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Learning depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241180/reevaluating-the-efficacy-and-predictability-of-antidepressant-treatments-a-symptom-clustering-approach
#1
Adam M Chekroud, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Harlan M Krumholz, Madhukar H Trivedi, John H Krystal, Gregory McCarthy
Importance: Depressive severity is typically measured according to total scores on questionnaires that include a diverse range of symptoms despite convincing evidence that depression is not a unitary construct. When evaluated according to aggregate measurements, treatment efficacy is generally modest and differences in efficacy between antidepressant therapies are small. Objectives: To determine the efficacy of antidepressant treatments on empirically defined groups of symptoms and examine the replicability of these groups...
February 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237826/treatment-considerations-for-depression-research-in-older-married-couples-a-dyadic-case-study
#2
Sarah T Stahl, Juleen Rodakowski, Ariel G Gildengers, Charles F Reynolds, Jennifer Q Morse, Kevin Rico, Meryl A Butters
OBJECTIVE: Critical gaps remain in understanding optimal approaches to intervening with older couples. The focus of this report is to describe the pros and cons of incorporating spousal dyads into depression-prevention research. METHODS: In an intervention development study, the authors administered problem-solving therapy (PST) dyadically to participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their caregivers. Dyads worked with the same interventionist in the same therapy session...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236778/interactions-between-synaptic-homeostatic-mechanisms-an-attempt-to-reconcile-bcm-theory-synaptic-scaling-and-changing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#3
REVIEW
Tara Keck, Mark Hübener, Tobias Bonhoeffer
Homeostatic plasticity is proposed to be mediated by synaptic changes, such as synaptic scaling and shifts in the excitation/inhibition balance. These mechanisms are thought to be separate from the Bienenstock, Cooper, Munro (BCM) learning rule, where the threshold for the induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression slides in response to changes in activity levels. Yet, both sets of mechanisms produce a homeostatic response of a relative increase (or decrease) in strength of excitatory synapses in response to overall activity-level changes...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229104/prenatal-stressors-in-rodents-effects-on-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Marta Weinstock
The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227698/predicting-brain-stimulation-treatment-outcomes-of-depressed-patients-through-the-classification-of-eeg-oscillations
#5
Alaa M Al-Kaysi, Ahmed Al-Ani, Colleen K Loo, Michael Breakspear, Tjeerd W Boonstra, Alaa M Al-Kaysi, Ahmed Al-Ani, Colleen K Loo, Michael Breakspear, Tjeerd W Boonstra, Michael Breakspear, Ahmed Al-Ani, Tjeerd W Boonstra, Colleen K Loo
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder that is characterized by negative thoughts, mood and behavior. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has recently emerged as a promising brain-stimulation treatment for MDD. A standard tDCS treatment involves numerous sessions that run over a few weeks, however, not all participants respond to this type of treatment. This study aims to predict which patients improve in mood and cognition in response to tDCS treatment by analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) of MDD patients that was collected at the start of tDCS treatment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227344/detection-of-mental-stress-due-to-oral-academic-examination-via-ultra-short-term-hrv-analysis
#6
R Castaldo, W Xu, P Melillo, L Pecchia, L Santamaria, C James, R Castaldo, W Xu, P Melillo, L Pecchia, L Santamaria, C James, R Castaldo, C James, W Xu, P Melillo, L Santamaria, L Pecchia
Mental stress may cause cognitive dysfunctions, cardiovascular disorders and depression. Mental stress detection via short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis has been widely explored in the last years, while ultra-short term (less than 5 minutes) HRV has been not. This study aims to detect mental stress using linear and non-linear HRV features extracted from 3 minutes ECG excerpts recorded from 42 university students, during oral examination (stress) and at rest after a vacation. HRV features were then extracted and analyzed according to the literature using validated software tools...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226968/discriminating-clinical-phases-of-recovery-from-major-depressive-disorder-using-the-dynamics-of-facial-expression
#7
Sahar Harati, Andrea Crowell, Helen Mayberg, Jun Kong, Shamim Nemati, Sahar Harati, Andrea Crowell, Helen Mayberg, Jun Kong, Shamim Nemati, Andrea Crowell, Helen Mayberg, Jun Kong, Shamim Nemati, Sahar Harati
We used several metrics of variability to extract unsupervised features from video recordings of patients before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Our goal was to quantify the treatment effects on facial expressivity. Multiscale entropy (MSE) was used to capture the temporal variability in pixel intensity level at multiple time-scales. A dynamic latent variable model (DLVM) was used to learn a low dimensional (D = 20) set of dynamic factors that explain the observed covariance across the high-dimensional pixels (M = 30 × 30) within each video frame and across time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223106/diagnosis-of-major-depressive-disorder-by-combining-multimodal-information-from-heart-rate-dynamics-and-serum-proteomics-using-machine-learning-algorithm
#8
Eun Young Kim, Min Young Lee, Se Hyun Kim, Kyooseob Ha, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yong Min Ahn
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a systemic and multifactorial disorder that involves abnormalities in multiple biochemical pathways and the autonomic nervous system. This study applied a machine-learning method to classify MDD and control groups by incorporating data from serum proteomic analysis and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for the identification of novel peripheral biomarkers. METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 25 drug-free female MDD patients and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
February 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221057/-understanding-the-neural-basis-of-cognitive-bias-modification-as-a-clinical-treatment-for-depression-correction-to-eguchi-et-al-2016
#9
(no author information available yet)
: Reports an error in "Understanding the neural basis of cognitive bias modification as a clinical treatment for depression" by Akihiro Eguchi, Daniel Walters, Nele Peerenboom, Hannah Dury, Elaine Fox and Simon Stringer (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 19, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Discussion section's first paragraph for Implications and Future Work. The in-text reference citation for Penton-Voak et al. (2013) was incorrectly listed as "Blumenfeld, Preminger, Sagi, and Tsodyks (2006)"...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220089/emotion-regulation-therapy-a-mechanism-targeted-treatment-for-disorders-of-distress
#10
Megan E Renna, Jean M Quintero, David M Fresco, Douglas S Mennin
"Distress disorders," which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215295/bdnf-propeptide-a-novel-modulator-of-synaptic-plasticity
#11
M Kojima, T Mizui
One of the most characterized neurotrophic factors is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates neuronal survival and differentiation, and functions in activity-dependent plasticity processes such as long-term potentiation, long-term depression (LTD), and learning memory. Similar to other growth factors, BDNF protein is produced by transcriptional and translational mechanisms. Nevertheless, a posttranslational mechanism, the proteolytic conversion of precursor BDNF into at least two fragments, bioactive BDNF and the prodomain, has not been well elucidated...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215294/bdnf-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#12
G Leal, C R Bramham, C B Duarte
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to a family of small secreted proteins that also include nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, and neurotrophin 4. BDNF stands out among all neurotrophins by its high expression levels in the brain and its potent effects at synapses. Several aspects of BDNF biology such as transcription, processing, and secretion are regulated by synaptic activity. Such observations prompted the suggestion that BDNF may regulate activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP), a sustained enhancement of excitatory synaptic efficacy thought to underlie learning and memory...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212724/mechanistic-insight-into-neurotoxicity-induced-by-developmental-insults
#13
REVIEW
Christoffer Tamm, Sandra Ceccatelli
Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212570/altered-amygdala-and-hippocampus-effective-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-with-depression-a-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-study-with-granger-causality-analysis
#14
Li Juan Zheng, Gui Fen Yang, Xin Yuan Zhang, Yun Fei Wang, Ya Liu, Gang Zheng, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang, Ying Han
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the major depression disorder would increase the risk of dementia in the older with amnestic cognitive impairment. We used granger causality analysis algorithm to explore the amygdala- and hippocampus-based directional connectivity patterns in 12 patients with major depression disorder and amnestic cognitive impairment (mean age: 69.5 ± 10.3 years), 13 amnestic cognitive impairment patients (mean age: 72.7 ± 8.5 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age: 64.7 ± 7...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210998/on-t%C3%AF-he-distinction-between-value-driven-attention-and-selection-history-evidence-from-individuals-with-depressive-symptoms
#15
Brian A Anderson, Michelle Chiu, Michelle M DiBartolo, Stephanie L Leal
When predictive of extrinsic reward as targets, stimuli rapidly acquire the ability to automatically capture attention. Attentional biases for former targets of visual search also can develop without reward feedback but typically require much longer training. These learned biases towards former targets often are conceptualized within a single framework and might differ merely in degree. That is, both are the result of the reinforcement of selection history, with extrinsic reward for correct report of the target providing greater reinforcement than correct report alone...
February 16, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208982/delusional-disorder-in-a-patient-with-corpus-callosum-agenesis
#16
M S Bhatia, Rashmita Saha, Nimisha Doval
Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger's syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, disturbed sleep and reduced appetite...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206833/an-exploration-of-the-relationship-between-psychological-capital-and-depression-among-first-year-doctor-of-veterinary-medicine-students
#17
Dorothy J Bakker, Sean T Lyons, Peter D Conlon
This study examined the impact of psychological capital on depressive symptoms among Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) students (n=84) over their first two semesters of studies. Our results indicated elevated rates of depression in both the first and second semesters relative to published norms. Using the typology developed by Hafen, Reisbig, White, and Rush (2008), students were classified as either "adaptive" (i.e., improving depressive symptomatology from semester to semester) or "struggling" (i.e., worsening depressive symptomatology from semester to semester)...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205604/selectively-bred-rats-provide-a-unique-model-of-vulnerability-to-ptsd-like-behavior-and-respond-differentially-to-fgf2-augmentation-early-in-life
#18
Katherine E Prater, Elyse L Aurbach, Hanna K Larcinese, Taylor N Smith, Cortney A Turner, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Stephen Maren, Huda Akil
Individuals respond differently to traumatic experiences including their propensity to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Understanding individual differences in PTSD vulnerability will allow the development of improved prevention and treatment options. Here, we characterized fear conditioning and extinction in rats selectively bred for differences in their locomotor response to a novel environment. Selectively bred high responder (bHR) and low responder (bLR) male rats are known to differ in their emotional reactivity on a range of measures of spontaneous anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202907/calpain-1-deletion-impairs-mglur-dependent-ltd-and-fear-memory-extinction
#19
Guoqi Zhu, Victor Briz, Jeff Seinfeld, Yan Liu, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry
Recent studies indicate that calpain-1 is required for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited by theta-burst stimulation in field CA1 of hippocampus. Here we determined the contribution of calpain-1 in another type of synaptic plasticity, the long-term depression (LTD) elicited by activation of type-I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR-LTD). mGluR-LTD was associated with calpain-1 activation following T-type calcium channel opening, and resulted in the truncation of a regulatory subunit of PP2A, B56α...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198207/neurophysiological-symptoms-and-aspartame-what-is-the-connection
#20
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Yeong Yeh Lee
Aspartame (α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-o-methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, has been linked to behavioral and cognitive problems. Possible neurophysiological symptoms include learning problems, headache, seizure, migraines, irritable moods, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The consumption of aspartame, unlike dietary protein, can elevate the levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid in the brain. These compounds can inhibit the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are known regulators of neurophysiological activity...
February 15, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
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