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Peripheral nerves regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160628/the-role-of-chitin-and-chitosan-in-peripheral-nerve-reconstruction
#1
REVIEW
Michał Bąk, Olga N Gutkowska, Ewa Wagner, Jerzy Gosk
Chitin is a natural polysaccharide commonly found in nature and chitosan is its partially deacetylated derivative. The properties of both biopolymers allow their wide use in medicine and various industries. This paper presents the possibilities offered by chitin and chitosan for the creation of neurotubes utilized in peripheral nerve repair procedures. In the initial part of this manuscript, experimental studies on both polysaccharides carried out by numerous authors have been presented and their results have been discussed...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159464/anti-mag-associated-cerebellar-ataxia-and-response-to-rituximab
#2
Panagiotis Zis, Dasappaiah Ganesh Rao, Nigel Hoggard, Ptolemaios Georgios Sarrigiannis, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a glycoprotein specific to Schwann cells. Schwann cells produce myelin for nerve cells in the peripheral nervous system. MAG also plays a role in the central nervous system (CNS) by maintaining myelin integrity and inhibiting axonal regeneration from cerebellar neurons. There is a well-established link between distal demyelinating neuropathy and anti-MAG antibodies in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. We describe a series of five patients with anti-MAG antibodies with evidence of cerebellar rather than just sensory ataxia and our experience of treatment with rituximab...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156496/sensation-mechanoreceptor-and-nerve-fiber-function-after-nerve-regeneration
#3
Christian Krarup, Birgitta Rosén, Michel Boeckstyns, Allan Ibsen Sørensen, Göran Lundborg, Mihai Moldovan, Simon J Archibald
OBJECTIVE: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber function after nerve regeneration. METHODS: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors were followed for 2 years, and results were compared to non-injured hands...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145495/regulatory-mechanism-of-ccn2-production-by-serotonin-5-ht-via-5-ht2a-and-5-ht2b-receptors-in-chondrocytes
#4
Ayaka Hori, Takashi Nishida, Shogo Takashiba, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) is recognized as a neurotransmitter in the central nerve system and as a regulator of systemic blood pressure in the peripheral tissues. Recently, it was reported that 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) were expressed in cartilage tissues lacking both vessels and neurons, suggesting possible novel functions of 5-HT during cartilage development and regeneration. Our previous data indicated that CCN family protein 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) plays a central role in cartilage development and regeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140901/-state-of-the-art-techniques-in-treating-peripheral-nerve-injury
#5
Carrie A Kubiak, Theodore A Kung, David L Brown, Paul S Cederna, Stephen W P Kemp
BACKGROUND -: Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biologic approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury. METHODS -: Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state of the art techniques to enhance functional recovery for patients with nerve injury...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130658/-vein-nerve-conduit-supported-by-vascular-stent-in-the-regeneration-of-peripheral-nerve-in-rabbits
#6
Wei-Kun Meng, Zhong Huang, Zhen Tan, Liang Li, Qiang Guo, Zhen Zhang, Cheng-Xi Wu, Lei Liu, Fu-Guo Huang, Guang-Lin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of autologous vein nerve conduit supported by vascular stent in repairing a 10 mm gap peroneal nerve in white New Zealand rabbits. METHODS: 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: autologous nerve group (group A),conventional autologous vein nerve conduit group (group B),autologous vein nerve conduit supported by vascular stent group (group C). 10 mm common peroneal nerve was cut off. In groups A,the peroneal nerve was turned 180 ° before suturing...
September 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129635/three-dimensional-and-non-destructive-characterization-of-nerves-inside-conduits-using-laboratory-based-micro-computed-tomography
#7
Christos Bikis, Peter Thalmann, Lucas Degrugillier, Georg Schulz, Bert Müller, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Srinivas Madduri, Simone E Hieber
BACKGROUND: Histological assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration in animals is tedious, time-consuming and challenging for three-dimensional analysis. NEW METHOD: The present study reports on how and to what extent micro computed tomography of paraffin-embedded samples can provide a reliable three-dimensional approach for quantitative analysis of peripheral nerves. RESULTS: Rat sciatic nerves were harvested, formalin-fixated, positioned into nerve conduits (NC), paraffin-embedded, and imaged using a laboratory-based X-ray microtomography system with an isotropic voxel length of 4μm...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125428/schwann-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-laminin-or-fibronectin-aligned-matrices-and-regeneration-across-a-critical-size-defect-of-15-mm-in-the-rat-sciatic-nerve
#8
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Joaquim Hernández, Claudia Heimann, James B Phillips, Esther Udina, Xavier Navarro
OBJECTIVE Artificial nerve guides are being developed to substitute for autograft repair after peripheral nerve injuries. However, the use of conduits is limited by the length of the gap that needs to be bridged, with the success of regeneration highly compromised in long gaps. Addition of aligned proregenerative cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components inside the conduit can be a good strategy to achieve artificial grafts that recreate the natural environment offered by a nerve graft. The purpose of this study was to functionalize chitosan devices with different cell types to support regeneration in limiting gaps in the rat peripheral nerve...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123395/a-magnetically-responsive-nanocomposite-scaffold-combined-with-schwann-cells-promotes-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-upon-exposure-to-magnetic-field
#9
Zhongyang Liu, Shu Zhu, Liang Liu, Jun Ge, Liangliang Huang, Zhen Sun, Wen Zeng, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Peripheral nerve repair is still challenging for surgeons. Autologous nerve transplantation is the acknowledged therapy; however, its application is limited by the scarcity of available donor nerves, donor area morbidity, and neuroma formation. Biomaterials for engineering artificial nerves, particularly materials combined with supportive cells, display remarkable promising prospects. Schwann cells (SCs) are the absorbing seeding cells in peripheral nerve engineering repair; however, the attenuated biologic activity restricts their application...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119607/impaired-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-type-2-diabetic-mouse-model
#10
Pham Minh Vuong, H Tu Nguyen, Tayo Katano, Shinji Matsumura, Akira Saito, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Seiji Ito
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of type-2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by a distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and its incidence increases in patients 40 years of age or older. In spite of extensive research over decades, there are few effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy besides glucose control and improved lifestyle. The earliest changes in diabetic neuropathy occur in sensory nerve fibers, with initial degeneration and regeneration resulting in pain...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118955/effect-of-electrical-stimulation-on-motor-nerve-regeneration-in-sciatic-nerve-ligated-mice
#11
Farzaneh Samiee, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of target muscles. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: ligated without electrical stimulation, ligated with electrical stimulation and control (non-ligated). The unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy was produced on the right hind limb. Sciatic nerve was then electrically stimulated daily for a period of 2 weeks (duration: 0.2 msec, frequency: 100Hz, amplitude: 15mA). Evoked surface EMG was recorded from biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after sciatic nerve ligation...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113945/changes-in-the-expression-and-localization-of-signaling-molecules-in-mouse-facial-motor-neurons-during-regeneration-of-facial-nerves
#12
Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe, Changjong Moon, Taekyun Shin, Chitoshi Takayama
After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and examined the changes in expression of five molecules, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), galanin, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), gephyrin, and potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the facial motor neurons after surgery until recovery...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109239/graded-elevation-of-c-jun-in-schwann-cells-in-vivo-gene-dosage-determines-effects-on-development-re-myelination-tumorigenesis-and-hypomyelination
#13
Shaline V Fazal, Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Laura J Wagstaff, Nicolo Musner, Georg Otto, Martin Janz, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
Schwann cell c-Jun is implicated in adaptive and maladaptive functions in peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, this transcription factor promotes the repair Schwann cell phenotype and regeneration, and it promotes Schwann cell mediated neurotrophic support in models of peripheral neuropathies. However, c-Jun is associated with tumour formation in some systems, it potentially supresses myelin genes, and has been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies. To clarify these issues, and determine how c-Jun levels determine its function, we have generated, c-Jun OE/+ and c-Jun OE/OE mice, with graded expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells, and examined these lines during development, in adulthood and after injury using RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative electron microscopic morphometry, Western blotting and functional tests...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107096/chitosan-film-associated-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhanced-regeneration-of-peripheral-nerves-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-model
#14
Mehrnaz Moattari, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani, Gholamreza Kaka, Seyed Homayoon Sadraie, Majid Naghdi, Korosh Mansouri
OBJECTIVE: Peripheral nerve injuries comprise significant portion of the nervous system injuries. Although peripheral nerves show some capacity of regeneration after injury, but the extent of regeneration is not remarkable. Regeneration might be through the activity of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can release growth factors or extracellular matrix components or by the therapeutic effect of some material with the MSCs. The present study aimed to evaluate the regeneration of transected sciatic nerve by a therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) associated with chitosan-film (Cs) in rat...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104116/putative-roles-of-soluble-trophic-factors-in-facial-nerve-regeneration-target-reinnervation-and-recovery-of-vibrissal-whisking
#15
REVIEW
Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Maria Grosheva, Levent Sarikcioglu, Tessa Gordon, Doychin N Angelov
It is well-known that, after nerve transection and surgical repair, misdirected regrowth of regenerating motor axons may occur in three ways. The first way is that the axons enter into endoneurial tubes that they did not previously occupy, regenerate through incorrect fascicles and reinnervate muscles that they did not formerly supply. Consequently the activation of these muscles results in inappropriate movements. The second way is that, in contrast with the precise target-directed pathfinding by elongating motor nerves during embryonic development, several axons rather than a single axon grow out from each transected nerve fiber...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102766/facilitating-effects-of-buyang-huanwu-decoction-on-axonal-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-transection
#16
Ki-Joong Kim, Uk Namgung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Asian medicine, Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) has been used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Recent experimental studies have begun to provide evidence on the protective effects of BYHWD on injured peripheral nerves. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine whether BYHWD was effective in inducing axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve transection, and if so, how it acted on the nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sciatic nerve in rats was transected and resutured 0, 1, or 4 weeks later...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099679/photobiomodulation-in-neuroscience-a-summary-of-personal-experience
#17
Shimon Rochkind
OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes personal experience with laser photobiomodulation and its potentials for the treatment of peripheral and central nerve system injuries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Laser photobiomodulation was shown to induce nerve cell activation, have a positive effect on metabolism of the nerve cells, and to stimulate nerve sprouting processes. Studies investigating the effects of laser photobiomodulation on injured peripheral nerves in rats reported immediate protective effects which increase the functional activity of the nerve, decrease or prevent scar tissue formation at the injured site, prevent or decrease degeneration in corresponding motor neurons of the spinal cord, and significantly increase axonal growth and myelinization...
November 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096406/hydrogel-composition-and-laser-micro-patterning-to-regulate-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#18
Yulia Berkovitch, Talia Cohen, Eli Peled, Robert Schmidhammer, Hildner Florian, Andreas Teuschl, Susanne Wolbank, Dvir Yelin, Heinz Redl, Dror Seliktar
Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries has evolved over the past several decades to include the use of sophisticated new materials endowed with trophic and topographical cues that are essential for in vivo nerve fiber regeneration. In this research, we explored the use of an advanced design strategy for peripheral nerve repair, using biological and semi-synthetic hydrogels that enable controlled environmental stimuli to regenerate neurons and glial cells in a rat sciatic nerve resection model. The provisional nerve growth conduits were comprised of either natural fibrin, or adducts of synthetic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fibrinogen or gelatin...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094404/effect-of-local-administration-of-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-an-experimental-study-in-the-rabbit-model
#19
Akira Ikumi, Yuki Hara, Tomokazu Yoshioka, Akihiro Kanamori, Masashi Yamazaki
This study aimed to evaluate the nerve regenerative effect and behavior of Schwann cells (SCs) on local administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). METHODS: Twenty-eight Japanese white rabbits were used. A 15-mm sciatic nerve defect was created on the left limb. The resected nerve was used as a reverse autologous nerve. The rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. In group A (n = 10), only nerve grafting was performed. In group B (n = 18), nerve grafting was performed with local PRP administration...
November 2, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090249/effects-of-nerve-cells-and-adhesion-molecules-on-nerve-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#20
Joo-Ryun Chung, Jong-Won Choi, Joseph P Fiorellini, Kyung-Gyun Hwang, Chang-Joo Park
BACKGROUND: For peripheral nerve regeneration, recent attentions have been paid to the nerve conduits made by tissue-engineering technique. Three major elements of tissue-engineering are cells, molecules, and scaffolds. METHODS: In this study, the attachments of nerve cells, including Schwann cells, on the nerve conduit and the effects of both growth factor and adhesion molecule on these attachments were investigated. RESULTS: The attachment of rapidly-proliferating cells, C6 cells and HS683 cells, on nerve conduit was better than that of slowly-proliferating cells, PC12 cells and Schwann cells, however, the treatment of nerve growth factor improved the attachment of slowly-proliferating cells...
September 2017: J Dent Anesth Pain Med
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