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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146567/self-guided-web-based-interventions-scoping-review-on-user-needs-and-the-potential-of-embodied-conversational-agents-to-address-them
#1
REVIEW
Mark R Scholten, Saskia M Kelders, Julia Ewc Van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Web-based mental health interventions have evolved from innovative prototypes to evidence-based and clinically applied solutions for mental diseases such as depression and anxiety. Open-access, self-guided types of these solutions hold the promise of reaching and treating a large population at a reasonable cost. However, a considerable factor that currently hinders the effectiveness of these self-guided Web-based interventions is the high level of nonadherence. The absence of a human caregiver apparently has a negative effect on user adherence...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142291/resveratrol-modulates-cocaine-induced-inhibitory-synaptic-plasticity-in-vta-dopamine-neurons-by-inhibiting-phosphodiesterases-pdes
#2
Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Li Zhao, Fanxing Zeng, Qing-Song Liu
Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants, including grapes. It displays a wide range of neuroprotective benefits associated with anti-aging. Recent studies have shown that resveratrol regulates dopaminergic transmission and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether and how resveratrol alters basal inhibitory synaptic transmission and cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that resveratrol elevated cAMP levels by itself and further potentiated a forskolin-induced increase in cAMP levels in midbrain slices, consistent with reported effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141650/neuropsychological-function-is-improved-among-opioid-dependent-adults-who-adhere-to-opiate-agonist-treatment-with-buprenorphine-naloxone-a-preliminary-study
#3
Travis M Scott, Monica Rivera Mindt, Chinazo O Cunningham, Franchesca Arias, Kelly Coulehan, Aprille Mangalonzo, Pat Olsen, Julia H Arnsten
BACKGROUND: Among persons with opioid use disorder (OUD), neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with depression, and better neuropsychological function is associated with opioid abstinence. However, it is unknown whether depressive symptomatology or adherence to opiate agonist treatment are associated with neuropsychological change over time. METHODS: We recruited 20 buprenorphine/naloxone-treated adults with OUD (M Age = 45.2 years [SD = 8.1]; 25% female) to complete baseline and 6 month visits containing a neuropsychological test battery and self-reported measures of depressive symptomatology and medication adherence...
November 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138490/bidirectional-modulation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-by-dopaminergic-d4-receptors-in-the-ca1-area-of-hippocampus
#4
Sheeja Navakkode, Katherine C M Chew, Sabrina Jia Ning Tay, Qingshu Lin, Thomas Behnisch, Tuck Wah Soong
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the persistent increase in the strength of the synapses. However, the neural networks would become saturated if there is only synaptic strenghthening. Synaptic weakening could be facilitated by active processes like long-term depression (LTD). Molecular mechanisms that facilitate the weakening of synapses and thereby stabilize the synapses are also important in learning and memory. Here we show that blockade of dopaminergic D4 receptors (D4R) promoted the formation of late-LTP and transformed early-LTP into late-LTP...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134544/a-broader-phenotype-of-persistence-emerges-from-individual-differences-in-response-to-extinction
#5
Bruno Sauce, Christopher Wass, Michael Lewis, Louis D Matzel
The typical practice of averaging group performance during extinction gives the impression that responding declines gradually and homogeneously. However, previous studies of extinction in human infants have shown that some individuals persist in responding, whereas others abruptly cease responding. As predicted by theories of control, the infants who quickly resign typically display signs of sadness and despair when the expected reward is omitted. Using genetically diverse mice, here we observed a similar pattern of individual differences and the associated phenotypes...
November 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133651/comparison-of-30-2-standard-and-fast-programs-of-swedish-interactive-threshold-algorithm-of-humphrey-field-analyzer-for-perimetry-in-patients-with-intracranial-tumors
#6
Manav Deep Singh, Kanika Jain
PURPOSE: To find out whether 30-2 Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm (SITA) Fast is comparable to 30-2 SITA Standard as a tool for perimetry among the patients with intracranial tumors. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study involving 80 patients aged ≥18 years with imaging proven intracranial tumors and visual acuity better than 20/60. The patients underwent multiple visual field examinations using the two algorithms till consistent and repeatable results were obtained...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132937/arsenic-exposure-during-embryonic-development-alters-the-expression-of-the-long-noncoding-rna-growth-arrest-specific-5-gas5-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#7
Kevin K Caldwell, Alexander Hafez, Elizabeth Solomon, Matthew Cunningham, Andrea M Allan
Our previous studies suggest that prenatal arsenic exposure (50ppb) modifies epigenetic control of the programming of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling system in the developing mouse brain. These deficits may lead to long-lasting consequences, including deficits in learning and memory, increased depressive-like behaviors, and an altered set-point of GR feedback throughout life. To understand the arsenic-induced changes within the GR system, we assessed the impact of in utero arsenic exposure on the levels of the GR and growth arrest-specific-5 (Gas5), a noncoding RNA, across a key gestational period for GR programming (gestational days, GD 14-18) in mice...
November 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129800/saikosaponin-d-mediated-downregulation-of-neurogenesis-results-in-cognitive-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-akt-foxg-1-pathwayin-mice
#8
Xu Lixing, Ji Zhouye, Guo Liting, Zhang Ruyi, Qu Rong, Ma Shiping
Saikosaponin-d (SSd), one of the main constituents of the total saikosaponins extracted from Bupleurum falcatum L, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effect. Recently, SSd was proved to improve depressive symptoms although exhibit hepatotoxicity in animals, but the central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of SSd remains unclear. The present study investigated the SSd-induced impairment in hippocampal cognitive function and explored the possible mechanisms involved. After intragastric administration of SSd (4mg/kg, 8mg/kg) for 7 days, the learning and memory abilities of mice were evaluated by behavioral experiments...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129610/the-effect-of-rat-strain-and-stress-exposure-on-performance-in-touchscreen-tasks
#9
Lena-Sophie Martis, Simone Krog, Thao Phuong Tran, Elena Bouzinova, Sofie Laage Christiansen, Arne Møller, Megan C Holmes, Ove Wiborg
Patients suffering from depression-associated cognitive impairments often recover incompletely after remission from the core symptoms of depression (lack of energy, depressed mood and anhedonia). This study aimed to set the basis for clinically relevant testing of cognitive impairments in a preclinical model of depression. Hence, we used the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, which provokes the core symptom of anhedonia in a fraction of the stress exposed animals, while others remain resilient, and assessed the entire CMS groups' cognitive performance on the touchscreen operant platform...
November 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129456/a-canadian-cross-sectional-survey-on-psychosocial-supports-for-people-living-type-1-or-2-diabetes-health-care-providers-awareness-capacity-and-motivation
#10
Jennica Nichols, Michael Vallis, Stephanie Boutette, Carolyn Gall Casey, Catherine H Yu
OBJECTIVES: Addressing psychosocial issues is critical for diabetes self-management. This work explores health-care professionals' (HCPs') 1) perceived relevance of various psychosocial issues in diabetes management and 2) confidence in working on these issues within their services. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was developed based on the Capacity-Opportunity-Motivation Behaviour Model. It assessed self-rated confidence in supporting patients with psychosocial issues (capability), perceived relevance of these issues (motivation) and facilitators of skill development (opportunity)...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128490/responders-to-rtms-for-depression-show-increased-fronto-midline-theta-and-theta-connectivity-compared-to-non-responders
#11
N W Bailey, K E Hoy, N C Rogasch, R H Thomson, S McQueen, D Elliot, C M Sullivan, B D Fulcher, Z J Daskalakis, P B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for depression, but only some individuals respond. Predicting response could reduce patient and clinical burden. Neural activity related to working memory (WM) has been related to mood improvements, so may represent a biomarker for response prediction. PRIMARY HYPOTHESES: We expected higher theta and alpha activity in responders compared to non-responders to rTMS. METHODS: Fifty patients with treatment resistant depression and twenty controls performed a WM task while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded...
October 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128304/symptoms-of-mental-illness-and-their-impact-on-managing-type-2-diabetes-in-adults
#12
Adriana Cimo, Carolyn S Dewa
OBJECTIVES: People with mental illnesses are more likely to experience diabetes-related complications that can reduce life expectancy by 10 to 15 years. Diabetes management and outcomes can be improved when lifestyle interventions addressing healthful eating habits and physical activity use content tailored to the learning needs of individuals or groups. Understanding the challenges that prevent adherence to diabetes recommendations can start to inform the design of tailored diabetes education care...
November 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127070/an-early-experience-of-mild-adversity-involving-temporary-denial-of-maternal-contact-affects-the-serotonergic-system-of-adult-male-rats-and-leads-to-a-depressive-like-phenotype-and-inability-to-adapt-to-a-chronic-social-stress
#13
Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Theodora Kalpachidou, Georgios Aspiotis, Ioannis Gampierakis, Fotini Stylianopoulou, Antonios Stamatakis
Adverse early life experiences can affect adaptability to chronic stressors and lead to depressive-like behaviors in animal models. We employed an early experience model in which rat pups during postnatal days 10-13 are exposed to a T-maze in which they learn the location of their mother motivated by the rewarding stimulus of maternal contact; one group of rats receives the expected reward, by being allowed contact with the mother upon finding her, while the other group is temporarily denied this contact (Denied Expected Reward, DER), thus experiencing mild adversity...
November 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119264/keap1-nrf2-signaling-pathway-confers-resilience-versus-susceptibility-to-inescapable-electric-stress
#14
Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Chao Dong, Mei Han, Yukihiko Shirayama, Kenji Hashimoto
The transcription factor Keap1-Nrf2 signaling plays a key role in the oxidative stress which is involved in psychiatric disorders. In the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm, protein levels of Keap1 and Nrf2 in the prefrontal cortex and dentate gyrus of hippocampus from LH (susceptible) rats were lower than control and non-LH (resilience) rats. Furthermore, protein expressions of Keap1 and Nrf2 in the parietal cortex from major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder were lower than controls...
November 8, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113072/effects-of-1-8-ghz-radiofrequency-fields-on-the-emotional-behavior-and-spatial-memory-of-adolescent-mice
#15
Jun-Ping Zhang, Ke-Ying Zhang, Ling Guo, Qi-Liang Chen, Peng Gao, Tian Wang, Jing Li, Guo-Zhen Guo, Gui-Rong Ding
The increasing use of mobile phones by teenagers has raised concern about the cognitive effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields. In this study, we investigated the effects of 4-week exposure to a 1.8 GHz RF field on the emotional behavior and spatial memory of adolescent male mice. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated by open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test, while depression-like behavior was evaluated by sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The spatial learning and memory ability were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) experiments...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110906/memory-focused-interventions-for-people-with-cognitive-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-studies
#16
Hui-Ling Yang, Pi-Tuan Chan, Pi-Chen Chang, Huei-Ling Chiu, Shu-Tai Sheen Hsiao, Hsin Chu, Kuei-Ru Chou
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of people with cognitive disorders improves performance on memory tasks through memory-focused interventions are needed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of memoryfocused interventions on cognitive disorders through a meta-analysis. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: The online electronic databases PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Ovid-Medline, CINHAL, PsycINFO, Ageline, and Embase (up to May 2017) were used in this study...
August 20, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109968/tracking-post-trauma-psychopathology-using-mobile-applications-a-usability-study
#17
Matthew Price, Katherine van Stolk-Cooke, Hannah L Ward, Michael O'Keefe, Jennifer Gratton, Christian Skalka, Kalev Freeman
Trauma exposure markedly increases risk for psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Understanding the course by which PTSD develops after a traumatic event is critical to enhancing early intervention. Although prior work has explored the course of PTSD symptoms in the subsequent months, relatively few studies have explored the course of symptoms in the acute post-trauma period, defined as the 30 days after a traumatic event. A key challenge to conducting such studies is the lack of efficient means to collect data that does not impose significant burden on the participant during this time...
March 2017: J Technol Behav Sci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109559/curriculum-in-psychiatry-and-neurology-for-pharmacy-programs
#18
Julie A Dopheide, Jolene R Bostwick, Lisa W Goldstone, Kelan Thomas, Ruth Nemire, Kelly N Gable, Marshall Cates, Joshua Caballero, Tawny Smith, Jacquelyn Bainbridge
Objective. To describe pharmacy curricula in psychiatry and neurology and to report on neuropsychiatric pharmacy specialists' views on optimal curriculum. Methods. Design and administer one electronic survey to accredited pharmacy programs asking them to report information on curricula in psychiatry and neurology for the 2014-2015 academic year. Design and administer a separate electronic survey to board certified pharmacists with an academic affiliation who are members of the College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists (CPNP) asking about their teaching activities and their opinion on optimal curricula...
September 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108161/psychological-impact-of-abortion-due-to-fetal-anomaly-a-review-of-published-research
#19
Nora Sullivan, Eoghan de Faoite
Over the past several decades, prenatal testing for fetal anomalies has become standard across the developed world. Most women who learn of a severe anomaly during pregnancy elect to terminate. The authors reviewed ten studies which examined the psychological sequelae of pregnant women following prenatal diagnoses of severe life limiting conditions. Based on the available data, the authors found evidence that women who abort due to a poor prenatal diagnosis are at higher risk of post-traumatic stress and depression than women who continue with pregnancy...
2017: Issues in Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107895/evaluating-the-protective-effect-of-etazolate-on-memory-impairment-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-induced-by-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Karem H Alzoubi, Zeinab Y Al Subeh, Omar F Khabour
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that develops after an individual experiences severe life-threatening traumatic stress. Etazolate is a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor that is specific for cAMP. Etazolate showed anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and could be useful in managing PTSD co-morbidities. The current study was done to evaluate the role of etazolate in preventing PTSD induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression-like symptoms. PTSD was induced in rats using single prolonged stress model...
November 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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