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Acetaminophen, paracetamol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783269/adding-paracetamol-to-ibuprofen-for-the-treatment-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#1
Ori Hochwald, Gur Mainzer, Liron Borenstein-Levin, Huda Jubran, Gil Dinur, Meirav Zucker, Malka Mor, Asaad Khoury, Amir Kugelman
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to compare the closure rate of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) of intravenous ibuprofen + paracetamol (acetaminophen) versus ibuprofen + placebo, in preterm infants of 24 to 316/7 weeks postmenstrual age. STUDY DESIGN:  This is a single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study. Infants were assigned for treatment with either intravenous ibuprofen + paracetamol ( n  = 12) or ibuprofen + placebo ( n  = 12)...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738273/the-antipyretic-effect-of-paracetamol-occurs-independent-of-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-mediated-hypothermia-and-is-associated-with-prostaglandin-inhibition-in-the-brain
#2
Elahe Mirrasekhian, Johan L Å Nilsson, Kiseko Shionoya, Anders Blomgren, Peter M Zygmunt, David Engblom, Edward D Högestätt, Anders Blomqvist
The mode of action of paracetamol (acetaminophen), which is widely used for treating pain and fever, has remained obscure, but may involve several distinct mechanisms, including cyclooxygenase inhibition and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel activation, the latter being recently associated with paracetamol's propensity to elicit hypothermia at higher doses. Here, we examined whether the antipyretic effect of paracetamol was due to TRPA1 activation or cyclooxygenase inhibition. Treatment of wild-type and TRPA1 knockout mice rendered febrile by immune challenge with LPS with a dose of paracetamol that did not produce hypothermia (150 mg/kg) but is known to be analgetic, abolished fever in both genotypes...
May 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722036/curcumin-in-turmeric-basic-and-clinical-evidence-for-a-potential-role-in-analgesia
#3
REVIEW
U J Eke-Okoro, R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, F Breve, R Taylor
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Current analgesic pharmacotherapy-opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen (paracetamol) and related drugs-is effective for acute pain, but their use is limited by adverse effects on the renal, hepatic, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal systems, or they have potential for abuse. Therefore, alternative options are desired. Compounds used in traditional medicine might offer such alternatives, but the evidence must be based on pharmacologic properties and on clinical trial data...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703389/association-of-antioxidant-nutraceuticals-and-acetaminophen-paracetamol-friend-or-foe
#4
REVIEW
Mohamed Abdel-Daim, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Raffaella Reggi, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Maura Palmery, Ilaria Peluso
Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP by reviewing the in vivo evidence, with particular reference to APAP pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673620/effects-of-opioid-and-non-opioid-analgesics-on-responses-to-psychosocial-stress-in-humans
#5
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Greg J Norman, Harriet de Wit
Both preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the endogenous opioid system is involved in responses to stress. For example, in animal models opioid agonists reduce isolation distress whereas opioid antagonists increase isolation distress. We recently reported that the mixed mu agonist and kappa antagonist buprenorphine dampened responses to acute psychosocial stress in humans. Now we extend this to study the effects of a pure mu-opioid agonist, hydromorphone, and a non-opioid analgesic, acetaminophen, on response to social stress...
April 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667370/systems-toxicology-approach-to-identifying-paracetamol-overdose
#6
Chantelle L Mason, Joseph Leedale, Sotiris Tasoulis, Ian Jarman, Daniel J Antoine, Steven D Webb
Paracetamol (acetaminophen (APAP)) is one of the most commonly used analgesics in the United Kingdom and the United States. However, exceeding the maximum recommended dose can cause serious liver injury and even death. Promising APAP toxicity biomarkers are thought to add value to those used currently and clarification of the functional relationships between these biomarkers and liver injury would aid clinical implementation of an improved APAP toxicity identification framework. The framework currently used to define an APAP overdose is highly dependent upon time since ingestion and initial dose; information that is often highly unpredictable...
April 18, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659631/the-hemodynamic-effects-of-intravenous-paracetamol-acetaminophen-vs-normal-saline-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-a-single-center-placebo-controlled-randomized-study
#7
Elizabeth Chiam, Rinaldo Bellomo, Leonid Churilov, Laurence Weinberg
The hemodynamic effects of intravenous (IV) paracetamol in patients undergoing cardiac surgery are unknown. We performed a prospective single center placebo controlled randomized study with parallel group design in adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Participants received paracetamol (1 gram) IV or placebo (an equal volume of 0.9% saline) preoperatively followed by two postoperative doses 6 hours apart. The primary endpoint was the absolute change in systolic (SBP) 30 minutes after the preoperative infusion, analysed using an ANCOVA model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624206/paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#8
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: In preterm newborns, the ductus arteriosus frequently fails to close and the infants require medical or surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A PDA can be treated surgically; or medically with one of two prostaglandin inhibitors, indomethacin or ibuprofen. Case reports suggest that paracetamol may be an alternative for the closure of a PDA. An association between prenatal or postnatal exposure to paracetamol and later development of autism or autism spectrum disorder has been reported...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614829/the-use-of-a-polyphenoloxidase-biosensor-obtained-from-the-fruit-of-jurubeba-solanum-paniculatum-l-in-the-determination-of-paracetamol-and-other-phenolic-drugs
#9
Rafael Souza Antunes, Luane Ferreira Garcia, Vernon Sydwill Somerset, Eric de Souza Gil, Flavio Marques Lopes
The vegetable kingdom is a wide source of a diverse variety of enzymes with broad biotechnological applications. Among the main classes of plant enzymes, the polyphenol oxidases, which convert phenolic compounds to the related quinones, have been successfully used for biosensor development. The oxidation products from such enzymes can be electrochemically reduced, and the sensing is easily achieved by amperometric transducers. In this work, the polyphenoloxidases were extracted from jurubeba ( Solanum paniculatum L...
April 2, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588089/an-international-comparison-of-risk-factors-between-two-regions-with-distinct-differences-in-asthma-prevalence
#10
K Madani, E Vlaski, D C Rennie, M Sears, J A Lawson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Investigation of the geographic variation in asthma prevalence can improve our understanding of asthma etiology and management. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among adolescents living in two distinct international regions and to investigate reasons for observed differences. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 13-14 year olds was completed in Saskatoon, Canada (n=1200) and Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (n=3026), as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 3 study...
March 24, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578822/pharmacotherapy-for-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain-current-and-future-options
#11
Bart W Koes, Daan Backes, Patrick J E Bindels
Low back pain is associated with a large burden-of-illness. It is responsible for the most years lived with disability as compared with any other medical condition. A comprehensive overview of the evidence on pharmacological treatment options for chronic low back pain is lacking. This review evaluates the evidence for the benefits and risks of currently available pharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain. Areas covered: The authors focus on the recent (Cochrane) systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials covering paracetamol (acetaminophen), NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, and other (new) drugs...
April 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574134/assessment-of-n-acetylcysteine-as-a-therapy-for-phosgene-induced-acute-lung-injury
#12
Rachel Rendell, Sarah Fairhall, Stuart Graham, Steve Rutter, Philippa Auton, Adam Smith, Rosi Perrott, Bronwen Jugg
The toxic industrial chemical (TIC1 ) phosgene remains an important chemical intermediate in many industrial processes. Inhalation of phosgene can cause an acute lung injury (ALI) which, in severe cases may result in death. There are currently no effective pharmacological therapies or evidence-based treatment guidelines for managing exposed individuals. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a commercially available drug licensed in the UK and elsewhere for the treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. It has a number of mechanisms of action which may provide therapeutic benefit for the treatment of phosgene-induced ALI...
March 21, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559326/canadian-trends-in-carpal-tunnel-surgery
#13
Blair Peters, Jennifer L Giuffre
PURPOSE: Treatment patterns of carpal tunnel surgery by members of the American Society of Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) have recently been published. The majority of cases in this study were performed in the general operating room with intravenous (IV) sedation or a Bier block. Patients were most commonly prescribed hydrocodone for postoperative pain. The majority of carpal tunnel releases at our center are performed under local anesthesia alone, with plain acetaminophen (Tylenol) or codeine prescribed for postoperative pain...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554987/impact-of-medication-on-protein-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-the-elderly-the-sulfur-amino-acid-and-paracetamol-case
#14
Carole Mast, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Papet
The optimisation of nutritional support for the growing number of older individuals does not usually take into account medication. Paracetamol (acetaminophen; APAP) is the first intention treatment of chronic pain that is highly prevalent and persistent in the elderly. Detoxification of APAP occurs in the liver and utilises sulfate and glutathione (GSH), both of which are issued from cysteine (Cys), a conditionally indispensable amino acid. The detoxification-induced siphoning of Cys could reduce the availability of Cys for skeletal muscle...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527817/trends-in-use-of-paracetamol-in-the-nordic-countries
#15
Jonas W Wastesson, Jaana E Martikainen, Helga Zoëga, Morten Schmidt, Øystein Karlstad, Anton Pottegård
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used analgesics in Europe; however, both the safety and efficacy of paracetamol have recently been questioned. Little is known about cross-national differences in the sales of paracetamol. Using national wholesale statistics and nationwide prescription drug registers, we investigated trends in total and prescribed use of paracetamol in the Nordic countries. The total sales of paracetamol (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system code: N02BE01) measured as defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants/day, and the sales by prescription (users per 1000 inhabitants/year), increased in the Nordic countries from 2000 to 2015...
March 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509867/effect-of-opioid-vs-nonopioid-medications-on-pain-related-function-in-patients-with-chronic-back-pain-or-hip-or-knee-osteoarthritis-pain-the-space-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Erin E Krebs, Amy Gravely, Sean Nugent, Agnes C Jensen, Beth DeRonne, Elizabeth S Goldsmith, Kurt Kroenke, Matthew J Bair, Siamak Noorbaloochi
Importance: Limited evidence is available regarding long-term outcomes of opioids compared with nonopioid medications for chronic pain. Objective: To compare opioid vs nonopioid medications over 12 months on pain-related function, pain intensity, and adverse effects. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pragmatic, 12-month, randomized trial with masked outcome assessment. Patients were recruited from Veterans Affairs primary care clinics from June 2013 through December 2015; follow-up was completed December 2016...
March 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473717/interventions-for-paracetamol-acetaminophen-overdose
#17
REVIEW
Angela L Chiew, Christian Gluud, Jesper Brok, Nick A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites...
February 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472923/a-prominent-role-of-interleukin-18-in-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-advocates-its-blockage-for-therapy-of-hepatic-necroinflammation
#18
Malte Bachmann, Josef Pfeilschifter, Heiko Mühl
Acetaminophen [paracetamol, N -acetyl- p -aminophenol (APAP)]-induced acute liver injury (ALI) not only remains a persistent clinical challenge but likewise stands out as well-characterized paradigmatic model of drug-induced liver damage. APAP intoxication associates with robust hepatic necroinflammation the role of which remains elusive with pathogenic but also pro-regenerative/-resolving functions being ascribed to leukocyte activation. Here, we shine a light on and put forward a unique role of the interleukin (IL)-1 family member IL-18 in experimental APAP-induced ALI...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457627/combination-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-fibromyalgia-in-adults
#19
REVIEW
Joelle Thorpe, Bonnie Shum, R Andrew Moore, Philip J Wiffen, Ian Gilron
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Current pharmacotherapies are often ineffective and poorly tolerated. Combining different agents could provide superior pain relief and possibly also fewer side effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of combination pharmacotherapy compared to monotherapy or placebo, or both, for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to September 2017...
February 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405037/osmotic-therapies-added-to-antibiotics-for-acute-bacterial-meningitis
#20
REVIEW
Emma Cb Wall, Katherine Mb Ajdukiewicz, Hanna Bergman, Robert S Heyderman, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Every day children and adults die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries, and survivors risk deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies may attract extra-vascular fluid and reduce cerebral oedema, and thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults on mortality, deafness and neurological disability...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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