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Learning depression

Shunjie Ye, Rong Yang, Qiuju Xiong, Youhua Yang, Lianying Zhou, Yeli Gong, Changlei Li, Zhenhan Ding, Guohai Ye, Zhe Xiong
Acute stress has been shown to enhance learning and memory ability, predominantly through the action of corticosteroid stress hormones. However, the valuable targets for promoting learning and memory induced by acute stress and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in central neuronal systems and involves in depression, synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. In the current study, we used a combination of electrophysiological and behavioral approaches in an effort to explore the effects of acute stress on ASICs...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Charlene E Gamaldo, Alyssa A Gamaldo, Laurence T Hou, Aadi Kalloo, Daniel Hexter, Brian Salter, Molly Price, Maya Carter, Rachel Marie E Salas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and utility of a private community neurology practice-initiated home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) program. METHODS: A private community neurology practice conducted HSAT on patients clinically identified as high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). An academic board-certified sleep specialist performed all study interpretations. The presence and severity of OSA and its association with patient demographics (eg, sex, age) and comorbid health conditions relevant to OSA were evaluated...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Samira EghbaliFeriz, Akram Taleghani, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Scutellaria comprises many species traditionally used for cognitive and neurological conditions. In vitro and in vivo studies have supported the value of bioactive compounds of the genus Scutellaria for CNS disorders such as Alzheimer, cerebral ischemia, depression and anxiety. In particular, the effects of plants belonging to the genus Scutellaria and their components are detailed on cognitive ability such as memory, attention and learning. In this review, the pharmacology of CNS effect and the related molecular mechanisms of the plants belonging to the genus Scutellaria and active constituents have been discussed...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
P Leon Brown, Panos Zanos, Leiming Wang, Greg I Elmer, Todd D Gould, Paul D Shepard
Background: The volatile anesthetic isoflurane may exert a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effect in patients with medication-resistant depression. The mechanism underlying the putative therapeutic actions of the anesthetic have been attributed to its ability to elicit cortical burst suppression, a distinct EEG pattern with features resembling the characteristic changes that occur following electroconvulsive therapy. It is currently unknown whether the antidepressant actions of isoflurane are shared by anesthetics that do not elicit cortical burst suppression...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ipek Ensari, Julia M Balto, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Lara A Pilutti, Robert W Motl
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that motor and cognitive impairments often co-occur in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is little research on influences of cognitive-motor coupling, particularly depressive symptoms. This study examined depressive symptoms as a moderator and/or confounder of cognitive-motor coupling in persons with MS. METHOD: The sample included 131 persons with MS who were allocated into elevated and nonelevated depressive symptom groups based on a cutoff score of 8 on the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Andrew Leung Luk, Adrian Fai To Yau
Background: Overseas studies suggest that 10-20% of doctors are depressed, 30-45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
P H M Burger, M Scholz
BACKGROUND: In Germany, currently two out of three medical students are female. Several studies corroborate that medical students show a significantly higher prevalence of stress-related mental disorders than the population in general. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate, if gender has an influence on the distribution of mental stress parameters and learning style among male and female medical students. METHODS: We investigated a total of 758 students of the medical faculty at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, using standardized and validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), burnout (BOSS-II) and quality of life (SF-12)...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Andre Pittig, Michael Treanor, Richard T LeBeau, Michelle G Craske
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders, and are often chronic and disabling. Although exposure-based treatments are effective, a substantial number of individuals fail to fully remit or experience a return of symptoms after treatment. Understanding the critical processes underlying the development and treatment of anxiety disorders will help identify individuals at risk and optimize treatments. Aversive associative learning offers explanatory pathways through which fear and anxiety emerge, spread, persist, and resurge...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Benedetta Vanini, Valentina Grazioli, Antonio Sciortino, Maurizio Pin, Vera N Merli, Anna Celentano, Ilaria Parisi, Catherine Klersy, Lucia Petrucci, Maurizio Salati, Pierluigi Politi, Andrea M D'Armini
BACKGROUND: In this prospective, single-center, observational study, we investigated the association between repeated short periods of circulatory arrest with moderate hypothermia during pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and different neuropsychological dimensions. METHODS: We examined 70 patients with CTEPH, >18 to 80 years of age, who had been treated with PEA. Neuropsychological testing was performed...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Sven Vanneste, Jae-Jin Song, Dirk De Ridder
Thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) is a model proposed to explain divergent neurological disorders. It is characterized by a common oscillatory pattern in which resting-state alpha activity is replaced by cross-frequency coupling of low- and high-frequency oscillations. We undertook a data-driven approach using support vector machine learning for analyzing resting-state electroencephalography oscillatory patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease, neuropathic pain, tinnitus, and depression. We show a spectrally equivalent but spatially distinct form of TCD that depends on the specific disorder...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Ming Xiao, Daozhi Shen, Kevin P Musselman, Walter W Duley, Y Norman Zhou
Neuromorphic computational systems that emulate biological synapses in the human brain are fundamental in the development of artificial intelligence protocols beyond the standard von Neumann architecture. Such systems require new types of building blocks, such as memristors that access a quasi-continuous and wide range of conductive states, which is still an obstacle for the realization of high-efficiency and large-capacity learning in neuromorphoric simulation. Here, we introduce hydrogen and sodium titanate nanobelts, the intermediate products of hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts, to emulate the synaptic behavior...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda L Beltzer, Andrew L Cohen, Nancy H Brooks, Diego A Pizzagalli
Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons encode RPE and habenular neurons encode punishment prediction error (PPE), which are then transmitted to the striatum and cortex to guide goal-directed behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elizabeth A Walker, Linda Weiss, Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Lindsey Realmuto, Alexandra Kamler, Joseph Ravenell, Carlos Tejeda, Jennifer Lukin, Clyde B Schechter
There is a significant evidence base for the Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention to prevent onset of type 2 diabetes among high-risk individuals; however, translation of this intervention for men has been challenging. This report presents outcomes of the pilot study of an adapted 16-week diabetes prevention program entitled " Power Up for Health." The study goal was to better engage men of color with prediabetes from disadvantaged neighborhoods of New York City. It was implemented at five different recreation centers located in predominantly low-income neighborhoods across New York City...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Doyoung Park, Hwa-Jin Lee, Sue-Hyun Lee
Generalization of learned fear has been considered to be critical for our survival. Patients with anxiety problems show overgeneralization of learned fear, as reflected by defensive physiological responses to harmless stimuli. Together with these physiological responses, conscious feeling of fear is a seminal part of emotional process that is directly related to the suffering of anxiety patients. However, the effect of anxiety on the generalization of conscious feeling remains unclear. We thus focused on the question whether the generalization of conscious feeling of fear depends on individual anxiety level in nonpatient participants...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Aline Silva de Miranda, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Ana Cristina Simoes E Silva, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Elizabeth Ribeiro da Silva Camargos
BACKGROUND: Parkinson´s Disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive condition, being the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. The classical features include: bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and festination. These neurological alterations are probably due to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and consequent reduction of dopamine input into the striatum. The decrease of dopamine levels may also be involved in the emergence of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Myung Sun Hyun, Jennie C De Gagne, Jeonghwa Park, Hee Sun Kang
BACKGROUND: Incivility behaviors are negative social behaviors that can create conflict and disrespect among the persons involved. In a learning environment, incivility negatively affects learning by reducing academic motivation, lowering satisfaction with the education program, and interrupting the learning process. In addition, incivility causes those involved to feel negative emotions, such as anger, depression, and anxiety. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the incivility experiences of nursing students during their nursing education? In what context do nursing students experience incivility during their education? RESEARCH DESIGN: This study used an exploratory qualitative methodology...
March 2018: Nursing Ethics
Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Mohammad R Arbabshirani, Eric D Claus, Brandi C Fink, Vikram Rao, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Successfully treating illicit drug use has become paramount, yet elusive. Devising specialized treatment interventions could increase positive outcomes, but it is necessary to identify risk factors of poor long-term outcomes to develop specialized, efficacious treatments. We investigated whether functional network connectivity (FNC) measures were predictive of substance abuse treatment completion using machine learning pattern classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Yu-Lin Wu, Chun-Jen Huang, Su-Chen Fang, Ling-Hsin Ko, Pei-Shan Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in individuals with fibromyalgia. However, findings regarding cognitive function examined using neuropsychological tests have been inconsistent. The aim of the study was to determine domain-specific cognitive impairment in patients with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis that systematically searched six databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) for articles published before September 2017...
March 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Çiğdem Çetin, Fatma Cebeci
Information technology and the Internet are rapidly becoming effective tools for teaching. Selfmanagement skills are important for adaptation and long-term survival in kidney recipients. Web-based training may help patients develop self-management skills through information access. This literature review aimed to determine the effects of Web-based educational intervention on self-management in kidney recipients. The Internet supports effective health education intervention strategies by providing a learning environment that is always available...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Sherri Rose
OBJECTIVE: To propose nonparametric double robust machine learning in variable importance analyses of medical conditions for health spending. DATA SOURCES: 2011-2012 Truven MarketScan database. STUDY DESIGN: I evaluate how much more, on average, commercially insured enrollees with each of 26 of the most prevalent medical conditions cost per year after controlling for demographics and other medical conditions. This is accomplished within the nonparametric targeted learning framework, which incorporates ensemble machine learning...
March 11, 2018: Health Services Research
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