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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542481/effect-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-on-bdnf-release-and-neuroprotection-investigations-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-genetically-modified-nih3t3-fibroblasts-as-putative-cell-therapeutics
#1
Jennifer Schulze, Odett Kaiser, Gerrit Paasche, Hans Lamm, Andreas Pich, Andrea Hoffmann, Thomas Lenarz, Athanasia Warnecke
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a noninvasive widely applied treatment that increases the oxygen pressure in tissues. In cochlear implant (CI) research, intracochlear application of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is able to improve survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) after deafness. Cell-based delivery of NTFs such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be realized by cell-coating of the surface of the CI electrode. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secrete a variety of different neurotrophic factors and may be used for the development of a biohybrid electrode in order to release endogenously-derived neuroprotective factors for the protection of residual SGN and for a guided outgrowth of dendrites in the direction of the CI electrode...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539818/isoflurane-preconditioning-inhibits-the-effects-of-tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-on-brain-endothelial-cell-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#2
So Yeong Cheon, So Yeon Kim, Eun Hee Kam, Jae Hoon Lee, Jeong Min Kim, Eun Jung Kim, Tae Whan Kim, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only treatment for ischemic stroke. However, tPA could induce the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), which is the main cause of death in ischemic stroke patient after tPA treatment. At present, there is no treatment strategy to ameliorate tPA-induced brain injury after ischemia. Therefore, we investigated the effect of pre-treated isoflurane, which is a volatile anesthetic and has beneficial effects on neurological dysfunction, brain edema and infarct volume in ischemic stroke model...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532411/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-2-knock-in-mice-show-increased-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-response-to-cisplatin-treatment
#3
Jeewon Kim, Che-Hong Chen, Jieying Yang, Daria Mochly-Rosen
BACKGROUND: The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme family metabolizes and detoxifies both exogenous and endogenous aldehydes. Since chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, generate cytotoxic aldehydes and oxidative stress, and chemoresistant cancer cells express high levels of ALDH enzymes, we hypothesized that different ALDH expression within cells may show different chemosensitivity. ALDH2 has the lowest Km for acetaldehyde among ALDH isozymes and detoxifies acetaldehydes in addition to other reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-nonenal, malondialdehyde and acrolein produced from lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528966/nampt-inhibitor-protects-ischemic-neuronal-injury-in-rat-brain-via-anti-neuroinflammation
#4
Chen-Xiang Chen, Jing Huang, Ga-Qi Tu, Jia-Tong Lu, Xian Xie, Bing Zhao, Ming Wu, Qiao-Juan Shi, San-Hua Fang, Er-Qing Wei, Wei-Ping Zhang, Yun-Bi Lu
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an important neuroprotective factor in cerebral ischemia, and it has been reported that NAMPT inhibitors can aggravate neuronal injury in the acute phase. However, because it is a cytokine, NAMPT participates in many inflammatory diseases in the peripheral system, and its inhibitors have therapeutic effects. Following cerebral ischemia, the peripheral and resident inflammatory and immune cells produce many pro-inflammatory mediators in the ischemic area, which induce neuroinflammation and impair the brain...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518117/simultaneous-evaluation-of-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-light-scattering-properties-of-the-in-vivo-rat-brain-using-multispectral-diffuse-reflectance-imaging
#5
Izumi Nishidate, Afrina Mustari, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato
The simultaneous evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics and the light scattering properties of in vivo rat brain tissue is demonstrated using a conventional multispectral diffuse reflectance imaging system. This system is constructed from a broadband white light source, a motorized filter wheel with a set of narrowband interference filters, a light guide, a collecting lens, a video zoom lens, and a monochromatic charged-coupled device (CCD) camera. An ellipsoidal cranial window is made in the skull bone of a rat under isoflurane anesthesia to capture in vivo multispectral diffuse reflectance images of the cortical surface...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514318/cerebral-oxygen-saturation-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease-and-chronic-hypoxemia
#6
Barry D Kussman, Peter C Laussen, Paul B Benni, Francis X McGowan, Doff B McElhinney
BACKGROUND: Increased hemoglobin (Hb) concentration accompanying hypoxemia is a compensatory response to maintain tissue oxygen delivery. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used clinically to detect abnormalities in the balance of cerebral tissue oxygen delivery and consumption, including in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Although NIRS-measured cerebral tissue O2 saturation (ScO2) correlates with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), jugular bulb O2 saturation (SjbO2), and Hb, little data exist on the interplay between these factors and cerebral O2 extraction (COE)...
May 12, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513420/optimization-of-glioblastoma-mouse-orthotopic-xenograft-models-for-translational-research
#7
Susan M Irtenkauf, Susan Sobiechowski, Laura A Hasselbach, Kevin K Nelson, Andrea D Transou, Enoch T Carlton, Tom Mikkelsen, Ana C deCarvalho
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panelofpatient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured from fresh surgical specimens intracranially into 8-wk-old female athymic nude mice. Here we optimize the glioblastoma PDOX model by assessing the effect of implantation location on tumor growth, survival, and histologic characteristics. To trace the distribution of intracranial injections, toluidine blue dye was injected at 4 locations with defined mediolateral, anterioposterior, and dorsoventral coordinates within the cerebral cortex...
May 16, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513002/one-oxygen-breath-shortened-the-time-to-return-of-spontaneous-circulation-in-severely-asphyxiated-piglets
#8
Rikard Linner, Doris Cunha-Goncalves, Valeria Perez-de-Sa
AIM: Asphyxiated neonates should be resuscitated with air, but it remains unclear if oxygen supplementation is needed in ineffectively ventilated newborn infants. We studied the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with oxygen or air in an experimental model of inadequate ventilation. METHODS: Asphyxia was induced in 16 newborn piglets until their heart rate was <60 bpm or mean arterial pressure (MAP) <30 mmHg. During the first 10 minutes of resuscitation, they received one breath per minute of oxygen (n=8) or air (n=8)...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511347/mitochondrial-complex-i-deactivation-is-related-to-superoxide-production-in-acute-hypoxia
#9
Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín, Elena Ramos, Elisa Navarro, Esther Parada, Nuria Sánchez-López, Laura Peláez-Aguado, J Daniel Cabrera-García, Daniel Tello, Izaskun Buendia, Anabel Marina, Javier Egea, Manuela G López, Anna Bogdanova, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz
Mitochondria use oxygen as the final acceptor of the respiratory chain, but its incomplete reduction can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide. Acute hypoxia produces a superoxide burst in different cell types, but the triggering mechanism is still unknown. Herein, we show that complex I is involved in this superoxide burst under acute hypoxia in endothelial cells. We have also studied the possible mechanisms by which complex I could be involved in this burst, discarding reverse electron transport in complex I and the implication of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)...
April 21, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511149/analysis-of-extracellular-brain-chemistry-during-percutaneous-dilational-tracheostomy-a-retrospective-study-of-19-patients
#10
Jan Küchler, Jann Wojak, Abdulkareem Abusamha, Claudia Ditz, Volker Martin Tronnier, Jan Gliemroth
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in brain tissue chemistry around percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) in patients with acute brain injury (ABI) in a retrospective single-center analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 19 patients who had continuous monitoring of brain tissue chemistry and intracranial pressure (ICP) during a 20h period before and after PDT. Different microdialysis parameters (lactate, pyruvate, lactate pyruvate ratio (LPR), glycerol and glutamate) and values of ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and brain tissue oxygenation (PBrO2) were recorded per hour...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508372/effect-of-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-on-the-nitration-of-brain-proteins-a-systems-biology-and-bioinformatics-approach
#11
Firas H Kobeissy, Joy Guingab-Cagmat, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Mark S Gold, Kevin Wang
Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure leads to the death of approximately 48,000 nonsmokers per year in the United States alone. SHS exposure has been associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurodegenerative diseases. While cardiac function abnormalities and lung cancer due to SHS have been well characterized, brain injury due to SHS has not undergone a full systematic evaluation. Oxidative stress and nitration have been associated with smoking and SHS exposure. Animal studies suggest that exposure to tobacco smoke increases oxidative stress...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504360/oxygen-extraction-fraction-mapping-at-3-tesla-using-an-artificial-neural-network-a-feasibility-study
#12
Sebastian Domsch, Bettina Mürle, Sebastian Weingärtner, Jascha Zapp, Frederik Wenz, Lothar R Schad
PURPOSE: The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is an important biomarker for tissue-viability. MRI enables noninvasive estimation of the OEF based on the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) effect. Quantitative OEF-mapping is commonly applied using least-squares regression (LSR) to an analytical tissue model. However, the LSR method has not yet become clinically established due to the necessity for long acquisition times. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) recently have received increasing interest for robust curve-fitting and might pose an alternative to the conventional LSR method for reduced acquisition times...
May 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501482/ciproxifan-improves-cholinergic-transmission-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-but-does-not-reduce-amyloid-level-in-transgenic-mice
#13
Vasudevan Mani, Siti Murnirah Jaafar, Nur Syamimi Mohd Azahan, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Siong Meng Lim, Long Chiau Ming, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed
AIM: The present study is aimed to investigate the ability of ciproxifan, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist to inhibit β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in SK-N-SH cells and APP transgenic mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro studies was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ciproxifan in Aβ25-35 - induced SK-N-SH cells. For the in vivo study, ciproxifan (1 and 3mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to transgenic mice for 15days and behaviour was assessed using the radial arm maze (RAM)...
May 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499835/reactive-oxygen-species-generation-increases-in-cerebral-cortex-slices-after-the-transiently-enhanced-metabolic-activity
#14
Toru Sasaki, Takuji Awaji, Kazuyoshi Shimada, Haruyo Sasaki
Under certain conditions such as hypoxia-reoxygenation, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases following hypoxia caused by a decreased oxygen supply. As another hypoxic condition, an excess neural activity status including epileptic seizure induces a decrease in tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) caused by enhanced oxygen utilization; however, whether ROS generation increases following the hypoxic status induced by transiently enhanced energy metabolism in brain tissue currently remains unknown...
May 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499219/oxidant-and-anti-oxidant-status-in-common-brain-tumors-correlation-to-tp53-and-human-biliverdin-reductase
#15
Pinar Atukeren, Sena Oner, Oguz Baran, Rahsan Kemerdere, Bulent Eren, Ufuk Cakatay, Taner Tanriverdi
OBJECTIVE: To assess oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with common brain tumors; namely meningiomas, low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG) and to compare with normal brain tissues. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Almost nine biomarkers were measured in 59 brain tumors obtained during surgery and 15 normal brain tissues that were collected during autopsy. Results were compared between two groups. RESULTS: In general, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation increased while antioxidant capacity decreased significantly in tumors compared to the controls (p<0...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497982/neuroprotection-in-oxidative-stress-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-role-of-endocannabinoid-system-modulation
#16
Janos Paloczi, Zoltan V Varga, George Hasko, Pal Pacher
SIGNIFICANCE: Redox imbalance may lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequent oxidative tissue damage which is a critical event in the course of neurodegenerative diseases. It is still not fully elucidated, however, whether oxidative stress is the primary trigger or a consequence in process of neurodegeneration. Recent Advances: Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the propagation of neuronal injury and consequent inflammatory response, which in concert promote development of pathological alterations characteristic of most common neurodegenerative diseases...
May 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495827/hyperbaric-oxygen-reduces-infarction-volume-and-hemorrhagic-transformation-through-atp-nad-sirt1-pathway-in-hyperglycemic-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rats
#17
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Hetao Bian, Zongduo Guo, Jun-Long Huang, Zhen-Ni Guo, Peng Yang, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Energy depletion is a critical factor leading to cell death and brain dysfunction after ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated whether energy depletion is involved in hyperglycemia-induced hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke and determined the pathway underlying the beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). METHODS: After 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion, hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 50% dextrose (6 mL/kg) intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion...
May 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488219/inhibition-of-gelatinases-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-by-withania-somnifera-phytochemicals-confers-neuroprotection-in-stroke-an-in-silico-analysis
#18
Gaurav Kumar, Ranjana Patnaik
A stroke or cerebrovascular accident is a serious, life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is severely reduced or cut off, depriving brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients. Studies suggested that level of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) usually increases in the brain after stroke. The elevated activity of gelatinases plays the deleterious role in ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Therefore, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 inhibition have therapeutic importance in stroke condition...
May 9, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484378/rapid-physiological-fluctuations-in-nucleus-accumbens-oxygen-levels-induced-by-arousing-stimuli-relationships-with-changes-in-brain-glucose-and-metabolic-neural-activation
#19
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Proper entry of oxygen from arterial blood into the brain is essential for maintaining brain metabolism under normal conditions and during functional neural activation. However, little is known about physiological fluctuations in brain oxygen and their underlying mechanisms. To address this issue, we employed high-speed amperometry with platinum oxygen sensors in freely moving male rats. Recordings were conducted in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical structure for sensorimotor integration. Rats were exposed to arousing stimuli of different nature (brief auditory tone, a 1-min novel object presentation, a 3-min social interaction with a conspecific, and a 3-min tail-pinch)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483628/acute-early-carotid-stent-thrombosis-a-case-series
#20
Konstantinos G Moulakakis, John Kakisis, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Vasilis Zymvragoudakis, Stavros Spiliopoulos, Andreas Lazaris, Giorgos S Sfyroeras, Spyridon N Mylonas, Spyridon N Vasdekis, George Geroulakos, Elias N Brountzos
PURPOSE: Acute early carotid stent thrombosis (AcuteCST) is a rare complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the incidence, causes and optimal management of AcuteCST. METHODS: Medical records of all patients undergoing CAS between 2008 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Time of thrombosis, grade of stenosis, lesion side, pre and post-procedural anticoagulants, causes, symptoms, treatment, recanalization and outcome were reviewed...
May 5, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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