responses involved in memory formation and is believed to participate in the development of depression, cerebral ischemia and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. However, the specific role of TREK-1 in mediating anesthesia-induced POCD remains unknown...
October 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038946/cognitive-and-behavioral-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update-ii-behavioral-disorders
#7
Luigi Trojano, Costanza Papagno
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can experience several behavioral symptoms, such as apathy, agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movements, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, and REM sleep behavioral disorders. Psychoses and hallucinations, depression and anxiety disorders, and difficulties in recognizing and experiencing emotions also impair behavior and can cause severe psychosocial problems in patients with PD. Symptoms can be present since early stages of the disease, sometimes even before the appearance of classical motor symptoms, likely in relation to dopamine depletion in basal ganglia and/or to dysfunctions of other neurotrasmitter systems, and others can develop later, in some cases in relation to dopaminergic treatment...
October 16, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038930/verbal-ability-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-clinically-referred-inpatient-and-outpatient-youth-with-asd
#8
Matthew D Lerner, Carla A Mazefsky, Rebecca J Weber, Emilie Transue, Matthew Siegel, Kenneth D Gadow
Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high rates of psychiatric symptoms, but the relation between verbal ability and psychiatric symptoms is unknown. This study utilized a large sample of clinically referred inpatient and outpatient youth with ASD to compare psychiatric comorbidity between verbal and minimally-verbal youth, adjusting for nonverbal IQ, age, and ASD symptom severity. Results indicated that verbal youth were more likely to present with and meet clinical cutoffs for depression and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, with greater impairment associated with depression...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037500/motor-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates-of-fatigue-in-early-de-novo-parkinson-disease-patients
#9
M Siciliano, L Trojano, R De Micco, A De Mase, F Garramone, A Russo, G Tedeschi, A Tessitore
INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is one of the most common and disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of this study was to determine prevalence and motor, behavioural, and cognitive correlates of distressing fatigue in early, de novo PD patients. METHODS: Eighty-one consecutive de novo PD patients (64% men; mean age 65.73 ± 8.26 years) underwent a comprehensive examination, including Parkinson's disease Fatigue Scale (PFS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS), and Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES)...
October 9, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037340/-neuropsychiatry-of-movement-disorders
#10
Juan Manuel Orjuela-Rojas, Gustavo Adolfo Barrios Vincos, Melisa Alejandra Martínez Gallego
Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037073/physical-inactivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-korean-older-adults-gender-differences-in-potential-covariates
#11
Youngyun Jin, Jinkyung Cho, Inhwan Lee, Haeryun Hong, Donghyun Kim, Soohyun Park, Hyunsik Kang
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is one major lifestyle risk factor of mild cognitive impairment with ageing. AIM: To investigate whether or not potential covariates modulate the association between physical activity (PA) and cognitive impairment in older adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from 10 245 Korean older adults (5 817 women) were used. RESULTS: High PA older adults were younger and longer educated and had lower comorbidity and depression than low PA older adults...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036842/investigating-the-discrepancy-between-subjective-and-objective-cognitive-impairment-following-acquired-brain-injury-the-role-of-psychological-affect
#12
Christopher Byrne, Rudi Coetzer, Karen Addy
BACKGROUND: Previous research examining the use of self-reported cognitive impairment as a reliable predictor of actual objective cognitive impairment (OCI) has provided mixed results. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the potential discrepancy between subjective and objective cognitive impairment in a sample of individuals with an acquired brain injury (ABI). METHOD: Twenty-four participants, recruited from a community brain injury service, completed an objective neuropsychological assessment and a series of self-report questionnaires assessing psychological affect and perceived cognitive difficulties...
October 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036587/latent-profile-analysis-and-conversion-to-psychosis-characterizing-subgroups-to-enhance-risk-prediction
#13
Kristin M Healey, David L Penn, Diana Perkins, Scott W Woods, Richard S E Keefe, Jean Addington
BACKGROUND: Groups at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis are heterogeneous, composed of individuals with different clusters of symptoms. It is likely that there exist subgroups, each associated with different symptom constellations and probabilities of conversion. METHOD: Present study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to ascertain subgroups in a combined sample of CHR (n = 171) and help-seeking controls (HSCs; n = 100; PREDICT study). Indicators in the LPA model included baseline Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and neurocognitive performance as measured by multiple instruments, including category instances (CAT)...
July 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035741/association-between-psychological-distress-subjective-cognitive-complaints-and-objective-neuropsychological-functioning-in-brain-tumor-patients
#14
Aiste Pranckeviciene, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Adomas Bunevicius
OBJECTIVES: Psychological distress and cognitive impairment are common complications in patients with brain tumors that are associated with poor quality of life and worse prognosis. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the associations between psychological distress, subjective cognitive complaints and baseline neuropsychological performance of brain tumor patients before neurosurgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients with various brain tumors referred for routine neuropsychological assessment 2-3days before neurosurgery participated in the study...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035703/a-randomized-clinical-trial-examining-the-effects-of-an-anxiety-sensitivity-intervention-on-insomnia-symptoms-replication-and-extension
#15
Nicole A Short, Joseph W Boffa, Savannah King, Brian J Albanese, Nicholas P Allan, Norman B Schmidt
Insomnia disorder is impairing and prevalent, particularly among individuals with comorbid anxiety disorders. Despite the availability of effective computerized treatments for insomnia, there are few that target both insomnia as well as co-occurring anxiety symptoms. The current study tests the efficacy of a computerized treatment for anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, a transdiagnostic risk factor for anxiety, mood, and insomnia symptoms, against a repeated contact control, on reducing insomnia symptoms...
October 5, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034740/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-traditional-herbal-medicine-gamiguibi-tang-in-patients-with-cancer-related-sleep-disturbance-a-prospective-randomized-wait-list-controlled-pilot-study
#16
Jee Young Lee, Hye Kyung Oh, Han Sung Ryu, Sung Soo Yoon, Wankyu Eo, Seong Woo Yoon
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is the second most bothersome symptom in patients with cancer, and it can significantly impair their quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the traditional herbal medicine Gamiguibi-tang (GGBT) in patients with cancer-related sleep disturbance. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, wait-list-controlled, open-label pilot clinical trial on cancer-related sleep disturbance. Patients with cancer experiencing poor sleep quality with a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index of at least 6 were randomly assigned to the GGBT and wait-list groups to receive GGBT and conventional care, respectively, for 2 weeks...
October 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034695/what-is-the-clinical-significance-of-chronic-emptiness-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#17
Daniel Elsner, Jillian H Broadbear, Sathya Rao
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the clinical significance of the experience of chronic emptiness in borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed, employing search terms including 'emptiness', 'personality disorder' and 'borderline personality disorder'. The most relevant English-language articles and books were selected for this review. RESULTS: Published literature and clinical experience suggest that chronic emptiness represents a substantial component of the symptom burden experienced by people with BPD, contributes to functional impairment and may distinguish BPD from other disorders such as major depressive disorder...
October 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033974/cognitive-deficits-in-chronic-stroke-patients-neuropsychological-assessment-depression-and-self-reports
#18
Arne E Nakling, Dag Aarsland, Halvor Næss, Daniel Wollschlaeger, Tormod Fladby, Håkon Hofstad, Eike Wehling
BACKGROUND: Following stroke, clinicians are challenged to detect and untangle symptoms of cognitive dysfunction and mood disorders. Additionally, they need to evaluate the informative value of self-reports to identify patients in need of further attendance. AIMS: To examine the association between neuropsychological measures, symptoms of depression, and self-reported cognitive function. METHODS: One-hundred and five chronic stroke patients underwent assessment covering 6 cognitive domains and answered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Memory and Thinking Scale from the Stroke Impact Scale 1 year after stroke...
May 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033789/stress-and-corticosteroids-modulate-muscarinic-long-term-potentiation-mltp-in-the-hippocampus
#20
Efrat Shavit Stein, Ze'Ev Itsekson Hayosh, Andreas Vlachos, Nicola Maggio
Stress influences synaptic plasticity, learning and memory in a steroid hormone receptor dependent manner. Based on these findings it has been proposed that stress could be a major risk factor for the development of cognitive decline and dementia. Interestingly, evidence has been provided that stress also affects muscarinic, i.e., acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated neurotransmission. To learn more about the impact of stress and steroids on synaptic plasticity, in this study, we investigated the effects of stress on muscarinic long term potentiation (mLTP)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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