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Brain tissue oxygen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810002/retinal-oximetry-discovers-novel-biomarkers-in-retinal-and-brain-diseases
#1
Einar Stefánsson, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir, Thor Eysteinsson, Wouter Vehmeijer, Evelien Vandewalle, Toke Bek, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
Purpose: Biomarkers for several eye and brain diseases are reviewed, where retinal oximetry may help confirm diagnosis or measure severity of disease. These include diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Retinal oximetry is based on spectrophotometric fundus imaging and measures oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in a noninvasive, quick, safe manner. Retinal oximetry detects changes in oxygen metabolism, including those that result from ischemia or atrophy...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805936/characterizing-hypoxia-in-human-glioma-a-simultaneous-multimodal-mri-and-pet-study
#2
Christine Preibisch, Kuangyu Shi, Anne Kluge, Mathias Lukas, Benedikt Wiestler, Jens Göttler, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Mohamed Al Jaberi, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Thomas Pyka, Stefan Förster
Hypoxia plays an important role for the prognosis and therapy response of cancer. Thus, hypoxia imaging would be a valuable tool for pre-therapeutic assessment of tumor malignancy. However, there is no standard validated technique for clinical application available yet. Therefore, we performed a study in 12 patients with high-grade glioma, where we directly compared the two currently most promising techniques, namely the MR-based relative oxygen extraction fraction (MR-rOEF) and the PET hypoxia marker H-1-(3-[(18) F]-fluoro-2-hydroxypropyl)-2-nitroimidazole ([(18) F]-FMISO)...
August 14, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802090/assessment-of-the-dynamics-of-human-glymphatic-system-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs
#3
Teemu Myllylä, Markus Harju, Vesa Korhonen, Alexander Bykov, Vesa Kiviniemi, Igor Meglinski
Fluctuations in brain water content has attracted increasing interest, particularly as regards studies of the glymphatic system, which is connected with the complex organisation of dural lymphatic vessels, responsible for cleaning tissue. Disturbances of glymphatic circulation are associated with several brain disorders, including dementia. This paper introduces an approach to non-invasive measurement of water dynamics in the human brain utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We demonstrate the possibility to sense dynamic variations of water content between the skull and grey matter, for instance, in the subarachnoid space...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801523/dietary-modulation-of-oxylipins-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-aging
#4
Stephanie P B Caligiuri, Mihir Parikh, Aleksandra Stamenkovic, Grant N Pierce, Harold M Aukema
Oxylipins are a group of fatty acid metabolites generated via oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are involved in processes such as inflammation, immunity, pain, vascular tone and coagulation. As a result, oxylipins are implicated in many conditions characterized by these processes including cardiovascular disease and aging. The best characterized oxylipins in relation to cardiovascular disease are derived from the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid. These oxylipins generally increase inflammation, hypertension and platelet aggregation, although not universally...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798199/human-cerebral-blood-flow-control-during-hypoxia-focus-on-chronic-pulmonary-obstructive-disease-copd-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa
#5
Andrew E Beaudin, Sara E Hartmann, Matiram Pun, Marc J Poulin
The brain is a vital organ that relies on a constant and adequate blood flow to match oxygen and glucose delivery with the local metabolic demands of active neurons. Thus, exquisite regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is particularly important under hypoxic conditions to prevent a detrimental decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen within the brain tissues. Cerebrovascular sensitivity to hypoxia, assessed as the change in CBF during a hypoxic challenge, represents the capacity of cerebral vessels to respond to, and compensate for, a reduced oxygen supply, and has been shown to be impaired or blunted in a number of conditions...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797292/the-ethanol-extract-of-aquilariae-lignum-ameliorates-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-in-a-repeated-restraint-stress-mouse-model
#6
Hyun-Yong Lee, Jin-Seok Lee, Hyeong-Geug Kim, Won-Yong Kim, Seung-Bae Lee, Yung-Hyun Choi, Chang-Gue Son
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress contributes to the development of brain disorders, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Oxidative damage is well known as a causative factor for pathogenic process in brain tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of a 30% ethanol extract of Aquilariae Lignum (ALE) in repeated stress-induced hippocampal oxidative injury. METHODS: Fifty BALB/c male mice (12 weeks old) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10)...
August 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792276/oxygen-metabolism-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#7
Weili Lin, William J Powers
Gaining insights into brain oxygen metabolism has been one of the key areas of research in neurosciences. Extensive efforts have been devoted to developing approaches capable of providing measures of brain oxygen metabolism not only under normal physiological conditions but, more importantly, in various pathophysiological conditions such as cerebral ischemia. In particular, quantitative measures of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using positron emission tomography (PET) have been shown to be capable of discerning brain tissue viability during ischemic insults...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790886/molecular-bases-of-brain-preconditioning
#8
Oleg G Deryagin, Svetlana A Gavrilova, Khalil L Gainutdinov, Anna V Golubeva, Vyatcheslav V Andrianov, Guzel G Yafarova, Sergey V Buravkov, Vladimir B Koshelev
Preconditioning of the brain induces tolerance to the damaging effects of ischemia and prevents cell death in ischemic penumbra. The development of this phenomenon is mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium ([Formula: see text]) channels and nitric oxide signaling (NO). The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of molecular changes in mitochondria after ischemic preconditioning (IP) and the effect of pharmacological preconditioning (PhP) with the [Formula: see text]-channels opener diazoxide on NO levels after ischemic stroke in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777902/effects-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-on-hippocampal-neuronal-apoptosis-in-rats-with-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#9
Li Xue, Wen-Lan Wang, Ya Li, Xu Gong, Jun-Xiang Bao, Hai-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Ping Xie, Yao-Ming Chang, Jin-Sheng Li
INTRODUCTION: Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning causes serious health problems such as neuropsychological sequelae. This study aimed to investigate neuronal apoptosis and the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) on different regions of the rat hippocampus after CO poisoning. METHODS: 90 mature male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the normal control group (NC group), the acute carbon monoxide-poisoned group (CO group) and the hyperbaric oxygen treatment group (HBO₂ group)...
March 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777513/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-new-findings-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-treatment-on-rats-with-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#10
Wenlan Wang, Li Xue, Ya Li, Rong Li, Xiaoping Xie, Junxiang Bao, Chunxu Hai, Jinsheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the altered gene network in the brains of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoned rats after treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂). METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was performed to examine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in brain tissue samples from nine male rats: a normal control group; a CO poisoning group; and an HBO₂ treatment group (three rats/group). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR were used for validation of the DEGs in another 18 male rats (six rats/group)...
November 2016: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770951/microrna-181c-functions-as-a-protective-factor-in-a-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-iodide-induced-cellular-parkinson-s-disease-model-via-bcl2l11
#11
M Wei, L-J Cao, J-L Zheng, L-J Xue, B Chen, F Xiao, C-S Xu
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. At present, many studies have pointed out that miRNAs play a very important role in Parkinson's development and process. MiR-181c has been shown to have a significant low expression in blood samples and brain tissues of Parkinson's patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Iodide (MPP(+)) as a tool for constructing the Parkinson's cell model, using mir181c mimics to construct an experimental model of acquisition...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769857/hyperventilation-therapy-for-control-of-posttraumatic-intracranial-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Agustín Godoy, Ali Seifi, David Garza, Santiago Lubillo-Montenegro, Francisco Murillo-Cabezas
During traumatic brain injury, intracranial hypertension (ICH) can become a life-threatening condition if it is not managed quickly and adequately. Physicians use therapeutic hyperventilation to reduce elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) by manipulating autoregulatory functions connected to cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity. Inducing hypocapnia via hyperventilation reduces the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which incites vasoconstriction in the cerebral resistance arterioles. This constriction decrease cerebral blood flow, which reduces cerebral blood volume and, ultimately, decreases the patient's ICP...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764821/investigating-the-role-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-neonatal-medicine
#13
Kaylee M Evans, Lori B Rubarth
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a clinical tool that provides a bedside method of noninvasively measuring continuous, "real-time" oxygen consumption and monitoring for potential ischemia of somatic tissues, particularly the brain, kidneys, and intestine in neonates. Although the concept of NIRS seems promising, its implementation into clinical practice has been inconsistent for various reasons, including difficulty in interpreting regional oxygen saturation (rSO2), the wide variation in types of NIRS monitors and probes, the cost of new equipment, different monitoring modalities, large discrepancies in both intra- and interindividual use, a lack of defined universal normative values, and little to no data on outcomes or potentially harmful interventions made based on rSO2 readings...
July 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758541/cobra-neurotoxin-produces-central-analgesic-and-hyperalgesic-actions-via-adenosine-a1-and-a2a-receptors
#14
Chuang Zhao, Jun Zhao, Qian Yang, Yong Ye
Cobra neurotoxin, a short-chain peptide isolated from snake venom of Naja naja atra, showed both a central analgesic effect and a hyperalgesic effect in mice tests. In order to explore mechanisms, a hypothesis is put forward that cobra neurotoxin takes effect through adenosine receptor pathway. The central effects of cobra neurotoxin were evaluated using the hot plate test (a model of acute pain) and the spinal cord injury (a model of central pain) in mice and using A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX) and A2A receptor antagonist (ZM241385); behaviors were scored and signal molecules such as reactive oxygen species and adenosine triphosphate levels and mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase expression were measured...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751019/the-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-hydrogen-sulfide-pathway-contributes-to-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-following-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Minjie Zhang, Xiaowei Wu, Yingxiu Xu, Meijun He, Jiaying Yang, Jie Li, Yuyao Li, Guizhen Ao, Jian Cheng, Jia Jia
The mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia remain unclear. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a newly identified gasotransmitter, has been reported to regulate inflammation. In the current study, we investigated whether the endogenous H2S production pathway contributed to microglia-mediated neuroinflammation following stroke. We used a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and an in vitro cellular model to mimic ischemia-induced microglial neuroinflammation. Expression of the H2S synthase cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and H2S synthetic activity were rapidly decreased in the ischemic brain tissue following MCAO...
July 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750017/corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-modulates-biomarkers-of-dna-oxidation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#16
Cheng Zhang, Robert A Rissman
Increased production of hydroxyl radical is the main source of oxidative damage in mammalian DNA that accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) react with both nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to generate 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), both of which can be measured in the urine. Knowledge of this pathway has positioned measurement of urine 8-OHdG as a reliable index of DNA oxidation and a potential biomarker target for tracking early cellular dysfunction in AD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745142/pharmacological-effects-of-protocatechuic-acid-and-its-therapeutic-potential-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-review-on-the-basis-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-in-rodents-and-humans
#17
Kinga Krzysztoforska, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
Protocatechuic acid has very promising properties potentially useful in the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases progression. It is the main metabolite of the complex polyphenolic compounds and is believed to be responsible for beneficial effects associated with consumption of the food products rich in polyphenols. Protocatechuic acid is present in the circulation significantly longer and at higher concentrations than parent compounds and easily crosses the blood brain barrier. The aim of the following paper is to provide an extensive and actual report on protocatechuic acid and its pharmacological potential in prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in humans based on existing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies...
July 26, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744190/hypoxia-in-cns-pathologies-emerging-role-of-mirna-based-neurotherapeutics-and-yoga-based-alternative-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Gillipsie Minhas, Deepali Mathur, Balakrishnan Ragavendrasamy, Neel K Sharma, Viraaj Paanu, Akshay Anand
Cellular respiration is a vital process for the existence of life. Any condition that results in deprivation of oxygen (also termed as hypoxia) may eventually lead to deleterious effects on the functioning of tissues. Brain being the highest consumer of oxygen is prone to increased risk of hypoxia-induced neurological insults. This in turn has been associated with many diseases of central nervous system (CNS) such as stroke, Alzheimer's, encephalopathy etc. Although several studies have investigated the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ischemic/hypoxic CNS diseases, the knowledge about protective therapeutic strategies to ameliorate the affected neuronal cells is meager...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743960/nadph-oxidase-4-is-required-for-the-generation-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-and-host-defense-against-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#19
Ji Hye Kim, Jina Lee, Su-Jin Bae, Yeeun Kim, Byung-Joon Park, Jae-Won Choi, Jaeyul Kwon, Guang-Ho Cha, Heon Jong Yoo, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Yun Soo Bae, Young-Ha Lee, Jae-Min Yuk
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Nox) are an important family of catalytic enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate the regulation of diverse cellular functions. Although phagocyte Nox2/gp91phox is closely associated with the activation of host innate immune responses, the roles of Nox family protein during Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection have not been fully investigated. Here, we found that T. gondii-mediated ROS production was required for the upregulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) mRNA and protein levels via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling in macrophages...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735650/prognostic-utility-of-neuroinjury-biomarkers-in-post-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-ohca-patient-management
#20
S S Gul, K W Huesgen, K K Wang, K Mark, J A Tyndall
Despite aggressive intervention, patients who survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) generally have very poor prognoses, with nationwide survival rates of approximately 10-20%. Approximately 90% of survivors will have moderate to severe neurological injury ranging from moderate cognitive impairment to brain death. Currently, few early prognostic indicators are considered reliable enough to support patients' families and clinicians' in their decisions regarding medical futility. Blood biomarkers of neurological injury after OHCA may be of prognostic value in these cases...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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