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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910201/meal-insulin-cycle-a-visual-summary-of-the-biochemical-events-between-meals
#1
Stavros Kalogiannis
In the present article, a scheme that summarizes the biochemical events occurring in the human body after the consumption of a meal is proposed. The scheme illustrates the metabolic sequence as a series of counteracting components occupying opposite positions in a cycle, indicating their opposite actions or physiological states, such as meal versus energy consumption, increase versus decrease of blood glucose levels, and excretion of insulin versus excretion of glucagon. Furthermore, the cycle is complemented by a table indicating the acceleration or inhibition of selected metabolic pathways and actions...
December 2, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903154/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-cancer-the-role-of-pharmacotherapy
#2
Gadi Shlomai, Brian Neel, Derek LeRoith, Emily Jane Gallagher
Purpose Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Epidemiologic data suggest that T2DM is associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The purpose of this review is to discuss the links between diabetes and cancer, the effects of various antidiabetic medications on cancer incidence and mortality, and the effects of anticancer therapies on diabetes. Design This study is a review of preclinical and clinical data regarding the effects of antidiabetic medications on cancer incidence and mortality and the effects of anticancer therapies on glucose homeostasis...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884168/ataxia-telangiectasia-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Cynthia Rothblum-Oviatt, Jennifer Wright, Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Thomas O Crawford, Howard M Lederman
DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder primarily characterized by cerebellar degeneration, telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, cancer susceptibility and radiation sensitivity. A-T is often referred to as a genome instability or DNA damage response syndrome. EPIDEMIOLOGY: The world-wide prevalence of A-T is estimated to be between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 100,000 live births. CLINICAL DESCRIPTION: A-T is a complex disorder with substantial variability in the severity of features between affected individuals, and at different ages...
November 25, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870424/sex-dependent-differences-in-voluntary-physical-activity
#4
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Numbers of overweight and obese individuals are increasing in the United States and globally, and, correspondingly, the associated health care costs are rising dramatically. More than one-third of children are currently considered obese with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and it is likely that their metabolic conditions will worsen with age. Physical inactivity has also risen to be the leading cause of many chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Children are more physically inactive now than they were in past decades, which may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846404/local-release-of-dexamethasone-from-macroporous-scaffolds-accelerates-islet-transplant-engraftment-by-promotion-of-anti-inflammatory-m2-macrophages
#5
Kaiyuan Jiang, Jessica D Weaver, Yangjunyi Li, Xiongjian Chen, Jiapu Liang, Cherie L Stabler
Transplant-associated inflammatory responses generate an unfavorable microenvironment for tissue engraftment, particularly for cells susceptible to inflammatory stress, such as pancreatic islets. The localized delivery of anti-inflammatory agents, such as glucocorticoids, offers a promising approach to minimize the detrimental side effects associated with systemic delivery; however, the dosage must be carefully tailored to avoid deleterious responses, such as poor engraftment. Herein, we employed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based three-dimensional scaffold platform for the local and controlled delivery of dexamethasone (Dex)...
November 5, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843332/trends-in-medication-use-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-long-term-view-of-real-world-treatment-between-2000-and-2015
#6
Victoria Higgins, James Piercy, Adam Roughley, Gary Milligan, Andrea Leith, James Siddall, Mike Benford
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of a variety of treatments, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not achieving glucose control. We analyzed successive waves of the Adelphi Real World Diabetes Disease Specific Programmes (DSPs) to assess treatment patterns reported by primary care physicians (PCPs) and specialists and the effect of treatment on levels of glucose control. METHODS: Data were collected between 2000 and 2015 in the US and EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK)...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825345/reconfiguring-health-workforce-a-case-based-comparative-study-explaining-the-increasingly-diverse-professional-roles-in-europe
#7
Antoinette de Bont, Job van Exel, Silvia Coretti, Zeynep Güldem Ökem, Maarten Janssen, Kristin Lofthus Hope, Tomasz Ludwicki, Britta Zander, Marie Zvonickova, Christine Bond, Iris Wallenburg
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade the healthcare workforce has diversified in several directions with formalised roles for health care assistants, specialised roles for nurses and technicians, advanced roles for physician associates and nurse practitioners and new professions for new services, such as case managers. Hence the composition of health care teams has become increasingly diverse. The exact extent of this diversity is unknown across the different countries of Europe, as are the drivers of this change...
November 8, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816201/fast-track-pathway-for-perforated-appendicitis
#8
Richard Frazee, Stephen Abernathy, Matthew Davis, Travis Isbell, Justin Regner, Randall Smith
BACKGROUND: Perforated appendicitis is associated with an increased morbidity and length of stay. "Fast track" protocols have demonstrated success in shortening hospitalization without increasing morbidity for a variety of surgical processes. This study evaluates a fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis. METHODS: In 2013, a treatment pathway for perforated appendicitis was adopted by the Acute Care Surgery Service for patients having surgical management of perforated appendicitis...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814801/-doctor-nurse-cooperation-in-a-therapeutic-education-pathway-at-home
#9
REVIEW
Dominique Jakovenko
A therapeutic education programme comprising individual sessions in the patient's home has been tried out with patients with diabetes. It enables them to gain a better understanding of the disease and become players in their own health care. This initiative strengthens the doctor-nurse partnership within a coordinated care pathway.
October 2016: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808528/avoidant-coping-and-diabetes-related-distress-pathways-to-adolescents-type-1-diabetes-outcomes
#10
Esti Iturralde, Jill Weissberg-Benchell, Korey K Hood
Objective: Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are vulnerable to diabetes-related distress and often struggle to complete self-management tasks needed to maintain blood glucose values in target range. One way that youth with T1D handle problems is through avoidant coping. The current study examined cross-time associations between avoidant coping style and diabetes outcomes and tested the possible mediating role of diabetes-related distress. Method: Adolescents with T1D (N = 264) were assessed 4 times over 1 year to measure avoidant coping style, diabetes-related distress, adherence (on the basis of glucometer data and self-report), and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c)...
November 3, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770249/enhanced-recovery-eras-for-elderly-a-safe-and-beneficial-pathway-in-colorectal-surgery
#11
J Slieker, P Frauche, J Jurt, V Addor, C Blanc, Nicolas Demartines, M Hübner
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway includes recovery goals requiring active participation of the patients; this may be perceived as "aggressive" care in older patients. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ERAS was feasible and beneficial in older patients. METHODS: Since June 2011, all consecutive colorectal patients were included in an ERAS pathway and documented in a dedicated prospective database. This retrospective analysis included 513 patients, 311 younger patients (<70 years) and 202 older patients (≥70 years)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765087/-wound-healing-is-still-a-game-of-blind-men-and-an-elephant
#12
C M Han
The wound healing includes non-healing and overhealing of the wounds. The results of wound healing are well known by people such as non-healing of the diabetic ulcer or hypertrophic scar after deep burn. In this issue, three papers involve in wound healing, one about autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells injected into wound or scar of rabbit ear, one about severe hypoxia and hypoalbuminemia inducing human hypertrophic scar derived fibroblast apoptosis in vitro, and another about the dysfunction of protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway contributing to the pathophysiological characteristics of diabetic skin and non-healing wound...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754282/hw-04-3-global-network-for-her-based-big-data-analysis
#13
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746088/pathways-for-the-relationship-between-diabetes-distress-depression-fatalism-and-glycemic-control-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Christopher C Asuzu, Rebekah J Walker, Joni Strom Williams, Leonard E Egede
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, and diabetes fatalism together influence diabetes outcomes using structured equation modeling. METHODS: 615 adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from two primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. Psychosocial factors found to be associated with diabetes outcomes were measured using validated questionnaires. Structured equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the relationship between diabetes fatalism, depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, self-care and glycemic control...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746034/role-of-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidants-in-daily-nutrition-and-human-health
#15
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726271/pathways-to-reduce-diabetic-ketoacidosis-with-new-onset-type-1-diabetes-evidence-from-a-regional-pediatric-diabetes-center-auckland-new-zealand-2010-to-2014
#16
Eleanor R Gunn, Benjamin B Albert, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield, Alistair J Gunn, Craig A Jefferies
BACKGROUND: There has been little change in the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents in most developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess potentially modifiable antecedents of DKA in children <15 years of age with new onset T1DM. METHODS: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a complete regional cohort of children with T1DM in Auckland (New Zealand) from 2010 to 2014...
October 11, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711086/fournier-s-gangrene-a-clinical-review
#17
Ariana Singh, Kamran Ahmed, Abdullatif Aydin, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Prokar Dasgupta
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Fournier's gangrene is a rare, necrotising fasciitis of the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. The disease has a higher incidence in males and risk factors for development include diabetes, HIV, alcoholism and other immune-compromised states. The aggressive disease process is associated with a high mortality rate of 20-30%. In addition, the increasing age and prevalence of diabetes in the population, begs the need for increased clinical awareness of Fournier's gangrene with emphasis on early diagnosis and management...
October 5, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669747/assessment-of-three-fasting-plasma-glucose-targets-for-insulin-glargine-based-therapy-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-china-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Wenying Yang, Zhaojun Yang, Jing Zhao, Hai Lu, Tianhong Luo
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with T2DM in China do not meet accepted HbA1c targets despite the availability of guidelines that describe a treatment pathway for achieving glycemic control. The aim of this study is to identify the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) target that will provide the highest control rate of HbA1c <7 % in Chinese patients with T2DM treated with an insulin glargine-based regimen as an adjunct to an established OAD regimen. This information will support improvements in diabetes care management in China...
September 26, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643279/hw-04-3-global-network-for-her-based-big-data-analysis
#19
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642000/patterns-of-anti-diabetic-medication-use-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-england-and-wales
#20
Preeti Datta-Nemdharry, Andrew Thomson, Julie Beynon, Katherine Donegan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterise how Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is treated in England and Wales and whether this adheres to 2009 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on management of T2DM. METHODS: Data for T2DM patients aged 18+ years prescribed at least one anti-diabetic drug between 01/01/2000-30/06/2012 were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We examined the sequences in which anti-diabetic drugs were prescribed and, for patients on the most common anti-diabetic drug pathways, evaluated average HbA1c values at treatment initiation and at progression to a second or third-line anti-diabetic drug class, including insulin...
September 19, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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