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Adrian C Pinder, Arunachalam Manimekalan, J D Marcus Knight, Prasannan Krishnankutty, J Robert Britton, Siby Philip, Neelesh Dahanukar, Rajeev Raghavan
Growing to lengths and weights exceeding 1.5 m and 45 kg, the hump-backed mahseer fish of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India, is an iconic, mega-faunal species that is globally recognized as a premier freshwater game fish. Despite reports of their high extinction risk, conservation approaches are currently constrained by their lack of valid taxonomic identity. Using an integrative approach, incorporating morphology, molecular analysis and historical photographs, this fish can now be revealed to be conspecific with Tor remadevii, a species lacking a common name, that was initially, but poorly, described in 2007 from the River Pambar, a tributary of the River Cauvery in Kerala...
2018: PloS One
Pascal Geldsetzer, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Michaela Theilmann, Justine I Davies, Ashish Awasthi, Goodarz Danaei, Thomas A Gaziano, Sebastian Vollmer, Lindsay M Jaacks, Till Bärnighausen, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in India. Yet, evidence on the CVD risk of India's population is limited. To inform health system planning and effective targeting of interventions, this study aimed to determine how CVD risk-and the factors that determine risk-varies among states in India, by rural-urban location, and by individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used 2 large household surveys carried out between 2012 and 2014, which included a sample of 797,540 adults aged 30 to 74 years across India...
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
Arjun Balasubramanian, Sreejith S Nair, P S Rakesh, K Leelamoni
Introduction: Poor adherence is an important barrier to adequate blood pressure control among the diagnosed hypertensives. The study aimed at assessing the level of adherence to medication and to identify factors associated with it in people with hypertension in a rural population of Kerala. Subjects and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2016 among 189 known hypertensives of a rural population in Kerala. Data was collected by interview method using a semistructured questionnaire...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Aparna Sai Ajjarapu, Ann Broderick
An estimated 1.5 billion people across the globe live with chronic pain, and an estimated 61 million people worldwide experience unrelieved serious health-related suffering. One-sixth of the global population lives in India, where approximately 10 million people endure unrelieved serious health-related suffering. The state of Kerala is home to Pallium India, one of the most sophisticated palliative care programs in the country. This private organization in Trivandrum provides palliative and hospice care to underresourced populations and emphasizes holistic pain treatment...
June 14, 2018: Permanente Journal
Sashi Niranjan Nair, Harish Kumar, Manoj Raveendran, V Usha Menon
Introduction: The benefits of treating subclinical hypothyroidism are currently under debate, prevention of adverse cardiac events purporting to be one of the main benefits. The effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on the cardiovascular health of the Indian sub-population is largely unknown. This study was designed to examine these effects and to help guide treatment of this disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional adult population survey was carried out in urban coastal area of central Kerala...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Michael Sinclair, Andrea Ghermandi, Albert M Sheela
Online social media represent an extensive, opportunistic source of behavioral data and revealed preferences for ecosystem services (ES) analysis. Such data may allow to advance the approach, scale and timespan to which ES are assessed, mapping and valued. This is especially relevant in the context of developing regions whose decision support tools are often limited by a lack of resources and funding. This research presents an economic valuation tool for recreational ES, suitable at wide spatial scales, relying on crowdsourced metadata from social media with a proof of concept tested on an Indian tropical Ramsar wetland...
June 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kg Sajeeth Kumar, Santhosh Narayanan, V Udayabhaskaran, N K Thulaseedharan
Background: Snake bites are a neglected public health problem in all tropical countries, and particularly in Malabar region of Kerala, India. Demographic characteristics and clinical parameters vary in this part of the world, and studies based on them are scarce. Increased incidence of capillary leak syndrome (CLS) in hemotoxic snake bites and emergence of cases of hump-nosed pit viper (HNPV, Hypnale hypnale ) envenomation are some notable features seen here. Objectives: The study was conducted to assess the epidemiological profile and clinical features to identify factors contributing to outcome in patients with venomous snakebites...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Maria Sebastian, Archana Aravind, Beena Mathew
The present study focuses on the utilization of green silver nanoparticles as they are more preferred for sensing applications due to their environment friendly nature. We have examined the optical and electrochemical sensing behavior of silver nanoparticles from Agaricus Bispores (AgNP-AB) towards Hg(II) ions. AgNP-AB was prepared by microwave reactor. The synthesized AgNPs have been used for the sensing of Hg(II) ions without the use of modifiers or further sophisticated instrumentation. The synthesized nanoparticles were successfully characterized by different techniques...
June 11, 2018: Nanotechnology
S Harikrishnan, G Sanjay, M Ashishkumar, Jaideep Menon, Gopalan Nair Rajesh, Raman Krishna Kumar, A George Koshy, Thankachan V Attacheril, Raju George, Eapen Punnoose, S M Ashraf, S R Arun, Mohammed Cholakkal, Panniyammakal Jeemon
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on pulmonary hypertension (PH) are scarce from developing countries including India. METHODS: We established a multi-center registry of PH, the PRO-KERALA registry, in Kerala, India. Fifty hospitals enrolled consecutive adult (>18 years) patients for one year. Echocardiographic criteria (right ventricular systolic pressure - RVSP > 50 mmHg) or invasively obtained mean pulmonary artery pressure > 25 mmHg was the criteria for entry...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Seetha Dayakar, Heera R Pillai, Vineetha P Thulasi, Devakikutty Jayalekshmi, Radhakrishnan R Nair
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute respiratory infections caused by influenza virus are a major cause of viral respiratory diseases globally. Surveillance of circulating subtypes and estimation of disease burden is of utmost clinical importance. Molecular surveillance and proper disease burden estimates are scarce in India although clinical influenza infections are on the rise. Our study aims to delineate the prevalent influenza subtypes in a South Indian population from cases requiring hospital visits...
June 7, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Halsie Donaldson, Daniel Lucey
The Nipah virus has been reported to be transmitted from person-to-person following close contact in non-urban parts of India (including Kerala as of May 2018),Bangladesh, and the Philippines. It can cause encephalitis and pneumonia, and has a high case fatality rate. Nipah is a prime example of a One Health zoonotic emerging and reemerging infectious disease with consistent links to fruit bats, and sometimes pigs or horses. We argue for anticipating larger rural, and urban, outbreaks of Nipah, and preparing for them by accelerating development and testing of countermeasures: antiviral drugs,immunotherapeutic antibodies, vaccines, rapid diagnostics, personal protective equipment(PPE) for health workers and online WHO training by experts from Bangladesh, India and elsewhere...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Kavumpurathu R Thankappan, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Robyn J Tapp, Jonathan E Shaw, Mojtaba Lotfaliany, Rory Wolfe, Pilvikki Absetz, Elezebeth Mathews, Zahra Aziz, Emily D Williams, Edwin B Fisher, Paul Z Zimmet, Ajay Mahal, Sajitha Balachandran, Fabrizio D'Esposito, Priyanka Sajeev, Emma Thomas, Brian Oldenburg
BACKGROUND: The major efficacy trials on diabetes prevention have used resource-intensive approaches to identify high-risk individuals and deliver lifestyle interventions. Such strategies are not feasible for wider implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-support lifestyle intervention in preventing type 2 diabetes among high-risk individuals identified on the basis of a simple diabetes risk score. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program was a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in 60 polling areas (clusters) of Neyyattinkara taluk (subdistrict) in Trivandrum district, Kerala state, India...
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
Krishnamoorthy Vijayalakshmi, Chinnadurai Immanuel Selvaraj
A multimillion-dollar boom is achieved every year by the ethnopharmaceutical companies, creating awareness around the globe to use herbal medicines to stay and live a healthy life. Nearly, two-thirds of the plants were discovered for herbal remedies, and some plants are even endangered to get extinct from the globe for their repeated utility. Sarcostemma brevistigma is one among the undiscovered medicinal plants which belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae found distributed in Indian states of Bihar, Bengal, Konkan, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala...
June 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Thomas Chubicka, Devaki Girija, Kizhakkeettil Deepa, Sasidharan Salini, Nair Meera, Achuthan Chathrattil Raghavamenon, Menon Kunnathully Divya, Thekkekara Devassy Babu
Parasporins, a class of non-insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are being explored as promising anticancer agents due to their specific toxicity to cancer cells. The present study has identified 25 Bt isolates harbouring parasporin genes from Western Ghats region, the hotspot of biodiversity in India. Among these, the isolate, KAU 41 (Kerala Agricultural University isolate 41) contained non-hemolytic homogenous crystals showing specific cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. SDS-PAGE analysis of this crystal, isolated by aqueous biphasic separation, revealed a 31 kDa sized peptide...
June 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Sobha George, Teena Mary Joy, Anil Kumar, K N Panicker, Leyanna Susan George, Manu Raj, K Leelamoni, Prem Nair
Neglected tropical diseases (visceral leismaniasis, lymphatic filariasis) and malaria are endemic in northern states of India. Kerala has become a hub of construction activities employing a large number of migrants from these endemic states. Studies on morbidity pattern among migrants in Kerala are lacking. It is essential to look into the burden of these infections among migrant laborers who can act as reservoirs and are a threat to native population. A cross sectional study was done among migrant laborers in Ernakulam district, Kerala...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Manju Suresh, N Nithya, P R Jayasree, K P Vimal, P R Manish Kumar
The present study deals with membrane-bound efflux pumps, MexAB-OprM and MexXY and their respective regulatory genes mexR, nalC, nalD and mexZ in multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Following antibiotic sensitivity testing and detection of various beta-lactamases, hyperexpression of efflux pump genes, mexB and mexY in the isolates was investigated using semi-quantitative and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Amplicons from regulatory genes were sequenced and subjected to mutational and phylogenetic analysis...
May 30, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
T M Ananda Kesavan, Nithya Thuruthiyath, Elizabeth Preethi Thomas
This study was conducted to assess the 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in children (age 1-5 yr) from Thrissur, Kerala, and to find its association with clinical manifestations of vitamin D-deficiency. Among the 79 children included, none had clinical features of rickets. The mean (range) vitamin D level was 18.1 (3.7 - 68.0) ng/mL. All the children had normal serum levels of Calcium, Phosphorous and Alkaline phosphatase. Serum parathyroid hormone levels were normal in 77 children. We conclude that most children with subclinical vitamin D deficiency diagnosed on basis of serum levels of 25 (0H) D do not have clinical symptoms/signs or biochemical evidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism...
May 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Bindu Lakshmanan, K Jain Jose, Arun George, N P Usha, K Devada
India has a wide range of agro-climatic zones which is highly conducive for a diverse range of vectors and canines are continuously exposed to the risk of spectrum of tick borne protozoan diseases. The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus is widely prevalent among dogs in Kerala and there is a high prevalence of this tick transmitted Babesia and Ehrlichia spp. infection. However, the incidence of Hepatozoon canis transmitted by the same tick species had not been reported in the state since 2004. Preliminary screening of client owned dogs revealed six dogs to be positive for typical gelatin capsule shaped gamonts of H...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
N K Sanil, K P Janardanan
The present paper describes two new species of furcocercous cercariae, Cercaria sp. XVIII Malabar n. sp. and Cercaria sp. XIX Malabar n. sp. infecting the freshwater snails, Lymnea luteola and Gyraulus convexiusculus respectively in the Malabar region of Kerala. Cercaria sp. XVIII Malabar n. sp., is a distome, pharyngeate, non-ocellate, longifurcate furcocercous cercaria with two pairs of penetration glands and 16 pairs of flame cells and recovered from L. luteola . Cercaria sp. XIX Malabar n. sp., is also a distome, pharyngeate, longifurcate cercaria with a pair of unpigmented eyespots and 20 pairs of flame cells and recovered from G...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Pratip Shil, Pragya Dhruv Yadav, Avinash A Patil, R Balasubramanian, Devendra T Mourya
Background & objectives: Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is a febrile illness characterized by haemorrhages and caused by KFD virus (KFDV), which belongs to the Flaviviridae family. It is reported to be an endemic disease in Shimoga district of Karnataka State, India, especially in forested and adjoining areas. Several outbreaks have been reported in newer areas, which raised queries regarding the changing nature of structural proteins if any. The objective of the study was to investigate amino acid composition and antigenic variability if any, among the envelope glycoprotein (E-proteins) from old and new strains of KFDV...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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