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Brain tissue oxygen

Cong Lu, Yan Wang, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Bei Fan, Lina Qu, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively caused cognitive deficit, which was associated with oxidative stress induced damage. Ginsenoside Rh2 had the ability to protect against damage caused by reactive oxygen species in vitro, showing antioxidant property. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Ginsenoside Rh2 could prevent SD-induced cognitive deficit via its antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation was investigated. The mice were sleep deprived continuously for 14 days using our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA)...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Afrina Mustari, Naoki Nakamura, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato, Izumi Nishidate
To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (SLFOs) of cerebral blood flow in rat brain, we investigated an imaging method using a digital RGB camera. In this method, the RGB values were converted into tristimulus values in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) XYZ color space, which is compatible with the common RGB working spaces. Monte Carlo simulation for light transport in tissue was then used to specify the relationship among the tristimulus XYZ values and the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbO ), deoxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbR ), and total hemoglobin ( C HbT ) and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation ( StO 2 )...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Vasilije Stambolija, Martina Miklić Bublić, Marin Lozić, Jakob Nemir, Miroslav Ščap
Background: Low brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2 ), or brain hypoxia, is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Increasing inspirational fraction of oxygen could have a significant influence on treating lower PbtO2 . Combined PbtO2 therapy, compared to the approach that focus only on regulation of cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure, shows better patient outcomes. Monitoring of PbtO2 could be helpful in individualizing treatment, preventing or limiting secondary brain injury, and maintaining better patient outcome...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
A C Van Erp, R A Rebolledo, D Hoeksma, N R Jespersen, P J Ottens, R Nørregaard, M Pedersen, C Laustsen, J G M Burgerhof, J C Wolters, J Ciapaite, H E Bøtker, H G D Leuvenink, B Jespersen
Hepatic and renal energy status prior to transplantation correlates with graft survival. However, effects of brain death (BD) on organ-specific energy status are largely unknown. We studied metabolism, perfusion, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial function in the liver and kidneys following BD. BD was induced in mechanically-ventilated rats, inflating an epidurally-placed Fogarty-catheter, with sham-operated rats as controls. A 9.4T-preclinical MRI system measured hourly oxygen availability (BOLD-related R2*) and perfusion (T1-weighted)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ruiqing Ni, Markus Vaas, Wuwei Ren, Jan Klohs
Oxygen metabolism and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) imaging, we visualized in vivo changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation during 1 h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and at 48 h after reperfusion together with MMP activity using an MMP-activatable probe. The deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and MMP signals were coregistered with structural magnetic resonance imaging data...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
Rosemary S C Horne, Sunjuri Sun, Stephanie R Yiallourou, Karinna L Fyfe, Alexsandria Odoi, Flora Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Periodic breathing and short apnoeas are common in infants, particularly those born preterm, but are thought to be benign. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence and impact of periodic breathing and apnoea on heart rate, oxygen saturation and brain tissue oxygenation index (TOI) in infants born at term and preterm over the first 6 months after term equivalent age. STUDY DESIGN: 19 infants born at (38-42 weeks gestational age) and 24 preterm infants (born at 27-36 weeks gestational age) were studied at 2-4 weeks, 2-3 months and 5-6 months post-term corrected age during sleep...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kelly M DeMars, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski, Brian D Sanz, Changjun Yang, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Ischemic stroke occurs when a clot forms in the brain vasculature that starves downstream tissue of oxygen and nutrients resulting in cell death. The tissue immediately downstream of the blockage, the core, dies within minutes, but the surrounding tissue, the penumbra is potentially salvageable. Prostaglandin E2 binds to four different G-protein coupled membrane receptors EP1-EP4 mediating different and sometimes opposing responses. Pharmacological activation of the EP4 receptor has already been established as neuroprotective in stroke, but the mechanism(s) of protection are not well-characterized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Baocheng Zhang, Mingqiang Gao, Jie Shen, Daikun He
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) could produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn induce neurological dysfunction and inflammation in cerebral tissues. This study was designed to study the effect of methane on cerebral I/R injury. METHODS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to induce an animal model of cerebral I/R injury. Methane was mixed with air to achieve a final concentration of 2.2%. Rats started to inhale methane-air mixture after ischemia and continued it during the reperfusion...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Noriomi Eguchi, Ichiro Sora, Keiko Muguruma
Human brain development has generally been studied through the analysis of postmortem tissues because of limited access to fetal brain tissues. This approach, however, only provides information from the perspective of long-term development. To investigate the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, it is necessary to understand the detailed mechanisms of human brain development. Recent advances in pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technologies enable us to establish in vitro brain models from human induced PSCs (hiPSCs), which can be used to examine the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Aditi Jhaveri, Pranali Deshpande, Bhushan Pattni, Vladimir Torchilin
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive brain tumors with a very grim prognosis even after multi-modal therapeutic regimens. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents frequently lead to drug resistance and result in severe toxicities to non-cancerous tissues. Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol with pleiotropic health benefits, has proven chemopreventive effects in all the stages of cancer including initiation, promotion and progression. However the poor physico-chemical properties of RES severely limit its use as a free drug...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Robert Carlsson, Ilknur Özen, Marco Barbariga, Abderahim Gaceb, Michaela Roth, Gesine Paul
Brain pericytes are important to maintain vascular integrity of the neurovascular unit under both physiological and ischemic conditions. Ischemic stroke is known to induce an inflammatory and hypoxic response due to the lack of oxygen and glucose in the brain tissue. How this early response to ischemia is molecularly regulated in pericytes is largely unknown and may be of importance for future therapeutic targets. Here we evaluate the transcriptional responses in in vitro cultured human brain pericytes after oxygen and/or glucose deprivation...
2018: PloS One
Yuandong Li, Wei Wei, Ruikang K Wang
Elaborate modeling study suggests an important role of capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTTH) reduction in brain oxygenation during functional hyperemia. Here, we use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) capillary velocimetry to probe blood flow dynamics in cerebral capillary beds and validate the change in CTTH during functional activation in an in vivo rodent model. Through evaluating flow dynamics and consequent transit time parameters from thousands of capillary vessels within three-dimensional (3-D) tissue volume upon hindpaw electrical stimulation, we observe reductions in both capillary mean transit time (MTT) (9...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Baraa K Al-Khazraji, Leena N Shoemaker, Joseph S Gati, Trevor Szekeres, J Kevin Shoemaker
The larger intracranial conduit vessels contribute to the total cerebral vascular resistance, and understanding their vasoreactivity to physiological stimuli is required when attempting to understand regional brain perfusion. Reactivity of the larger cerebral conduit arteries remains understudied due to a need for improved imaging methods to simultaneously assess these vessels in a single stimulus. We characterized reactivity of basal intracranial conduit arteries (basilar, right and left posterior, middle and anterior cerebral arteries) and the right and left internal carotid arteries, to manipulations in end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2 )...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
M Munk, F R Poulsen, L Larsen, C H Nordström, T H Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction is prominent in the pathophysiology of severe bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we hypothesize that the metabolic changes seen after intracisternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in a piglet model of meningitis is compatible with mitochondrial dysfunction and resembles the metabolic patterns seen in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Eight pigs received LPS injection in cisterna magna, and four pigs received NaCl in cisterna magna as a control...
March 5, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Yujia Zhou, Han Zhang, Lichi Zhang, Xiaohuan Cao, Ru Yang, Qianjin Feng, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Population studies of brain function with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) rely on accurate intersubject registration of functional areas. This is typically achieved through registration using high-resolution structural images with more spatial details and better tissue contrast. However, accumulating evidence has suggested that such strategy cannot align functional regions well because functional areas are not necessarily consistent with anatomical structures. To alleviate this problem, a number of registration algorithms based directly on rs-fMRI data have been developed, most of which utilize functional connectivity (FC) features for registration...
March 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
March 2018: Radiation Research
Hyung Joon Cho, Scott S Verbridge, Rafael V Davalos, Yong W Lee
To analyze complex inflammatory responses in an in vitro system, we constructed a new 3D in vitro brain tissue model that exhibits in vivo-like tissue responses (e.g. immune cell phenotypes, and molecular response) to inflammatory stimuli. Finite element modeling of oxygen diffusion and cellular oxygen consumption predicted the oxygen profile within 3D structures, consisting of Type I collagen hydrogel embedded with murine microglia. Viability and cytotoxicity analyses supported the mathematical analysis, determining optimal cell growth conditions for 3D construct development...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Melanie E Fields, Kristin P Guilliams, Dustin K Ragan, Michael M Binkley, Cihat Eldeniz, Yasheng Chen, Monica L Hulbert, Robert C McKinstry, Joshua S Shimony, Katie D Vo, Allan Doctor, Hongyu An, Andria L Ford, Jin-Moo Lee
OBJECTIVE: To determine mechanisms underlying regional vulnerability to infarction in sickle cell disease (SCD) by measuring voxel-wise cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO2 ) in children with SCD. METHODS: Participants underwent brain MRIs to measure voxel-based CBF, OEF, and CMRO2 . An infarct heat map was created from an independent pediatric SCD cohort with silent infarcts and compared to prospectively obtained OEF maps...
March 2, 2018: Neurology
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