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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245093/neurocognitive-functioning-in-first-episode-bipolar-disorder-relationship-with-functional-status
#1
Alejandro G Szmulewicz, Marina P Valerio, Julieta Lomastro, José M Smith, Virginia Chiappe, Diego J Martino, Ana Igoa
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess if an association between neurocognitive deficits and psychosocial functioning exists in first-episode BD patients. METHODS: Twenty-five euthymic first-episode BD patients and thirty-seven healthy controls were recruited. History of suicide attempts, psychiatric comorbidities, pharmacological exposure, and previous depressive episodes were investigated. Performances on neurocognitive domains (verbal memory, attention, processing speed, and executive functions) as well as a measure of psychosocial functioning were used as outcomes...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244265/herpes-zoster-and-dementia-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Shu-I Wu, Kuo-You Huang, Yao-Hsu Yang, Ting-Yu Kuo, Hsin-Yi Liang, Kuan-Lun Huang, Michael Gossop
OBJECTIVE: Some infectious diseases have been found to be associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the relationship between herpes zoster and dementia has received little attention. This study aimed to investigate this association as well as associations of antiviral treatments for herpes zoster and incident dementia using a large national sample. METHODS: Cases were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database with a new diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-CM code: 053) between 1997 and 2013...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244062/longitudinal-course-and-predictors-of-apathetic-symptoms-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Annabelle Arnould, Lucien Rochat, Philippe Azouvi, Martial Van der Linden
Objectives: Apathy is one of the most common behavioral symptoms encountered after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, very little is known about the longitudinal course and predictors of apathetic manifestations. The aims of the present study were to examine how apathy changes and the predictive value of cognitive factors (memory, attention/executive mechanisms, and multitasking) and personal identity factors (self-esteem and self-efficacy beliefs) for apathy over a period of 10 months...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242810/-her-life-rests-on-your-shoulders-doing-worry-as-emotion-work-in-the-care-of-children-with-diabetes
#4
Lisa Watt
Research on parents' caregiving experiences in the context of diabetes management have consistently shown that parents experience high levels of pediatric parenting stress, anxiety, depression, and general worry. However, how parents understand their worry is largely unexplored and little attention is paid to the work parents are already actively doing to manage their worry. Adopting Arlie Hochschild's concept of "emotion work" and Dorothy Smith's concept of "work," this article examines how parents engage in the emotion work of doing worry...
January 2017: Global Qualitative Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242705/workplace-policies-and-mental-health-among-working-class-new-parents
#5
Maureen Perry-Jenkins, JuliAnna Z Smith, Lauren Page Wadsworth, Hillary Paul Halpern
Little research has explored linkages between workplace policies and mental health in working-class, employed parents, creating a gap in our knowledge of work-family issues across social class levels. The current U.S. study addresses this gap by employing hierarchical linear modeling techniques to examine how workplace policies and parental leave benefits predicted parents' depressive symptoms and anxiety in a sample of 125, low-income, dual-earner couples interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Descriptive analyses revealed that, on average, parents had few workplace policies, such as schedule flexibility or child care supports, available to them...
2017: Community, Work & Family
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241358/criticisms-of-kraepelin-s-psychiatric-nosology-1896-1927
#6
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
Emil Kraepelin's psychiatric nosology, proposed in the 5th and 6th editions of his textbook published in 1896 and 1899, did not quickly gain worldwide acceptance, but was instead met with substantial and sustained criticism. The authors review critiques of Kraepelin's work published in his lifetime by Adolf Meyer, Friedrich Jolly, Eugenio Tanzi, Alfred Hoche, Karl Jaspers, and Willy Hellpach. These critics made six major points. First, Kraepelin's new categories of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity were too broad and too heterogeneous...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239636/time-varying-associations-of-parent-adolescent-cultural-conflict-and-youth-adjustment-among-chinese-american-families
#7
Linda P Juang, Yang Hou, Sara Douglass Bayless, Su Yeong Kim
The purpose of this study was to examine time-varying associations of parent-adolescent cultural conflict with depressive symptoms and grade point average (GPA) among Chinese Americans from ages 11-22. We pooled two independently collected longitudinal data sets (N = 760 at Wave 1) and used time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) to show that the frequency of parent-adolescent conflict increased during early adolescence (12 years), peaked at mid adolescence (16 years), and gradually decreased throughout late adolescence and young adulthood...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239055/brain-structural-alterations-associated-with-dysfunctional-cognitive-control-of-pain-in-patients-with-low-back-pain
#8
O Chehadi, A C Rusu, K Konietzny, E Schulz, O Köster, T Schmidt-Wilcke, M I Hasenbring
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has shown that chronic back pain (CBP) can lead to functional alterations in the circuitry underlying the cognitive control of pain. Thought suppression (TS) is a common type of cognitive control of pain. Previous research has shown that TS has paradoxical effects that may increase the awareness of pain. Pain-related TS may also increase individuals' attention to pain, which may also increase pain sensation, but thus far, the relationship between pain-related TS and structural brain alterations is unknown...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237560/beyond-the-trigger-the-mental-health-consequences-of-in-home-firearm-access-among-children-of-gun-owners
#9
Jinho Kim
RATIONALE: The high prevalence of household firearms in the U.S. has ignited a growing body of research seeking to understand its health consequences. While a large number of studies examine the impact of firearm availability on health risks of gun owners in the household, relatively little attention is given to whether and how in-home firearm access may shape psychological outcomes among children of gun owners. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether and how in-home firearm access is associated with adolescents' depressive symptoms...
December 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237331/autism-spectrum-disorder-consensus-guidelines-on-assessment-treatment-and-research-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#10
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235615/-music-therapy-as-a-non-pharmacological-treatment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#11
N Garcia-Casares, R M Moreno-Leiva, J A Garcia-Arnes
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease which involves, among other manifestations, a progressive deterioration of memory and language, as well as behavioral disorders. In addition to non-curative pharmacological therapies, for the last years, music therapy has been developed as an effective non-pharmacological therapy in order to relieve many of these manifestations. AIM: To analyze the recent scientific evidence about the effect of music therapy on cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with AD...
December 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235432/impact-of-informal-caregiving-on-cognitive-function-and-well-being-in-canada
#12
Sasha Mallya, Alexandra J Fiocco
BACKGROUND: With a rise in the aging population and a consequential rise in persons diagnosed with dementia comes an increase in the number of informal caregivers who are caring for a loved one. The objective of the proposed study was to assess the neurocognitive and psychological effects of caring for a person with dementia or a related neurodegenerative disease in a sample of Canadian informal caregivers. METHODS: Fifty-seven informal caregivers of a person with dementia or a related neurodegenerative disease (mean age = 66...
December 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234305/functional-components-of-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-cross-sectional-investigation
#13
Jordi A Matias-Guiu, Ana Cortés-Martínez, María Valles-Salgado, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Vanesa Pytel, Paloma Montero, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, Jorge Matias-Guiu
Background: Cognitive impairment is frequent and disabling in multiple sclerosis (MS). Changes in information processing speed constitute the most important cognitive deficit in MS. However, given the clinical and topographical variability of the disease, cognitive impairment may vary greatly and appear in other forms in addition to slower information processing speed. Our aim was to determine the frequency of cognitive impairment, the principal cognitive domains, and components involved in MS and to identify factors associated with presence of cognitive impairment in these patients in a large series of patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230059/genome-wide-association-study-of-delay-discounting-in-23-217-adult-research-participants-of-european-ancestry
#14
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Anita Pandit, Ellen M Schmidt, Johanna R Foerster, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
Delay discounting (DD), the tendency to discount the value of delayed versus current rewards, is elevated in a constellation of diseases and behavioral conditions. We performed a genome-wide association study of DD using 23,127 research participants of European ancestry. The most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism was rs6528024 (P = 2.40 × 10-8), which is located in an intron of the gene GPM6B. We also showed that 12% of the variance in DD was accounted for by genotype and that the genetic signature of DD overlapped with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, smoking, personality, cognition and body weight...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228518/childhood-trauma-is-associated-with-poorer-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#15
Andrew J Petkus, Eric J Lenze, Meryl A Butters, Elizabeth W Twamley, Julie Loebach Wetherell
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma is common and associated with both worse cognitive performance and disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in younger adults. The extent to which these associations persist into older adulthood remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported childhood trauma in relation to cognitive performance, and the extent to which cortisol explained this association, in 2 independent samples of older adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants in the discovery sample (N = 76) consisted of older adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (N = 57) and age-equated psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects (N = 19) who were referred largely through primary care clinics between 2004-2006...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226458/communicating-risk-in-dementia-care-survey-of-health-and-social-care-professionals
#16
Brian J Taylor, Mabel Stevenson, Michelle McDowell
Supporting people to live at home in line with community care policies requires increasing attention to assessing, communicating and managing risks. There is a challenge in supporting client choices that include risk-taking while demonstrating professional accountability. Risk communication becomes increasingly important with the need to engage clients and families in meaningful shared decision-making. This presents particular challenges in dementia services. This survey of risk communication in dementia care was administered to all health and social care professionals in community dementia services in Northern Ireland: June-September 2016...
December 11, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226004/understanding-the-context-of-romantic-partner-relational-victimization-links-between-relationship-satisfaction-depressive-symptoms-and-alcohol-related-problems
#17
Angelo M DiBello, Teresa M Preddy, Camilla S Øverup, Clayton Neighbors
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine links across romantic partner relational victimization, depressive symptoms, and drinking problems during young adulthood. We were interested in evaluating depression as a mediator of the association between relational victimization by one's romantic partner, drinking problems, and the conditional indirect effects of relationship satisfaction. Method: 269 individuals aged 18 to 26 years (68% female, Mage = 22.78 years, SD = 4...
October 2017: Psychology of Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225450/therapist-use-of-specific-and-nonspecific-strategies-across-two-affect-focused-psychotherapies-for-depression-role-of-adherence-monitoring
#18
Marlissa C Amole, Jill M Cyranowski, Laren R Conklin, John C Markowitz, Stacy E Martin, Holly A Swartz
Psychotherapists routinely use both specific and non-specific strategies to deliver empirically supported treatments (ESTs). Psychotherapy adherence monitoring has traditionally focused on assessing therapist use of EST-specific strategies (to distinguish between ESTs), paying less attention to non-specific techniques common to multiple psychotherapies. This study used the Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale (CSPRS) to evaluate therapist use of both specific and non-specific techniques in two affect-focused ESTs for depression...
September 2017: Journal of Psychotherapy Integration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225444/prevalence-and-correlates-of-major-depressive-symptoms-among-black-men-with-prostate-cancer
#19
Ballington L Kinlock, Lauren J Parker, Daniel L Howard, Janice V Bowie, Thomas A LaVeist, Roland J Thorpe
Objectives: The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of major depressive symptoms and identify factors that are associated with major depressive symptoms among Black men with prostate cancer (PCa). Design: This study consisted of 415 Black men aged 40-81 years that entered the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry during the years 2007-2008. The primary outcome variable was depressive symptoms (CES-D). Factors included age, income, education, insurance status, treatment received, time between diagnosis and treatment, Gleason score, medical mistrust and experience with racism/discrimination...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224581/executive-function-and-other-cognitive-deficits-are-distal-risk-factors-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-9-years-later
#20
Nur Hani Zainal, Michelle G Newman
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive model (Hirsch & Mathews, 2012) and attentional control theory (Eysenck & Derakshan, 2011) postulate that compromised executive function (EF) and other cognitive constructs are negatively linked to increased excessive and uncontrollable worry, the core symptom of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, the prospective link between neuropsychological constructs and GAD are not well understood. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 2605 community-dwelling adults whose average age was 55...
December 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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