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Peripheral neurotoxicity complementary

Xiao L Cheng, Hong Q Liu, Qi Wang, Jie G Huo, Xiao N Wang, Peng Cao
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a severe and dose-limiting side effect of antineoplastic drugs. It can cause sensory, motor and autonomic system dysfunction, and ultimately force patients to discontinue chemotherapy. Until now, little is understood about CIPN and no consistent caring standard is available. Since CIPN is a multifactorial disease, the clinical efficacy of single pharmacological drugs is disappointing, prompting patients to seek alternative treatment options. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), especially herbal medicines, are well known for their multifaceted implications and widely used in human health care...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ashlee H Rowe, Yucheng Xiao, Joseph Scales, Klaus D Linse, Matthew P Rowe, Theodore R Cummins, Harold H Zakon
BACKGROUND: Among scorpion species, the Buthidae produce the most deadly and painful venoms. However, little is known regarding the venom components that cause pain and their mechanism of action. Using a paw-licking assay (Mus musculus), this study compared the pain-inducing capabilities of venoms from two species of New World scorpion (Centruroides vittatus, C. exilicauda) belonging to the neurotoxin-producing family Buthidae with one species of non-neurotoxin producing scorpion (Vaejovis spinigerus) in the family Vaejovidae...
2011: PloS One
Joseph C Arezzo, Mona S Litwak, Elena G Zotova
The evaluation of neurotoxic damage involves a unique set of challenges. Vulnerable structures, such as neocortex, hippocampus, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve are complex and sharply differentiated; deficits can result from insults to one or more element(s) in the system (e.g., myelin, axon, soma, synapse, or glia). In-life assessment of neurotoxic damage is complicated by the relative inaccessibility of structures in the brain and spinal cord, and recovery is severely limited. Histopathology and electrophysiology represent two of the most commonly used and valuable techniques in this field...
January 2011: Toxicologic Pathology
Tin-Tin Win-Shwe, Shinji Tsukahara, Sohel Ahmed, Atsushi Fukushima, Shoji Yamamoto, Masaki Kakeyama, Daisuke Nakajima, Sumio Goto, Takahiro Kobayashi, Hidekazu Fujimaki
The function of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamatergic receptors is known to be antagonized by toluene, a well-characterized neurotoxic chemical known to impair memory functions. Recently, peripheral T cells have been clearly shown to play an important role in cognitive and behavioral functions. In the present study, we investigated the role of peripheral T cells in the hippocampal mRNA expression of memory-related genes induced by low levels of toluene exposure in mice. BALB/c wild-type (WT) and nude mice were exposed to 9ppm of toluene or filtered air (0ppm toluene; control groups) in a nose-only exposure chamber for 30min on 3 consecutive days followed by weekly sessions for 4 weeks...
September 2007: Neurotoxicology
Kathleen A Head
Peripheral neuropathy (PN), associated with diabetes, neurotoxic chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/antiretroviral drugs, alcoholism, nutrient deficiencies, heavy metal toxicity, and other etiologies, results in significant morbidity. Conventional pain medications primarily mask symptoms and have significant side effects and addiction profiles. However, a widening body of research indicates alternative medicine may offer significant benefit to this patient population. Alpha-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, benfotiamine, methylcobalamin, and topical capsaicin are among the most well-researched alternative options for the treatment of PN...
December 2006: Alternative Medicine Review: a Journal of Clinical Therapeutic
Gareth Jones, Christopher Power
Infection by the lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), results in a variety of syndromes involving both the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous systems. Productive HIV-1 infection of the CNS is chiefly detectable in perivascular macrophages and microglia. HIV-1 encoded transcripts and proteins have also been detected in the PNS; however, productive viral replication appears to be sparse and restricted to the macrophage cell population. Despite the absence of productive infection of neurons, HIV-1 infection has been associated with neuronal loss in distinct regions of the brain...
January 2006: Neurobiology of Disease
Gavin A Bewick, James V Gardiner, Waljit S Dhillo, Aysha S Kent, Nicholas E White, Zoe Webster, Mohammad A Ghatei, Stephen R Bloom
Agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are colocalized in arcuate nucleus (arcuate) neurons implicated in the regulation of energy balance. Both AgRP and NPY stimulate food intake when administered into the third ventricle and are up-regulated in states of negative energy balance. However, mice with targeted deletion of either NPY or AgRP or both do not have major alterations in energy homeostasis. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis we have targeted expression of a neurotoxic CAG expanded form of ataxin-3 to AgRP-expressing neurons in the arcuate...
October 2005: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Thomas C Schulz, Scott A Noggle, Gail M Palmarini, Deb A Weiler, Ian G Lyons, Kate A Pensa, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Bruce P Davidson, Nevin A Lambert, Brian G Condie
The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a source of dopaminergic neurons for Parkinson's disease cell therapy will require the development of simple and reliable cell differentiation protocols. The use of cell cocultures, added extracellular signaling factors, or transgenic approaches to drive hESC differentiation could lead to additional regulatory as well as cell production delays for these therapies. Because the neuronal cell lineage seems to require limited or no signaling for its formation, we tested the ability of hESCs to differentiate to form dopamine-producing neurons in a simple serum-free suspension culture system...
2004: Stem Cells
S Masure, H Geerts, M Cik, E Hoefnagel, G Van Den Kieboom, A Tuytelaars, S Harris, A S Lesage, J E Leysen, L Van Der Helm, P Verhasselt, J Yon, R D Gordon
Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin and persephin are neurotrophic factors involved in neuroneal differentiation, development and maintenance. They act on different types of neuroneal cells and signal through a receptor complex composed of a specific ligand-binding subunit of the GDNF family receptor alpha (GFRalpha) family together with a common signaling partner, the cRET protein tyrosine kinase. We describe the molecular cloning, expression, chromosomal localization and functional characterization of enovin, a fourth GDNF family member almost identical to the recently described artemin...
December 1999: European Journal of Biochemistry
J D Erickson, M K Schafer, T I Bonner, L E Eiden, E Weihe
A second isoform of the human vesicular monoamine transporter (hVMAT) has been cloned from a pheochromocytoma cDNA library. The contribution of the two transporter isoforms to monoamine storage in human neuroendocrine tissues was examined with isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies against hVMAT1 and hVMAT2. Central, peripheral, and enteric neurons express only VMAT2. VMAT1 is expressed exclusively in neuroendocrine, including chromaffin and enterochromaffin, cells. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are coexpressed in all chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla...
May 14, 1996: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J N Crawley, R L Corwin
Cholecystokinin (CCK) has emerged as an important mammalian neuropeptide, localized in peripheral organs and in the central nervous system. This review presents an overview of the molecular aspects of CCK peptides and CCK receptors, the anatomical distribution of CCK, the neurophysiological actions of CCK, release of CCK and effects of CCK on release of other neurotransmitters, and the actions of CCK on digestion, feeding, cardiovascular function, respiratory function, neurotoxicity and seizures, cancer cell proliferation, analgesia, sleep, sexual and reproductive behaviors, memory, anxiety, and dopamine-mediated exploratory and rewarded behaviors...
1994: Peptides
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