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Acetaminophen, paracetamol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096230/haemodialysis-in-acute-paracetamol-poisoning
#1
L Serjeant, J Evans, F Sampaziotis, W G Petchey
A woman aged 23 years presented late with clinical and biochemical features of a life-threatening paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. Despite instigating N-acetylcysteine treatment, due to evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction together with an exceedingly high paracetamol level, the decision was made to dialyse the patient acutely to remove the parent drug. This was highly effective, and with on-going supportive care, the patient made a full recovery without the need for transplantation. This case highlights the role of extracorporeal therapy as a treatment option in selected cases of paracetamol overdose, consistent with the international guidelines...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086854/in-vitro-assessment-of-hepatoprotective-agents-against-damage-induced-by-acetaminophen-and-ccl4
#2
Liliana Torres González, Noemí Waksman Minsky, Linda Elsa Muñoz Espinosa, Ricardo Salazar Aranda, Jonathan Pérez Meseguer, Paula Cordero Pérez
BACKGROUND: In vitro bioassays are important in the evaluation of plants with possible hepatoprotective effects. The aims of this study were to evaluate the pretreatment of HepG2 cells with hepatoprotective agents against the damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and paracetamol (APAP). METHODS: Antioxidative activity was measured using an assay to measure 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. The in vitro hepatotoxicity of CCl4 and APAP, and the cytotoxic and hepatoprotective properties of silymarin (SLM), silybinin (SLB), and silyphos (SLP) were evaluated by measuring cell viability; activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); total antioxidant capacity (TAOxC); and reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) levels)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027389/paracetamol-acetaminophen-with-or-without-codeine-or-dihydrocodeine-for-neuropathic-pain-in-adults
#3
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Roger Knaggs, Sheena Derry, Peter Cole, Tudor Phillips, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol, either alone or in combination with codeine or dihydrocodeine, is commonly used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. This review sought evidence for efficacy and harm from randomised double-blind studies. OBJECTIVES: To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of paracetamol with or without codeine or dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to July 2016, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries...
27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002875/outcomes-from-massive-paracetamol-overdose-a-retrospective-observational-study
#4
Daniel J B Marks, Paul I Dargan, John R H Archer, Charlotte L Davies, Alison M Dines, David M Wood, Shaun L Greene
AIM: Treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose with acetylcysteine is standardised, with dose determined only by patient weight. The validity of this approach for massive overdoses has been questioned. We systematically compared outcomes in massive and non-massive overdoses, to guide whether alternative treatment strategies should be considered, and whether the ratio between measured timed paracetamol concentrations (APAPpl ) and treatment nomogram thresholds at those time points (APAPt ) provides a useful assessment tool...
December 21, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977844/paracetamol-acetaminophen-or-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-alone-or-combined-for-pain-relief-in-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Alies Sjoukes, Roderick P Venekamp, Alma C van de Pol, Alastair D Hay, Paul Little, Anne Gm Schilder, Roger Amj Damoiseaux
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infectious diseases and a significant reason for antibiotic prescriptions in children worldwide. Pain from middle ear infection and pressure behind the eardrum is the key symptom of AOM. Ear pain is central to children's and parents' experience of the illness. Because antibiotics provide only marginal benefits, analgesic treatment including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is regarded as the cornerstone of AOM management in children...
15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896824/patients-with-the-worst-outcomes-after-paracetamol-acetaminophen-induced-liver-failure-have-an-early-monocytopenia
#6
J K Moore, A C MacKinnon, T Y Man, J R Manning, S J Forbes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. AIM: To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. METHODS: In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited...
February 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852690/maternal-use-of-mild-analgesics-during-pregnancy-associated-with-reduced-anogenital-distance-in-sons-a-cohort-study-of-1027-mother-child-pairs
#7
Dorte Vesterholm Lind, Katharina M Main, Henriette Boye Kyhl, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Jorma Toppari, Helle Raun Andersen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Niels E Skakkebæk, Tina Kold Jensen
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal use of mild analgesics in pregnancy associated with anogenital distance (AGD)-the distance from the anus to the genitals-in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Maternal use of mild analgesics [especially simultaneous use of paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] during pregnancy was associated with a shorter AGD in boys whereas no effect was found in girls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mild analgesics including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs (e...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842443/clinical-update-on-benefit-versus-risks-of-oral-paracetamol-alone-or-with-codeine-still-a-good-option
#8
Hans Georg Kress, Gerald Untersteiner
BACKGROUND: After decades of worldwide use of paracetamol/acetaminophen as a popular and apparently safe prescription and over-the-counter medicine, the future role of this poorly understood analgesic has been seriously questioned by recent concerns about prenatal, cardiovascular (CV) and hepatic safety, and also about its analgesic efficacy. At the same time the usefulness of codeine in combination products has come under debate. METHODS: Based on a PubMed database literature search on the terms efficacy, safety, paracetamol, acetaminophen, codeine and their combinations up to and including June 2016, this clinical update reviews the current evidence of the benefit and risks of oral paracetamol alone and with codeine for mild-to-moderate pain in adults, and compares the respective efficacy and safety profiles with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
February 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797174/bioinorganic-nanohybrid-catalyst-for-multistep-synthesis-of-acetaminophen-an-analgesic
#9
Boi Hoa San, Subramaniyam Ravichandran, Kwang-Su Park, Vinod Kumar Subramani, Kyeong Kyu Kim
A bioinorganic nanohybrid catalyst was synthesized by combining esterase with a platinum nanoparticle (PtNP). The combination of two catalysts resulted in enhanced catalytic activities, esterase hydrolysis, and hydrogenation in PtNPs, as compared to each catalyst alone. This hybrid catalyst can be successfully used in the multistep synthesis of acetaminophen (paracetamol), an analgesic and antipyretic drug, in a one-pot reaction with high yield and efficacy within a short time, demonstrating that the nanobiohybrid catalyst offers advantages in the synthesis of fine chemicals in industrial applications...
November 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792836/randomized-controlled-multicentre-clinical-trial-of-the-antipyretic-effect-of-intravenous-paracetamol-in-patients-admitted-to-hospital-with-infection
#10
Thomas Tsaganos, Ioulia K Tseti, Nikolaos Tziolos, Georgios-Stefanos Soumelas, Marina Koupetori, Athina Pyrpasopoulou, Karolina Akinosoglou, Charalambos Gogos, Nikolaos Tsokos, Asterios Karagiannis, Styliani Sympardi, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
AIM: No randomized study has been conducted to investigate the use of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) for the management of fever due to infection. The present study evaluated a new ready-made infusion of paracetamol. METHODS: Eighty patients with a body temperature onset ≥38.5°C in the previous 24 h due to infection were randomized to a single administration of placebo (n = 39) or 1 g paracetamol (n = 41), and their temperature was recorded at standard intervals...
October 28, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785937/paracetamol-and-morphine-for-infant-and-neonatal-pain-still-a-long-way-to-go
#11
Manuel A Baarslag, Karel Allegaert, John N Van Den Anker, Catherijne A J Knibbe, Monique Van Dijk, Sinno H P Simons, Dick Tibboel
Pharmacologic pain management in newborns and infants is often based on limited scientific data. To close the knowledge gap, drug-related research in this population is increasingly supported by the authorities, but remains very challenging. This review summarizes the challenges of analgesic studies in newborns and infants on morphine and paracetamol (acetaminophen). Areas covered: Aspects such as the definition and multimodal character of pain are reflected to newborn infants. Specific problems addressed include defining pharmacodynamic endpoints, performing clinical trials in this population and assessing developmental changes in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics...
January 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770431/circulating-acetaminophen-metabolites-are-toxicokinetic-biomarkers-of-acute-liver-injury
#12
Adb Vliegenthart, R A Kimmitt, J H Seymour, N Z Homer, J I Clarke, M Eddleston, A Gray, D M Wood, P I Dargan, J G Cooper, D J Antoine, D J Webb, S C Lewis, D N Bateman, J W Dear
Acetaminophen (paracetamol-APAP) is the most common cause of drug-induced liver injury in the Western world. Reactive metabolite production by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP-metabolites) causes hepatotoxicity. We explored the toxicokinetics of human circulating APAP metabolites following overdose. Plasma from patients treated with acetylcysteine (NAC) for a single APAP overdose was analyzed from discovery (n = 116) and validation (n = 150) patient cohorts. In the discovery cohort, patients who developed acute liver injury (ALI) had higher CYP-metabolites than those without ALI...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770326/aspirin-and-paracetamol-removal-using-a-commercial-micro-sized-tio2-catalyst-in-deionized-and-tap-water
#13
Claudia L Bianchi, Benedetta Sacchi, Carlo Pirola, Francesco Demartin, Giuseppina Cerrato, Sara Morandi, Valentino Capucci
Micro-sized TiO2 catalyst was employed to degrade pharmaceutical compounds, i.e. aspirin and paracetamol, two of the most widely used drugs, purchasable without prescription. Their active agents, acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen, are characterized by different substituent groups, linked to the aromatic ring, which affect both the photodegradation and mineralization processes. The experimental conditions highlight the relationship between the nature of the pristine molecules, their degradation mechanisms, their mutual interference and the water's role...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767117/single-dose-oral-analgesics-for-postoperative-pain-have-few-adverse-events
#14
COMMENT
Yin J Wong
Data sourcesThe Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on the Cochrane Library.Study selectionAll Cochrane reviews of RCTs between 1999 to 2015, conducted in adults examining the adverse events associated with single dose oral analgesics used for acute post-operative pain were considered.Data extraction and synthesisStudies were searched, reviewed and assessed independently by two reviewers and standard data items extracted. Methodological quality was assessed using criteria adapted from AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews)...
2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756064/effects-of-allyl-isothiocyanate-acetaminophen-and-dipyrone-in-the-guinea-pig-ileum
#15
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716943/paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-prevention-or-treatment-of-pain-in-newborns
#16
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Hospitalised infants are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the prevention or treatment of procedural/postoperative pain or pain associated with clinical conditions in neonates...
October 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703954/multimodal-analgesia-with-ketamine-or-tramadol-in-combination-with-intravenous-paracetamol-after-renal-surgery
#17
Mohammad Reza Khajavi, Seyed Mehdi Sabouri, Reza Shariat Moharari, Pejman Pourfakhr, Atabak Najafi, Farhad Etezadi, Farsad Imani
BACKGROUND: Opioids are generally the preferred analgesic agents during the early postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to assess and compare the multimodal analgesic effects of ketamine and tramadol in combination with intravenous acetaminophen after renal surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial was conducted on 80 consecutive patients undergoing various types of kidney surgeries in Sina hospital in Tehran in 2014 - 2016...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698754/oral-paracetamol-vs-oral-ibuprofen-in-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-premature-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Bo Yang, Xiangyu Gao, Yi Ren, Yun Wang, Qinglin Zhang
The aim of the present study was to analyze the changes of plasma and urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in preterm infants with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) treated with oral ibuprofen and acetaminophen. A total of 87 preterm infants with sPDA admitted to the Neonatal Ward of the Affiliated Xuzhou Hospital of Medical College of Southeast University from October, 2012 to June, 2015 were selected and randomly divided into the ibuprofen group (n=43, 10 mg/kg ibuprofen administered orally as initial dose, followed by 5 mg/kg during the first 24 and 48 h later) and acetaminophen group (n=44, 15 mg/kg acetaminophen administered orally once every 6 h for three days)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588429/fenton-like-catalysis-and-oxidation-adsorption-performances-of-acetaminophen-and-arsenic-pollutants-in-water-on-a-multimetal-cu-zn-fe-ldh
#19
Hongtao Lu, Zhiliang Zhu, Hua Zhang, Jianyao Zhu, Yanling Qiu, Linyan Zhu, Stephan Küppers
Acetaminophen can increase the risk of arsenic-mediated hepatic oxidative damage; therefore, the decontamination of water polluted with coexisting acetaminophen and arsenic gives rise to new challenges for the purification of drinking water. In this work, a three-metal layered double hydroxide, namely, Cu-Zn-Fe-LDH, was synthesized and applied as a heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation catalyst and adsorbent to simultaneously remove acetaminophen (Paracetamol, PR) and arsenic. The results showed that the degradation of acetaminophen was accelerated with decreasing pH or increasing H2O2 concentrations...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575940/the-association-between-paracetamol-and-asthma-is-still-under-debate
#20
Tamara Lourido-Cebreiro, F J Salgado, L Valdes, F J Gonzalez-Barcala
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationship between paracetamol and asthma. DATA SOURCES: An English literature search using electronic search engines (PubMed and EMBASE) was conducted. STUDY SELECTIONS: Articles published in peer-review journals, from 1990 to December 2015 were included. In order to perform the search for the most suitable and representative articles, key words were selected ("asthma", "paracetamol" and "acetaminophen"). The evidence level was rated according to the criteria of the Oxford Centre For Evidence-Based Medicine...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
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