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Peripheral nerves regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915233/the-utility-of-stem-cells-in-pediatric-urinary-bladder-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Philip M Iannaccone, Vasil Galat, Matthew I Bury, Yongchao C Ma, Arun K Sharma
Pediatric patients with a neurogenic urinary bladder caused by developmental abnormalities including spina bifida exhibit chronic urological problems. Surgical management in the form of enterocystoplasty is used to enlarge the bladder but is associated with significant clinical complications. Thus, alternative methods to enterocystoplasty have been explored through the incorporation of stem cells with tissue engineering strategies. Within the context of this review, we will examine the use of bone marrow stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as they relate to bladder regeneration at the anatomic and molecular levels...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914740/the-role-of-precisely-matching-fascicles-in-the-quick-recovery-of-nerve-function-in-long-peripheral-nerve-defects
#2
Liwei Yan, Zhi Yao, Tao Lin, Qingtang Zhu, Jian Qi, Liqiang Gu, Jintao Fang, Xiang Zhou, Xiaolin Liu
Peripheral nerve injury therapy in the clinic remains less than satisfactory. The gold standard of treatment for long peripheral nerve defects is autologous nerve grafts; however, numerous clinical complications are associated with this treatment. As tissue engineering has developed, tissue-engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) have shown potential applications as alternatives to autologous nerve grafts. To verify the important role of the biomimetic pathway of fascicle design in TENGs, we designed an animal model to study the role of the precise matching of fascicles in the effectiveness of nerve function recovery...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914336/patterns-of-cutaneous-nerve-fibre-loss-and-regeneration-in-type-2-diabetes-with-painful-and-painless-polyneuropathy
#3
Gidon J Bönhof, Alexander Strom, Sonja Püttgen, Bernd Ringel, Jutta Brüggemann, Kálmán Bódis, Karsten Müssig, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden, Dan Ziegler
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The determinants and mechanisms of the development of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy as a painful (DSPN+p) or painless (DSPN-p) entity remain unclear. We examined the degree of cutaneous nerve fibre loss and regeneration in individuals with type 2 diabetes with DSPN+p or DSPN-p compared with individuals with recent-onset type 2 diabetes and corresponding healthy volunteers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, skin biopsies taken from the distal lateral calf were obtained from individuals with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (n = 32) from the German Diabetes Study, with DSPN+p (n = 34) and DSPN-p (n = 32) from the PROPANE study, and volunteers with normal glucose tolerance (n = 50)...
September 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912843/microrna-210-contributes-to-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-through-promoting-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-schwann-cells
#4
Xiaona Zhang, Xu Gong, Jinpeng Qiu, Yang Zhang, Fengyan Gong
Peripheral nerve injury impacts the daily life of affected individuals. MicroRNA (miR)-210 is a multifunctional miR and has effects on the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells. However, whether miR-210 has effects on peripheral nerve regeneration has remained elusive. In the present study, the miR-210 levels in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury were evaluated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and the effects of miR-210 on the proliferation and migration of Schwann cells were explored...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912156/neutrophils-are-critical-for-myelin-removal-in-a-peripheral-nerve-injury-model-of-wallerian-degeneration
#5
Jane A Lindborg, Matthias Mack, Richard E Zigmond
Wallerian degeneration (WD) is considered an essential preparatory stage to the process of axonal regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages that utilize the chemokine receptor CCR2 to gain entry to injured tissues from the bloodstream, are purportedly necessary for efficient WD. However, our lab has previously reported that myelin clearance in the injured sciatic nerve proceeds unhindered in the Ccr2(-/-) mouse model. Here, we extensively characterize WD in male Ccr2(-/-) mice and identify a compensatory mechanism of WD that is facilitated primarily by neutrophils...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911884/anti-vegf-treatment-improves-neurological-function-in-tumors-of-the-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Na Zhang, Jie Chen, Gino Ferraro, Limeng Wu, Meenal Datta, Rakesh K Jain, Scott R Plotkin, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Lei Xu
Research of various diseases of the nervous system has shown that VEGF has direct neuroprotective effects in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and indirect effects on improving neuronal vessel perfusion which leads to nerve protection. In the tumors of the nervous system, VEGF plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. The effect of anti-VEGF treatment on nerve protection and function has been recently reported - by normalizing the tumor vasculature, anti-VEGF treatment is able to relieve nerve edema and deliver oxygen more efficiently into the nerve, thus reducing nerve damage and improving nerve function...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904214/after-nerve-injury-lineage-tracing-shows-that-myelin-and-remak-schwann-cells-elongate-extensively-and-branch-to-form-repair-schwann-cells-which-shorten-radically-on-remyelination
#7
Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Kjara S Pilch, Milou van der Lans, Shaline V Fazal, Cristina Benito, Laura J Wagstaff, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894816/evaluation-of-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-through-biomaterial-conduits-via-micro-ct-imaging
#8
Sarah K Pixley, Tracy M Hopkins, Kevin J Little, David B Hom
OBJECTIVE: Hollow nerve conduits made of natural or synthetic biomaterials are used clinically to aid regeneration of peripheral nerves damaged by trauma or disease. To support healing, conduit lumen patency must be maintained until recovery occurs. New methods to study conduit structural integrity would provide an important means to optimize conduits in preclinical studies. We explored a novel combined technique to examine structural integrity of two types of nerve conduits after in vivo healing...
December 2016: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891122/nerve-speci%C3%AF-c-xenogeneic-extracellular-matrix-hydrogel-promotes-recovery-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#9
Travis A Prest, Eric Yeager, Samuel T LoPresti, Emilija Zygelyte, Matthew J Martin, Longying Dong, Alexis Gibson, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Bryan N Brown, Jonathan Cheetham
Peripheral nerve possesses the inherent ability to regrow and recover following injury. However, nerve regeneration is often slow and incomplete due to limitations associated with the local microenvironment during the repair process. Manipulation of the local microenvironment at the site of nerve repair, therefore, represents a significant opportunity for improvement in downstream outcomes. Macrophages and Schwann cells play a key role in the orchestration of early events after peripheral nerve injury. We describe the production, characterization, and use of an injectable, peripheral nerve-specific extracellular matrix-based hydrogel (PNSECM) for promoting modulation of the local macrophage and Schwann cell responses at the site of nerve repair in a rodent model of sciatic nerve injury...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888079/bioabsorbable-nerve-conduits-coated-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurospheres-enhance-axonal-regeneration-in-sciatic-nerve-defects-in-aged-mice
#10
Takuya Yokoi, Takuya Uemura, Kiyohito Takamatsu, Kosuke Shintani, Ema Onode, Mitsuhiro Okada, Noriaki Hidaka, Hiroaki Nakamura
Aging influences peripheral nerve regeneration. Nevertheless, most basic research of bioabsorbable nerve conduits including commercial products have been performed in very young animals. Results from these studies may not provide information about axonal regeneration in aged tissue, because young nerve tissue holds sufficient endogenous potential for axonal regeneration. The clinical target age for nerve conduit application is most likely going to increase with a rapidly growing elderly population. In the present study, we examined axonal regeneration after sciatic nerve defects in aged and young mice...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886268/implanted-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membrane-cylinders-promote-effective-recovery-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#11
Aiko Yamazaki, Kohya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice...
September 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885383/application-of-a-modified-pedicled-adipofascial-lateral-arm-flap-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-radial-nerve-injuries
#12
Steven M Koehler, Andrew P Matson, Suhail K Mithani
The fasciocutaneous lateral arm flap is a workhorse flap in upper extremity reconstruction. However, its adipofascial variant is not widely used. The technique can be used in various clinical scenarios. The adipofascial flap can be transposed to circumferentially wrap the radial nerve with a pliable, vascularized fat and fascial envelope, mimicking the natural fatty environment of peripheral nerves. This technique has the advantage of providing a scar tissue barrier, a barrier to hardware irritation and a milieu for vascular regeneration of the nerve...
September 6, 2017: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884592/peripheral-nerve-intersectional-repair-by-bi-directional-induction-and-systematic-remodelling-biodegradable-conduit-tubulization-from-basic-research-to-clinical-application
#13
Zhang Peixun, Han Na, Yuhui Kou, Yin Xiaofeng, Baoguo Jiang
In terms of the clinical effect of peripheral nerve injury repair, the biological degradable conduit 2 mm small gap tubulization is far better than the traditional epineurial or perineurium neurorrhaphy. The assumption of the bi-directional induction between the central system and the terminal effector during peripheral nerve regeneration is purposed and proved in clinical by our group. The surgical approach of transferring a portion of or the whole contralateral C7 nerve to repair a part of or the whole ipsilateral brachial plexus injury is clinically promoted, in which the most important idea and practice is to use the cone conduit designed by the group to repair thick nerves with fine nerves...
September 8, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879680/combining-growth-factor-releasing-microspheres-within-aligned-nanofibers-enhances-neurite-outgrowth
#14
Tonya J Whitehead, Christian Oliver C Avila, Harini G Sundararaghavan
Current treatments for peripheral nerve injuries include autografts, the gold standard, and commercially available nerve growth conduits (NGC). Autografts have several drawbacks including donor site morbidity and nerve size mismatch, which lead to incomplete recovery. However, even with these drawbacks, autografts work better then commercially available NGCs that lack sufficient cues to promote complete regeneration. This study evaluated a combination of biomaterial components that can be added to the hollow internal space of a NGC to promote and direct nerve regeneration; specifically, mechanical, chemical, and topographical cues...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879494/regeneration-of-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-by-a-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticle-containing-collagen-type-i-hydrogel
#15
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Ahmad Vaez, Saeed Farzamfar, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a hydroxyapatite nanoparticle-containing collagen type I hydrogel. A solution of type I collagen, extracted from the rat tails, was incorporated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (with the average diameter of ~212 nm) and crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to prepare the hydrogel. The Schwann cell cultivation on the prepared hydrogel demonstrated a significantly higher cell proliferation than the tissue culture plate, as positive control, after 48 h (n = 3, P < 0...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875561/enhanced-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-through-asymmetrically-porous-nerve-guide-conduit-with-nerve-growth-factor-gradient
#16
Se Heang Oh, Jun Goo Kang, Tae Ho Kim, Uk Namgung, Kyu Sang Song, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Jin Ho Lee
In this study, we fabricated a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with nerve growth factor (NGF) gradient along the longitudinal direction by rolling a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane with NGF concentration gradient. The NGF immobilized on the membrane was continuously released for up to 35 days, and the released amount of the NGF from the membrane gradually increased from the proximal to distal NGF ends, which may allow a neurotrophic factor gradient in the tubular NGC for a sufficient period. From the in vitro cell culture experiment, it was observed that the PC12 cells sense the NGF concentration gradient on the membrane for the cell proliferation and differentiation...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870762/peripheral-nerve-and-diclofenac-sodium-molecular-and-clinical-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide. Diclofenac sodium (DS), one of these NSAIDs, has a high specificity for arachidonic acid-degrading cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes. This drug can be used to relieve neuropathic pain. In this review, we examine the relevant researches, including in vivo, animal, and clinical human studies, with the aim of understanding the effect of DS on the peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, COX-2 is potently upregulated around the injury site...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859867/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-nerve-transection-injury-associated-with-nerve-regeneration-promotion-in-rats
#18
Mo Li, Jingyi Wang, Lixiang Ding, Hao Meng, Feng Wang, Zhuojing Luo
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is the major pharmacological constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) for the therapeutic purpose of preventing ischemic injury and treating cerebrovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential neuroprotective effects of Tan IIA in sciatic nerve transection injury. We investigated the possible beneficial effects of Tan IIA in promoting nerve regeneration after nerve transection injury in rats. Nerve transection injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by left sciatic nerve transection...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852402/short-term-observations-of-the-regenerative-potential-of-injured-proximal-sensory-nerves-crossed-with-distal-motor-nerves
#19
Xiu-Xiu Zhang, Yu-Hui Kou, Xiao-Feng Yin, Bao-Guo Jiang, Pei-Xun Zhang
Motor nerves and sensory nerves conduct signals in different directions and function in different ways. In the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, the best prognosis is obtained by keeping the motor and sensory nerves separated and repairing the nerves using the suture method. However, the clinical consequences of connections between sensory and motor nerves currently remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical structure of the rat femoral nerve, and observed the motor and sensory branches of the femoral nerve in the quadriceps femoris...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851984/nano-topography-enhances-communication-in-neural-cells-networks
#20
V Onesto, L Cancedda, M L Coluccio, M Nanni, M Pesce, N Malara, M Cesarelli, E Di Fabrizio, F Amato, F Gentile
Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can direct nerve cells assembly into computational efficient networks may provide new tools and criteria for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we used information theory approaches and functional multi calcium imaging (fMCI) techniques to examine how information flows in neural networks cultured on surfaces with controlled topography...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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