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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690014/new-treatment-strategies-for-alcohol-induced-heart-damage
#1
Joaquim Fernández-Solà, Ana Planavila Porta
High-dose alcohol misuse induces multiple noxious cardiac effects, including myocyte hypertrophy and necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, decreased ventricular contraction and ventricle enlargement. These effects produce diastolic and systolic ventricular dysfunction leading to congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and an increased death rate. There are multiple, dose-dependent, synchronic and synergistic mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiac damage. Ethanol alters membrane permeability and composition, interferes with receptors and intracellular transients, induces oxidative, metabolic and energy damage, decreases protein synthesis, excitation-contraction coupling and increases cell apoptosis...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488468/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-ox-ldl-cholesterol-induces-the-expression-of-mirna-223-and-l-type-calcium-channel-protein-in-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Fengping He, Xin Xu, Shuguo Yuan, Liangqiu Tan, Lingjun Gao, Shaochun Ma, Shebin Zhang, Zhanzhong Ma, Wei Jiang, Fenglian Liu, Baofeng Chen, Beibei Zhang, Jungang Pang, Xiuyan Huang, Jiaqiang Weng
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein...
August 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422887/elevated-serum-microrna-483-5p-levels-may-predict-patients-at-risk-of-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Leanne Harling, Jonathan Lambert, Hutan Ashrafian, Ara Darzi, Nigel J Gooderham, Thanos Athanasiou
OBJECTIVES: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the commonest post-operative cardiac arrhythmia, affecting ∼1 in 3 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although its aetiology is complex, atrial substrate changes may pre-dispose to its onset. This study aims to ascertain the atrial microRNA signature of POAF and determine the potential for circulating microRNA as a pre-operative biomarker for this arrhythmia. METHODS: Thirty-four patients undergoing non-emergent, on-pump CABG were prospectively recruited...
July 15, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420053/micrornas-in-valvular-heart-diseases-potential-role-as-markers-and-actors-of-valvular-and-cardiac-remodeling
#4
REVIEW
Cécile Oury, Laurence Servais, Nassim Bouznad, Alexandre Hego, Alain Nchimi, Patrizio Lancellotti
miRNAs are a class of over 5000 noncoding RNAs that regulate more than half of the protein-encoding genes by provoking their degradation or preventing their translation. miRNAs are key regulators of complex biological processes underlying several cardiovascular disorders, including left ventricular hypertrophy, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, hypertension and arrhythmias. Moreover, circulating miRNAs herald promise as biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. In this context, this review gives an overview of studies that suggest that miRNAs could also play a role in valvular heart diseases...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322747/mir-223-3p-as-a-novel-microrna-regulator-of-expression-of-voltage-gated-k-channel-kv4-2-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#5
Xue Liu, Ying Zhang, Weijie Du, Haihai Liang, Hua He, Lu Zhang, Zhenwei Pan, Xuelian Li, Chaoqian Xu, Yuhong Zhou, Leimin Wang, Ming Qian, Tianyi Liu, Hongli Yin, Yanjie Lu, Baofeng Yang, Hongli Shan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a devastating cardiovascular disease with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, partly due to enhanced arrhythmogenicity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to participate in the regulation of cardiac ion channels and the associated arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that miR-223-3p contributes to the electrical disorders in AMI via modulating KCND2, the gene encoding voltage-gated channel Kv4.2 that carries transient outward K+ current Ito...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306406/p38-mapk-mir-1-are-involved-in-the-protective-effect-of-egcg-in-high-glucose-induced-cx43-downregulation-in-neonatal-rat-cardiomyocytes
#6
Lu Yu, Hongmei Yu, Xiaoting Li, Chongying Jin, Yanbo Zhao, Shengjie Xu, Xia Sheng
The remodeling of cardiac gap junctions contributes to various arrhythmias in a diabetic heart. We previously reported that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuated connexin43 (Cx43) protein downregulation induced by high glucose (HG) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, but Cx43 mRNA expression was not affected. It indicated the possible mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation, which still remains unclear. As microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression widely at post-transcriptional level, we measured miR-1/206 in cardiomyocytes treated with HG and EGCG by quantitative RT-PCR and investigated their relationship with signal transduction pathways...
August 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213338/microrna-19b-downregulates-gap-junction-protein-alpha1-and-synergizes-with-microrna-1-in-viral-myocarditis
#7
Junyi Lin, Aimin Xue, Liliang Li, Beixu Li, Yuhua Li, Yiwen Shen, Ning Sun, Ruizhen Chen, Hongfei Xu, Ziqin Zhao
Viral myocarditis (VMC) is a life-threatening disease that leads to heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia. A large number of researches have revealed that mircroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the pathological processes of VMC. We previously reported that miR-1 repressed the expression of gap junction protein α1 (GJA1) in VMC. In this study, miR-19b was found to be significantly upregulated using the microarray analysis in a mouse model of VMC, and overexpression of miR-19b led to irregular beating pattern in human cardiomyocytes derived from the induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs-CMs)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056419/cardiac-specific-mirna-in-cardiogenesis-heart-function-and-cardiac-pathology-with-focus-on-myocardial-infarction
#8
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Cardiac miRNAs (miR-1, miR133a, miR-208a/b, and miR-499) are abundantly expressed in the myocardium. They play a central role in cardiogenesis, heart function and pathology. While miR-1 and miR-133a predominantly control early stages of cardiogenesis supporting commitment of cardiac-specific muscle lineage from embryonic stem cells and mesodermal precursors, miR-208 and miR-499 are involved in the late cardiogenic stages mediating differentiation of cardioblasts to cardiomyocytes and fast/slow muscle fiber specification...
May 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926467/micrornas-as-candidate-drug-targets-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
Pengzhou Hang, Jing Guo, Chuan Sun, Zhimin Du
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small conserved noncoding RNAs which function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Studies over the last 20 years have revealed the essential functions of miRNAs in regulating cardiovascular biology (such as cardiovascular cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis) and crucial roles in controlling cardiovascular disease (CVD), indicating the potential of these small molecules as therapeutic targets and/or agents for CVD. Moreover, miRNAs in the circulation or other body fluids are stable and readily detectable, and more importantly often disease-associated, which makes them promising novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of CVDs...
February 29, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859843/micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-acute-atrial-remodeling-in-marathon-runners-the-mirathon-study-a-sub-study-of-the-munich-marathon-study
#10
Sebastian Clauss, Reza Wakili, Bianca Hildebrand, Stefan Kääb, Eva Hoster, Ina Klier, Eimo Martens, Alan Hanley, Henner Hanssen, Martin Halle, Thomas Nickel
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity is beneficial for individual health, but endurance sport is associated with the development of arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation. The underlying mechanisms leading to this increased risk are still not fully understood. MicroRNAs are important mediators of proarrhythmogenic remodeling and have potential value as biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine the value of circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers for atrial remodeling in marathon runners (miRathon study)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835117/the-role-of-micrornas-in-antiarrhythmic-therapy-for-atrial-fibrillation
#11
Sebastian Clauss, Moritz F Sinner, Stefan Kääb, Reza Wakili
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia worldwide and has an enormous impact on our healthcare system as it is a major contributor of morbidity and mortality. Although there are several therapeutic options available, treatment of AF still remains challenging. AF pathophysiology is complex and still incompletely understood. In general, our understanding of AF is based on two mechanistic paradigms as functional hallmarks of AF: ectopic activity and reentry. Both ectopic activity and reentry are the result of remodelling processes...
December 2015: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26783232/pancr-the-pitx2-adjacent-noncoding-rna-is-expressed-in-human-left-atria-and-regulates-pitx2c-expression
#12
Shamone R Gore-Panter, Jeffrey Hsu, John Barnard, Christine S Moravec, David R Van Wagoner, Mina K Chung, Jonathan D Smith
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies reveal that genetic variants at chromosome 4q25 constitute the strongest locus associated with atrial fibrillation, the most frequent arrhythmia. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. Our goal is to find and characterize left atrial-expressed transcripts in the chromosome 4q25 atrial fibrillation risk locus that may play a role in atrial fibrillation pathogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: RNA sequencing performed on human left/right pairs identified an intergenic long noncoding RNA adjacent to the PITX2 gene, which we have named PANCR (PITX2 adjacent noncoding RNA)...
January 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26671473/the-regulatory-function-of-microrna-1-in-arrhythmias
#13
REVIEW
Caixiu Liao, Yajun Gui, Yuan Guo, Danyan Xu
Arrhythmia, the basis of which is cardiomyocyte ion channel abnormalities, poses a serious threat to human health. A large number of studies have demonstrated that miRNA-1(miR-1) is involved in the occurrence of arrhythmia in many myocardial pathological conditions by post-transcriptionally regulating a variety of ion channels and proteins related to cardiac electrical activity. We aim at emphasizing the relationship between miR-1 and ion channels and proteins involved in the process of arrhythmia. In addition, we will pay attention to its future therapeutic prospects...
February 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503985/pivotal-role-of-mir-448-in-the-development-of-ros-induced-cardiomyopathy
#14
Sergii Kyrychenko, Viktoriia Kyrychenko, Myriam A Badr, Yoshiyuki Ikeda, Junichi Sadoshima, Natalia Shirokova
AIMS: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidases (NOXs) are important contributors to cellular oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system. The NOX2 isoform is upregulated in numerous disorders, including dystrophic cardiomyopathy, where it drives the progression of the disease. However, mechanisms underlying NOX2 overexpression are still unknown. We investigated the role of microRNAs (miRs) in the regulation of NOX2 expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was used as a model of cardiomyopathy...
December 1, 2015: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26476318/hexabromocyclododecane-exposure-induces-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-arrhythmia-by-inhibiting-mir-1-expression-via-up-regulation-of-the-homeobox-gene-nkx2-5
#15
Meifang Wu, Di Wu, Chonggang Wang, Zhizhun Guo, Bowen Li, Zhenghong Zuo
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants. Although studies have reported that HBCD can cause a wide range of toxic effects on animals including humans, limited information can be found about its cardiac toxicity. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to HBCD at low concentrations of 0, 2, 20 and 200 nM. The results showed that HBCD exposure could induce cardiac hypertrophy and increased deposition of collagen. In addition, disordered calcium (Ca(2+)) handling was observed in H9C2 rat cardiomyocyte cells exposed to HBCD...
January 25, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26221607/micrornas-novel-players-in-aortic-aneurysm
#16
REVIEW
Xian-ming Fu, Yang-zhao Zhou, Zhao Cheng, Xiao-bo Liao, Xin-min Zhou
An aortic aneurysm (AA) is a common disease with potentially life-threatening complications. Despite significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of AA, the associated morbidity and mortality remain high. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) are small noncoding ribonucleic acids that negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by inhibiting mRNA translation or promoting mRNA degradation. miRNAs are recently reported to be critical modulators for vascular cell functions such as cell migration, contraction, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26209011/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-cardiac-sodium-channel-gene-scn5a-expression-and-function-by-mir-192-5p
#17
Yuanyuan Zhao, Yuan Huang, Weihua Li, Zhijie Wang, Shaopeng Zhan, Mengchen Zhou, Yufeng Yao, Zhipeng Zeng, Yuxi Hou, Qiuyun Chen, Xin Tu, Qing K Wang, Zhengrong Huang
The SCN5A gene encodes cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 and causes lethal ventricular arrhythmias/sudden death and atrial fibrillation (AF) when mutated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, and involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. However, little is known about the regulation of SCN5A by miRNAs. Here we reveal a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for expression and function of SCN5A/Nav1.5 via miR-192-5p. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the 3'-UTR of human and rhesus SCN5A, but not elephant, pig, rabbit, mouse, and rat SCN5A, contained a target binding site for miR-192-5p and dual luciferase reporter assays showed that the site was critical for down-regulation of human SCN5A...
October 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26135901/micrornas-in-cardiovascular-disease-perspectives-and-reality
#18
Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Sotirios Tslamandris, Anastasios Giolis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Since the discovery of the first noncoding RNA decades ago, the transcriptomics evolution has made a great leap reaching to the detection and recognition of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the early 1990s. Thereafter, numerous miRNAs were reported in different species, with a great body of literature focusing on their role in human health and in pathophysiological processes. miRNAs play a significant role in the cardiovascular system, not only in physiology and normal development but also in disease processes and evolution...
May 2016: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26065643/spironolactone-regulates-hcn-protein-expression-through-micro-rna-1-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#19
Hua-Dong Yu, Shuang Xia, Cheng-Qin Zha, Song-Bai Deng, Jian-Lin Du, Qiang She
Emerging evidence has shown that aldosterone blockers reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which spironolactone, a classic aldosterone blocker, regulates hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (HCN) protein expression in ischemic rat myocardium after MI. Eighteen rats surviving 24 hours after MI were randomly assigned into 3 groups: MI, spironolactone, and spironolactone + antagomir-1...
June 2015: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25957926/novel-biomarkers-in-cardiology-micrornas-in-atrial-fibrillation
#20
REVIEW
Esteban Orenes-Piñero, Miriam Quintana-Giner, Ana I Romero-Aniorte, Mariano Valdés, Francisco Marín
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained chronic cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice, which increases the risk of stroke and thromboembolism and is an independent predictor of mortality. The underlying mechanisms involved in the development of AF have yet to be fully elucidated. However, once initiated, AF tends to self-perpetuate, owing to structural and electrical remodeling in the atria. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a sizable sub-group of small non-coding RNAs, which degrades or inhibits the translation of their target mRNAs, thus regulating gene expression and playing an important role in a wide range of biologic processes...
July 2015: Archivos de Cardiología de México
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