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Acetaminophen, paracetamol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896824/patients-with-the-worst-outcomes-after-paracetamol-acetaminophen-induced-liver-failure-have-an-early-monocytopenia
#1
J K Moore, A C MacKinnon, T Y Man, J R Manning, S J Forbes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. AIM: To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. METHODS: In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited...
November 28, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852690/maternal-use-of-mild-analgesics-during-pregnancy-associated-with-reduced-anogenital-distance-in-sons-a-cohort-study-of-1027-mother-child-pairs
#2
Dorte Vesterholm Lind, Katharina M Main, Henriette Boye Kyhl, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Jorma Toppari, Helle Raun Andersen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Niels E Skakkebæk, Tina Kold Jensen
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal use of mild analgesics in pregnancy associated with anogenital distance (AGD)-the distance from the anus to the genitals-in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Maternal use of mild analgesics [especially simultaneous use of paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] during pregnancy was associated with a shorter AGD in boys whereas no effect was found in girls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mild analgesics including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs (e...
November 16, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842443/clinical-update-on-benefit-versus-risks-of-oral-paracetamol-alone-or-with-codeine-still-a-good-option
#3
Hans Georg Kress, Gerald Untersteiner
BACKGROUND: After decades of worldwide use of paracetamol/acetaminophen as a popular and apparently safe prescription and over-the-counter medicine, the future role of this poorly understood analgesic has been seriously questioned by recent concerns about prenatal, cardiovascular (CV) and hepatic safety, and also about its analgesic efficacy. At the same time the usefulness of codeine in combination products has come under debate. METHODS: Based on a PubMed database literature search on the terms efficacy, safety, paracetamol, acetaminophen, codeine and their combinations up to and including June 2016, this clinical update reviews the current evidence of the benefit and risks of oral paracetamol alone and with codeine for mild-to-moderate pain in adults, and compares the respective efficacy and safety profiles with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
November 15, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797174/bioinorganic-nanohybrid-catalyst-for-multistep-synthesis-of-acetaminophen-an-analgesic
#4
Boi Hoa San, Subramaniyam Ravichandran, Kwang-Su Park, Vinod Kumar Subramani, Kyeong Kyu Kim
A bioinorganic nanohybrid catalyst was synthesized by combining esterase with a platinum nanoparticle (PtNP). The combination of two catalysts resulted in enhanced catalytic activities, esterase hydrolysis, and hydrogenation in PtNPs, as compared to each catalyst alone. This hybrid catalyst can be successfully used in the multistep synthesis of acetaminophen (paracetamol), an analgesic and antipyretic drug, in a one-pot reaction with high yield and efficacy within a short time, demonstrating that the nanobiohybrid catalyst offers advantages in the synthesis of fine chemicals in industrial applications...
October 31, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792836/randomized-controlled-multicenter-clinical-trial-of-the-antipyretic-effect-of-intravenous-paracetamol-in-patients-admitted-to-hospital-with-infection
#5
Thomas Tsaganos, Ioulia K Tseti, Nikolaos Tziolos, Georgios-Stefanos Soumelas, Marina Koupetori, Athina Pyrpasopoulou, Karolina Akinosoglou, Charalambos Gogos, Nikolaos Tsokos, Asterios Karagiannis, Styliani Sympardi, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
AIM: No randomized study has been conducted for intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) for fever management due to infection. This is a study for a new ready-made infusion of paracetamol. METHODS: 80 patients with body temperature onset the last 24 hours greater than or equal to 38.5 °C due to infection were randomized to single administration of placebo (n = 39) or 1 g paracetamol (n = 41); temperature was recorded at standard intervals. Rescue medication with 1 g paracetamol was allowed...
October 28, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785937/paracetamol-and-morphine-for-infant-and-neonatal-pain-still-a-long-way-to-go
#6
Manuel A Baarslag, Karel Allegaert, John N Van Den Anker, Catherijne A J Knibbe, Monique Van Dijk, Sinno H P Simons, Dick Tibboel
Pharmacologic pain management in newborns and infants is often based on limited scientific data. To close the knowledge gap, drug-related research in this population is increasingly supported by the authorities, but remains very challenging. This review summarizes the challenges of analgesic studies in newborns and infants on morphine and paracetamol (acetaminophen). Areas covered: Aspects such as the definition and multimodal character of pain are reflected to newborn infants. Specific problems addressed include defining pharmacodynamic endpoints, performing clinical trials in this population and assessing developmental changes in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics...
November 9, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770431/circulating-acetaminophen-metabolites-are-toxicokinetic-biomarkers-of-acute-liver-injury
#7
Adb Vliegenthart, R A Kimmitt, J H Seymour, N Z Homer, J I Clarke, M Eddleston, A Gray, D M Wood, P I Dargan, J G Cooper, D J Antoine, D J Webb, S C Lewis, D N Bateman, J W Dear
Acetaminophen (paracetamol-APAP) is the most common cause of drug-induced liver injury in the Western world. Reactive metabolite production by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP-metabolites) causes hepatotoxicity. We explored the toxicokinetics of human circulating APAP metabolites following overdose. Plasma from patients treated with acetylcysteine (NAC) for a single APAP overdose was analyzed from discovery (n = 116) and validation (n = 150) patient cohorts. In the discovery cohort, patients who developed acute liver injury (ALI) had higher CYP-metabolites than those without ALI...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770326/aspirin-and-paracetamol-removal-using-a-commercial-micro-sized-tio2-catalyst-in-deionized-and-tap-water
#8
Claudia L Bianchi, Benedetta Sacchi, Carlo Pirola, Francesco Demartin, Giuseppina Cerrato, Sara Morandi, Valentino Capucci
Micro-sized TiO2 catalyst was employed to degrade pharmaceutical compounds, i.e. aspirin and paracetamol, two of the most widely used drugs, purchasable without prescription. Their active agents, acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen, are characterized by different substituent groups, linked to the aromatic ring, which affect both the photodegradation and mineralization processes. The experimental conditions highlight the relationship between the nature of the pristine molecules, their degradation mechanisms, their mutual interference and the water's role...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767117/single-dose-oral-analgesics-for-postoperative-pain-have-few-adverse-events
#9
Yin J Wong
Data sourcesThe Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on the Cochrane Library.Study selectionAll Cochrane reviews of RCTs between 1999 to 2015, conducted in adults examining the adverse events associated with single dose oral analgesics used for acute post-operative pain were considered.Data extraction and synthesisStudies were searched, reviewed and assessed independently by two reviewers and standard data items extracted. Methodological quality was assessed using criteria adapted from AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews)...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756064/effects-of-allyl-isothiocyanate-acetaminophen-and-dipyrone-in-the-guinea-pig-ileum
#10
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716943/paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-prevention-or-treatment-of-pain-in-newborns
#11
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Hospitalised infants are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the prevention or treatment of procedural/postoperative pain or pain associated with clinical conditions in neonates...
October 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703954/multimodal-analgesia-with-ketamine-or-tramadol-in-combination-with-intravenous-paracetamol-after-renal-surgery
#12
Mohammad Reza Khajavi, Seyed Mehdi Sabouri, Reza Shariat Moharari, Pejman Pourfakhr, Atabak Najafi, Farhad Etezadi, Farsad Imani
BACKGROUND: Opioids are generally the preferred analgesic agents during the early postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to assess and compare the multimodal analgesic effects of ketamine and tramadol in combination with intravenous acetaminophen after renal surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial was conducted on 80 consecutive patients undergoing various types of kidney surgeries in Sina hospital in Tehran in 2014 - 2016...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698754/oral-paracetamol-vs-oral-ibuprofen-in-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-premature-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Bo Yang, Xiangyu Gao, Yi Ren, Yun Wang, Qinglin Zhang
The aim of the present study was to analyze the changes of plasma and urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in preterm infants with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) treated with oral ibuprofen and acetaminophen. A total of 87 preterm infants with sPDA admitted to the Neonatal Ward of the Affiliated Xuzhou Hospital of Medical College of Southeast University from October, 2012 to June, 2015 were selected and randomly divided into the ibuprofen group (n=43, 10 mg/kg ibuprofen administered orally as initial dose, followed by 5 mg/kg during the first 24 and 48 h later) and acetaminophen group (n=44, 15 mg/kg acetaminophen administered orally once every 6 h for three days)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588429/fenton-like-catalysis-and-oxidation-adsorption-performances-of-acetaminophen-and-arsenic-pollutants-in-water-on-a-multimetal-cu-zn-fe-ldh
#14
Hongtao Lu, Zhiliang Zhu, Hua Zhang, Jianyao Zhu, Yanling Qiu, Linyan Zhu, Stephan Küppers
Acetaminophen can increase the risk of arsenic-mediated hepatic oxidative damage; therefore, the decontamination of water polluted with coexisting acetaminophen and arsenic gives rise to new challenges for the purification of drinking water. In this work, a three-metal layered double hydroxide, namely, Cu-Zn-Fe-LDH, was synthesized and applied as a heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation catalyst and adsorbent to simultaneously remove acetaminophen (Paracetamol, PR) and arsenic. The results showed that the degradation of acetaminophen was accelerated with decreasing pH or increasing H2O2 concentrations...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575940/the-association-between-paracetamol-and-asthma-is-still-under-debate
#15
Tamara Lourido-Cebreiro, F J Salgado, L Valdes, F J Gonzalez-Barcala
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationship between paracetamol and asthma. DATA SOURCES: An English literature search using electronic search engines (PubMed and EMBASE) was conducted. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles published in peer-review journals, from 1990 to December 2015 were included. In order to perform the search for the most suitable and representative articles, key words were selected ("asthma", "paracetamol" and "acetaminophen"). The evidence level was rated according to the criteria of the Oxford Centre For Evidence-Based Medicine...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567587/effects-of-luteolin-and-quercetin-3-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-identified-from-passiflora-subpeltata-leaves-against-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#16
Saravanan Shanmugam, Parimelazhagan Thangaraj, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Rahul Chandran, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Mairim Russo Serafini, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior
Passiflora subpeltata has many beneficial effects in the treatment of various diseases including inflammation, pain and fever. This study was aimed to analyze the phytochemical compounds present in acetone extract of P. subpeltata leaves and to evaluate their performance against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity activity. HPLC-DAD method was used to identify and quantify the phytochemical compounds. Hepatoprotective activity of acetone extract in the treatment of rat liver functions was monitored by the measurement of blood parameters and serum biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP and in vivo antioxidant parameters viz...
August 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533796/association-of-acetaminophen-use-during-pregnancy-with-behavioral-problems-in-childhood-evidence-against-confounding
#17
Evie Stergiakouli, Anita Thapar, George Davey Smith
Importance: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is used by a large proportion of pregnant women. Research suggests that acetaminophen use in pregnancy is associated with abnormal fetal neurodevelopment. However, it is possible that this association might be confounded by unmeasured behavioral factors linked to acetaminophen use. Objective: To examine associations between offspring behavioral problems and (1) maternal prenatal acetaminophen use, (2) maternal postnatal acetaminophen use, and (3) partner's acetaminophen use...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511111/study-of-the-transformations-of-micro-nano-crystalline-acetaminophen-polymorphs-in-drug-polymer-binary-mixtures
#18
Mohammed Maniruzzaman, Matthew Lam, Carlos Molina, Ali Nokhodchi
This study elucidates the physical properties of sono-crystallised micro/nano-sized acetaminophen/paracetamol (PMOL) and monitors its possible transformation from polymorphic form I (monoclinic) to form II (orthorhombic). Hydrophilic Plasdone® S630 copovidone (S630), N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and vinyl acetate copolymer, and methacrylate-based cationic copolymer, Eudragit® EPO (EPO), were used as polymeric carriers to prepare drug/polymer binary mixtures. Commercially available PMOL was crystallised under ultra sound sonication to produce micro/nano-sized (0...
August 10, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479646/prenatal-use-of-acetaminophen-and-child-iq-a-danish-cohort-study
#19
Zeyan Liew, Beate Ritz, Jasveer Virk, Onyebuchi A Arah, Jørn Olsen
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used pain and fever medication during pregnancy, and recently has been linked to hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children. We examine whether prenatal use of acetaminophen affects children's intelligence quotient (IQ). METHODS: We studied 1,491 mothers and children enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1996-2002). Acetaminophen use in pregnancy was prospectively recorded in three telephone interviews...
November 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476283/effect-of-paracetamol-on-melanization-process-in-human-epidermal-melanocytes
#20
Dorota Wrześniok, Martyna Oprzondek, Anna Hechmann, Artur Beberok, Michał Otreba, Ewa Buszman
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is commonly used as a drug of choice for treatment of pain and fever. Unlike non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) it does not cause gastrointestinal damage or untoward cardiorenal effects, however cutaneous adverse effects have been reported. It is known that paracetamol binds to melanin biopolymers, but the relation between the affinity of this drug to melanin and its toxicity is not documented. The aim of this work was to examine the impact of paracetamol on melanogenesis in cultured human normal epidermal melanocytes (HEMn-DP)...
May 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
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