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Brain tissue oxygen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915963/hepcidin-and-metallothioneins-as-molecular-base-for-sex-dependent-differences-in-clinical-course-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-chronic-iron-overload
#1
Božena Ćurko-Cofek, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Vesna Barac-Latas
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterised by inflammatory and degenerative changes. It is considered that disease arises from the influence of environmental factors on genetically susceptible individuals. Recent researches, using magnetic resonance imaging, connected iron deposits in different brain regions with demyelinating process in multiple sclerosis patients. Although iron is an essential trace element important for many biological functions it could be harmful because iron excess can induce the production of reactive oxygen species, development of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation which leads to demyelination...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914791/quercetin-attenuates-manganese-induced-neuroinflammation-by-alleviating-oxidative-stress-through-regulation-of-apoptosis-inos-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ho-1-nrf2-pathways
#2
Entaz Bahar, Ji-Ye Kim, Hyonok Yoon
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for the development of human body and acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator for various reactions of metabolism. While essential in trace amounts, excessive Mn exposure can result in toxic accumulations in human brain tissue and resulting extrapyramidal symptoms called manganism similar to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Quercetin (QCT) has been demonstrated to play an important role in altering the progression of neurodegenerative diseases by protecting against oxidative stress...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914762/the-1-week-and-8-month-effects-of-a-ketogenic-diet-or-ketone-salt-supplementation-on-multi-organ-markers-of-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#3
Wesley C Kephart, Petey W Mumford, Xuansong Mao, Matthew A Romero, Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Christopher B Mobley, John C Quindry, Kaelin C Young, Darren T Beck, Jeffrey S Martin, Danielle J McCullough, Dominic P D'Agostino, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis, Michael D Roberts
We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914739/hypothermic-neuroprotections-in-the-brain-of-an-echolocation-bat-hipposideros-terasensis
#4
Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Philip H-S Jen, Chung-Hsin Wu
The present study aimed to investigate how bats protect their brain in a hypothermic situation. Formosan leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros terasensis) were used in this study and treated under three conditions: room temperature (25±1°C), low temperature (4±1°C), and hibernation. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the blood and apoptosis-related proteins in the brain tissue were assessed and then compared among those bats under three conditions. Our results showed that the blood ROS levels of bats treated under conditions of low temperature and hibernation were significantly reduced compared with bats treated under the condition of room temperature...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914132/reverse-electron-transfer-results-in-a-loss-of-flavin-from-mitochondrial-complex-i-potential-mechanism-for-brain-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Anna Stepanova, Anja Kahl, Csaba Konrad, Vadim Ten, Anatoly S Starkov, Alexander Galkin
Ischemic stroke is one of the most prevalent sources of disability in the world. The major brain tissue damage takes place upon the reperfusion of ischemic tissue. Energy failure due to alterations in mitochondrial metabolism and elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the main causes of brain ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damage. Ischemia resulted in the accumulation of succinate in tissues, which favors the process of reverse electron transfer (RET) when a fraction of electrons derived from succinate is directed to mitochondrial complex I for the reduction of matrix NAD(+)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912778/neuroprotective-effects-of-annexin-a1-tripeptide-after-deep-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-in-rats
#6
Zhiquan Zhang, Qing Ma, Bijal Shah, G Burkhard Mackensen, Donald C Lo, Joseph P Mathew, Mihai V Podgoreanu, Niccolò Terrando
Resolution agonists, including lipid mediators and peptides such as annexin A1 (ANXA1), are providing novel approaches to treat inflammatory conditions. Surgical trauma exerts a significant burden on the immune system that can affect and impair multiple organs. Perioperative cerebral injury after cardiac surgery is associated with significant adverse neurological outcomes such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), we tested the pro-resolving effects of a novel bioactive ANXA1 tripeptide (ANXA1sp) on neuroinflammation and cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900016/geometries-of-vasculature-bifurcation-can-affect-the-level-of-trophic-damage-during-formation-of-a-brain-ischemic-lesion
#7
REVIEW
Yaroslav R Nartsissov
Ischemic lesion is a common cause of various diseases in humans. Brain tissue is especially sensitive to this type of damage. A common reason for the appearance of an ischemic area is a stop in blood flow in some branch of the vasculature system. Then, a decreasing concentration gradient results in a low mean level of oxygen in surrounding tissues. After that, the biochemical ischemic cascade spreads. In this review, we examine these well-known events from a new angle. It is stressed that there is essential evidence to predict the formation of an ischemic micro-area at the base of vascular bifurcation geometries...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886098/molecular-and-biochemical-responses-of-hypoxia-exposure-in-atlantic-croaker-collected-from-hypoxic-regions-in-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico
#8
Md Saydur Rahman, Peter Thomas
A major impact of global climate change has been the marked increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DO<2.0 mg l-1). However, the extent of hypoxia exposure to motile animals such as fish collected from hypoxic waters as well as their molecular and physiological responses to environmental hypoxia exposure are largely unknown. A suite of potential hypoxia exposure biomarkers was evaluated in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic and normoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), and in croaker after laboratory exposure to hypoxia (DO: 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885216/microcirculation-measurements-barriers-for-use-in-clinical-routine
#9
Dietrich Henzler, Matthias Scheffler, Arne Westheider, Thomas Köhler
BACKGROUND: In patients with shock, inflammation and sepsis alterations in microcirculation are common problems. Although the pathophysiologic consequences are well understood, measurements of microcirculation have not entered clinical routine so far. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the requirements for clinical microcirculation measurement techniques and the barriers for implementation into routine practice. METHODS: Clinical review of reliability, reproducibility, validity, availability and usefulness of clinically available measurement techniques to be used in patients with sepsis or cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883405/modeling-a-linkage-between-blood-transcriptional-expression-and-activity-in-brain-regions-to-infer-the-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-patients
#10
El Chérif Ibrahim, Vincent Guillemot, Magali Comte, Arthur Tenenhaus, Xavier Yves Zendjidjian, Aida Cancel, Raoul Belzeaux, Florence Sauvanaud, Olivier Blin, Vincent Frouin, Eric Fakra
Hundreds of genetic loci participate to schizophrenia liability. It is also known that impaired cerebral connectivity is directly related to the cognitive and affective disturbances in schizophrenia. How genetic susceptibility and brain neural networks interact to specify a pathological phenotype in schizophrenia remains elusive. Imaging genetics, highlighting brain variations, has proven effective to establish links between vulnerability loci and associated clinical traits. As previous imaging genetics works in schizophrenia have essentially focused on structural DNA variants, these findings could be blurred by epigenetic mechanisms taking place during gene expression...
September 7, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880206/comparative-response-of-brain-to-chronic-hypoxia-and-hyperoxia
#11
REVIEW
Laura Terraneo, Michele Samaja
Two antithetic terms, hypoxia and hyperoxia, i.e., insufficient and excess oxygen availability with respect to needs, are thought to trigger opposite responses in cells and tissues. This review aims at summarizing the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying hypoxia and hyperoxia in brain and cerebral tissue, a context that may prove to be useful for characterizing not only several clinically relevant aspects, but also aspects related to the evolution of oxygen transport and use by the tissues. While the response to acute hypoxia/hyperoxia presumably recruits only a minor portion of the potentially involved cell machinery, focusing into chronic conditions, instead, enables to take into consideration a wider range of potential responses to oxygen-linked stress, spanning from metabolic to genic...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879798/inhalation-exposure-of-nano-diamond-induced-oxidative-stress-in-lung-heart-and-brain
#12
Yahya Khosravi, Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Enayatollah Seydi
1. Today, diamond nanoparticles have several industrial applications. Nano diamond (ND) as a carbon allotrope diffuses in the air easily during producing and processing procedures. 2. In this study, we investigated sub-acute exposed to ND at the exposure chamber in mice. The animals were divided into two groups (control and exposed a group to ND at the concentration of 3 µg/m(3) for 3 h/day, 5 days/week, for 30-days) in a whole-body inhalation chamber. 3. Our result showed that exposure to ND-induced the hematological and biochemical changes...
September 7, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877366/melanocortin-receptor-subtypes-are-expressed-on-cells-in-the-oligodendroglial-lineage-and-signal-acth-protection
#13
Joyce A Benjamins, Liljana Nedelkoska, Robert P Lisak
ACTH, a melanocortin peptide used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses, acts by stimulating adrenal corticosteroid (CS) production via melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R), but it may also exert a therapeutic effect independent of CS by stimulating other melanocortin receptors (MCR) distributed in many tissues, including the brain. We reported that oligodendroglia (OL) and oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPC) express MC4R, and that ACTH 1-39 protects OL and OPC in vitro from cell death induced by mechanisms likely involved in white matter damage in MS...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873460/perfluorocarbon-emulsions-radiosensitise-brain-tumors-in-carbogen-breathing-mice-with-orthotopic-gl261-gliomas
#14
Lisa A Feldman, Marie-Sophie Fabre, Carole Grasso, Dana Reid, William C Broaddus, Gregory M Lanza, Bruce D Spiess, Joel R Garbow, Melanie J McConnell, Patries M Herst
BACKGROUND: Tumour hypoxia limits the effectiveness of radiation therapy. Delivering normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen therapy elevates pO2 in both tumour and normal brain tissue. However, pO2 levels return to baseline within 15 minutes of stopping therapy. AIM: To investigate the effect of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions on hypoxia in subcutaneous and intracranial mouse gliomas and their radiosensitising effect in orthotopic gliomas in mice breathing carbogen (95%O2 and 5%CO2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870057/-clinical-analysis-of-34-cases-with-sepsis-and-systemic-capillary-leak-syndrome
#15
H X Ma, X J Shi, Y R Liang, H D Shi, H Wang, Y S Zhao
Objective: To study the clinical characteristics of sepsis with systemic capillary leak syndrome(SCLS) and to evaluate the therapeutic effect and clinical significance of fluid therapy adjusted timely in these patients. Methods: The clinical data of 34 patients with sepsis and SCLS in the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery ICU of General Hospital of People's Liberation Army General Hospital from July 2014 to January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.There were 21 males and 13 females, aged from 21 to 74 years, with an average age of 56...
September 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866082/the-in-situ-morphology-of-microglia-is-highly-sensitive-to-the-mode-of-tissue-fixation
#16
Bogdan Cătălin, Laura Stopper, Tudor-Adrian Bălşeanu, Anja Scheller
Microglia are known as the most motile cells in the central nervous system (CNS). It was shown in vivo that they permanently scan their direct microenvironment and react to pathological conditions within minutes. Many studies of brain pathologies use fixed brain tissue to investigate cellular changes. Unfortunately, due to technical reasons, the time span between the induction of the fixation procedure (start of the perfusion) and the finally-fixed tissue lasts several minutes, giving time to microglia to start reacting to the ischemic conditions due to perfusion start...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862152/tumor-control-in-ion-beam-radiotherapy-with-different-ions-in-presence-of-hypoxia-an-oxygen-enhancement-ratio-model-based-on-the-microdosimetric-kinetic-model
#17
Lidia Strigari, Francesca Torriani, Lorenzo Manganaro, Taku Inaniwa, Federico Dalmasso, Roberto Cirio, Andrea Attili
Few attempts to include the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) in treatment planning for ion beam therapy have been made and systematic studies to evaluate the impact of hypoxia in treatments with beam of different ion species are missing. The radiobiological models used to quantify the OER in such studies are mainly based on the dose-averaged LET estimates and do not explicitly distinguish between ion species and fractionation schemes. In this study a new OER modelling, based on the microdosimetric kinetic model, taking into account the specificity of the different ions, LET spectra, tissues and fractionation schemes, has been developed...
September 1, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860608/fmiso-pet-derived-brain-oxygen-tension-maps-application-to-glioblastoma-and-less-aggressive-gliomas
#18
Ararat Chakhoyan, Jean-Sebastien Guillamo, Solène Collet, François Kauffmann, Nicolas Delcroix, Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman, Jean-Marc Constans, Edwige Petit, Eric T MacKenzie, Louisa Barré, Myriam Bernaudin, Omar Touzani, Samuel Valable
Quantitative imaging modalities for the analysis of hypoxia in brain tumors are lacking. The objective of this study was to generate absolute maps of tissue ptO2 from [(18)F]-FMISO images in glioblastoma and less aggressive glioma patients in order to quantitatively assess tumor hypoxia. An ancillary objective was to compare estimated ptO2 values to other biomarkers: perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and tumor metabolism obtained from (1)H-MR mono-voxel spectroscopy (MRS). Ten patients with glioblastoma (GBM) and three patients with less aggressive glioma (nGBM) were enrolled...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859332/biology-of-microglia-in-the-developing-brain
#19
Charanjit Kaur, Gurugirijha Rathnasamy, Eng-Ang Ling
Microglia exist in different morphological forms in the developing brain. They show a small cell body with scanty cytoplasm with many branching processes in the grey matter of the developing brain. However, in the white matter such as the corpus callosum where the unmyelinated axons are loosely organized, they appear in an amoeboid form having a round cell body endowed with copious cytoplasm rich in organelles. The amoeboid cells eventually transform into ramified microglia in the second postnatal week when the tissue becomes more compact with the onset of myelination...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855861/regulation-of-microglia-and-macrophage-polarization-via-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-silencing-after-ischemic-hypoxic-injury
#20
So Yeong Cheon, Eun Jung Kim, Jeong Min Kim, Eun Hee Kam, Byung Woong Ko, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Inflammation is implicated in ischemic stroke and is involved in abnormal homeostasis. Activation of the immune system leads to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and, thereby, infiltration of immune cells into the brain. Upon cerebral ischemia, infiltrated macrophages and microglia (resident CNS immune cell) are activated, change their phenotype to M1 or M2 based on the microenvironment, migrate toward damaged tissue, and are involved in repair or damage. Those of M1 phenotype release pro-inflammatory mediators, which are associated with tissue damage, while those of M2 phenotype release anti-inflammatory mediators, which are related to tissue recovery...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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