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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777288/time-shifting-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-daily-rhythms-in-the-diurnal-rodent-arvicanthis-ansorgei
#1
Jorge Mendoza, Hester C van Diepen, Rob Rodrigues Pereira, Johanna H Meijer
People suffering of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) show sleep-wake cycle and daily rhythm alterations despite the beneficial effects of MPH on behavioral symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, attention). In nocturnal rodents (i.e., mice), chronic exposure to MPH alters the neural activity of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), behavioral rhythms, and the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we studied the effects of MPH on daily rhythms of behavior and body temperature of the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775811/determination-of-docetaxel-in-dried-blood-spots-by-lc-ms-ms-method-development-validation-and-clinical-application
#2
S Raymundo, V V Muller, N B Andriguetti, M Tegner, A C Artmann, H M Kluck, M A Franzoi, R M M Vilela, G Schwartsmann, R Linden, M V Antunes
In this study, a LC-MS/MS method for the measurement of docetaxel in Dried Blood Spots (DBS) samples was developed and validated. Docetaxel was extracted from 8 mm DBS punch with a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (9:1, v/v). The chromatographic separation occurred in an Acquity® C18 column (150 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) eluted with a mixture of water and acetonitrile plus 0.1% formic acid (45:55, v/v). Total analytical run time was 7 min. The method was linear from 50 to 3000 ng ml-1 . Precision assays showed CV% < 9...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758386/the-neurokinin-1-receptor-mediates-escalated-alcohol-intake-induced-by-multiple-drinking-models
#3
Michelle K Sequeira, Britta S Nelson, Hannah D Fulenwider, Courtney E King, Sadie E Nennig, Jennifer B Bohannon, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, Markus Heilig, Jesse R Schank
We have previously demonstrated that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is upregulated in the central nucleus of the amygdala of alcohol preferring (P) rats and that this receptor mediates escalated alcohol consumption in this strain. However, it is unclear if non-genetic models of escalated consumption are also mediated by NK1R signaling, and if so, what brain regions govern this effect. In the experiments presented here, we use two methods of inducing escalated alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats: yohimbine pretreatment and intermittent alcohol access (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday availability; 20% alcohol)...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756164/methods-for-the-determination-of-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-development-strengths-and-limitations
#4
REVIEW
Lasse Gliemann, Stefan P Mortensen, Ylva Hellsten
Since the first measurements of limb blood flow at rest and during nerve stimulation were conducted in the late 1800s, a number of methods have been developed for the determination of limb and skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. The methods, which have been applied in the study of aspects such as blood flow regulation, oxygen uptake and metabolism, differ in terms of strengths and degree of limitations but most have advantages for specific settings. The purpose of this review is to describe the origin and the basic principles of the methods, important aspects and requirements of the procedures...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748470/effect-of-massoia-massoia-aromatica-becc-bark-on-the-phagocytic-activity-of-wistar-rat-macrophages
#5
Triana Hertiani, Agustinus Yuswanto, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Harlyanti Muthma'innah Mashar
The essential oil of Massoia ( Massoia aromatica Becc., Lauraceae) bark is a potential immunomodulator in vitro. This study evaluated the potential immunomodulatory effects of Massoia bark infusion on the nonspecific immune response (phagocytosis) of Wistar rats. For the in vitro assay, macrophages were treated with the freeze-dried infusion at the concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 &micro;g/mL media. For the in vivo assay, two-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. The baseline group received distilled water at the dose of 1 mL/100 g body weight (BW), with the herbal product containing Phyllanthus niruri extract that was administered as the positive control at the dose of 0...
May 10, 2018: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746095/uv-vis-imaging-of-piroxicam-supersaturation-precipitation-and-dissolution-in-a-flow-through-setup
#6
Yu Sun, Alex Chapman, Susan Weng Larsen, Henrik Jensen, Nickolaj Jacob Petersen, David M Goodall, Jesper Ostergaard
Evaluation of drug precipitation is important in order to address challenges regarding low and variable bioavail-ability of poorly water-soluble drugs, to assess potential risk of patient safety with infusion therapy and to explore injectable in situ suspension-forming drug delivery systems. Generally, drug precipitation is assessed in vitro through solution concentra-tion analysis methods. Dual-wavelength UV-Vis imaging is a novel imaging technique which may provide an opportunity for simultaneously monitoring changes in both solution and solid phases during precipitation...
May 10, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742970/stability-of-carboplatin-infusion-solutions-used-in-desensitization-protocol
#7
R Vázquez-Sánchez, J Sánchez-Rubio-Ferrández, D Córdoba-Díaz, M Córdoba-Díaz, T Molina-Garcia
Carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions are one of the major clinical challenges in treating patients with relapse/recurrent ovarian malignancies. Desensitization protocols allow the continuation of treatment in patients who have presented hypersensitivity reactions by gradually re-introducing small amounts of the drug up to full therapeutic doses. Carboplatin desensitization protocol is based on three solutions that are usually prepared in the chemotherapy centralized units of hospital pharmacies. First and second solutions are diluted under the established concentration limit to guarantee the stability of the preparation...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740891/effects-of-gut-microbiota-and-time-of-treatment-on-tissue-levels-of-green-tea-polyphenols-in-mice
#8
Anna B Liu, Siyao Tao, Mao-Jung Lee, Qi Hu, Xiaofeng Meng, Yong Lin, Chung S Yang
The previous studies have shown that tea polyphenols are metabolized by gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of gut microbiota on the bioavailability, tissue levels, and degradation of tea polyphenols. Mice were treated with antibiotics (ampicillin/sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) in drinking water and the control mice received water for 11 days, and they were given an AIN93M diet enriched with 0.32% of Polyphenon E. The levels of catechins and their metabolites (if present) in the serum, liver, urine, and fecal samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
May 8, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724899/the-dot1l-inhibitor-pinometostat-reduces-h3k79-methylation-and-has-modest-clinical-activity-in-adult-acute-leukemia
#9
Eytan M Stein, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, David A Rizzieri, Raoul Tibes, Jesus G Berdeja, Michael R Savona, Mojca Jongen-Lavrenic, Jessica K Altman, Blythe Thomson, Stephen J Blakemore, Scott R Daigle, Nigel J Waters, A Benjamin Suttle, Alicia Clawson, Roy Pollock, Andrei Krivtsov, Scott A Armstrong, Jorge DiMartino, Eric Hedrick, Bob Löwenberg, Martin S Tallman
Pinometostat (EPZ-5676) is a first-in-class, small-molecule inhibitor of the histone methyltransferase DOT1L. In this phase 1 study, pinometostat was evaluated for safety and efficacy in adult patients with advanced acute leukemias, particularly those involving MLL rearrangements ( MLL-r ) resulting from 11q23 translocations. Fifty-one patients were enrolled into 6 dose escalation cohorts (n=26) and 2 expansion cohorts (n=25) at pinometostat doses of 54 and 90 mg/m2 /day by continuous intravenous infusion in 28-day cycles...
May 3, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701912/gut-microbiota-as-a-modulator-of-paneth-cells-during-parenteral-nutrition-in-mice
#10
Jiwei Wang, Feng Tian, Peng Wang, Huijun Zheng, Ying Zhang, Hao Tian, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Xinying Wang
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to decreased production of Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides and is accompanied by dysbiosis of the gut. The role of gut microbiota in regulating Paneth cell function during PN is unknown. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received either an antibiotic cocktail (Abx) or nothing (Normal) in their drinking water for 2 weeks before being fed either standard laboratory chow (Abx-Chow and Normal-Chow) or a continuous infusion of PN solution (Abx-PN and Normal-PN) for 7 days...
April 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700220/intensive-care-management-of-severe-hypernatraemia-in-the-context-of-group-a-streptococcal-septicaemia
#11
Bethan Davies, Robert Jesty, Shahana Uddin, Victoria Metaxa
This case describes a 54-year-old woman with exudative eczema, who was admitted to the intensive care unit with a serum sodium concentration of 191 mmol/L, secondary to profound dehydration in the context of group A streptococcal septicaemia. Successful rehydration and electrolyte normalisation was achieved with continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), the replacement fluid of which was infused with hypertonic saline to limit the rate of sodium reduction. This case report comments on three areas of interest...
April 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681423/ultrasonic-cavitation-enabled-treatment-for-therapy-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-proof-of-principle
#12
Douglas L Miller, Xiaofang Lu, Chunyan Dou, Yiying I Zhu, Rachael Fuller, Kristina Fields, Mario L Fabiilli, Gabe E Owens, David Gordon, Oliver D Kripfgans
Ultrasound myocardial cavitation-enabled treatment was applied to the SS-16BN rat model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for proof of the principle underlying myocardial reduction therapy. A focused ultrasound transducer was targeted using 10-MHz imaging (10 S, GE Vivid 7) to the left ventricular wall of anesthetized rats in a warmed water bath. Pulse bursts of 4-MPa peak rarefactional pressure amplitude were intermittently triggered 1:8 heartbeats during a 10-min infusion of a microbubble suspension. Methylprednisolone was given to reduce initial inflammation, and Losartan was given to reduce fibrosis in the healing tissue...
April 19, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679499/quantification-of-metronidazole-in-healthy-subjects-feces-using-a-lc-ms-ms-method
#13
Pravin G Vanol, Mallika Sanyal, Priyanka A Shah, Pranav S Shrivastav
A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) method is developed for the quantification of metronidazole (MTZ) in human feces. The analyte was recovered from feces after liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and separated on Waters Symmetry® C18 (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using 0.1 % formic acid in water and acetonitrile (40:60, v/v) as the mobile phase. A stable-deuterated internal standard metronidazole-d4 (MTZ-d4) was used in the study. Mass analysis was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive electrospray ionization mode...
April 21, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676017/valorization-of-postharvest-discard-of-sweet-cherry-for-the-development-of-dehydrated-fruit-ingredients-compositional-physical-and-mechanical-properties
#14
Lorena Franceschinis, Paula Sette, Daniela Salvatori, Carolina Schebor
BACKGROUND: Sweet cherries are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, which may contribute to a healthy diet. The objective of this work was to generate dehydrated ingredients from postharvest discard of sweet cherries. RESULTS: Four dried ingredients were obtained from discard of fresh sweet cherry (Lapins var.), through the application of an osmotic dehydration pretreatment and freeze- or air-drying. The ingredients showed an important phenolic contribution (2...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674241/protective-effect-of-betulinic-acid-against-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-neuronal-damage-in-rats-possible-neurotransmitters-and-neuroinflammatory-mechanism
#15
Madhu Kaundal, Rahul Deshmukh, Mohd Akhtar
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to explore the therapeutic potential of Betulinic acid (BA) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory damage in experimental rats. METHODS: STZ (3 mg/kg bilaterally) as intracerebroventrical (icv) route was administered on day 1 and 3 in rats. Donepezil (5 mg/kg/day po), used as standard, and BA (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg/day po) were administered after 1 h of 1st STZ infusion up to 21 days. Object recognition task (ORT) for non-spatial, Morris water maze (MWM) for spatial and locomotor activity were performed to evaluate behavioral changes in rats...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670942/hydrophilic-directional-slippery-rough-surfaces-for-water-harvesting
#16
Xianming Dai, Nan Sun, Steven O Nielsen, Birgitt Boschitsch Stogin, Jing Wang, Shikuan Yang, Tak-Sing Wong
Multifunctional surfaces that are favorable for both droplet nucleation and removal are highly desirable for water harvesting applications but are rare. Inspired by the unique functions of pitcher plants and rice leaves, we present a hydrophilic directional slippery rough surface (SRS) that is capable of rapidly nucleating and removing water droplets. Our surfaces consist of nanotextured directional microgrooves in which the nanotextures alone are infused with hydrophilic liquid lubricant. We have shown through molecular dynamics simulations that the physical origin of the efficient droplet nucleation is attributed to the hydrophilic surface functional groups, whereas the rapid droplet removal is due to the significantly reduced droplet pinning of the directional surface structures and slippery interface...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667127/bilateral-olfactory-mucosa-damage-induces-the-disappearance-of-olfactory-glomerulus-and-reduces-the-expression-of-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-5gaba-a-rs-in-the-hippocampus-in-early-postnatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Xiaomin Zheng, Liang Liang, Changchun Hei, Wenjuan Yang, Tingyuan Zhang, Kai Wu, Yi Qin, Qing Chang
Chloroform-induced olfactory mucosal degeneration has been reported in adult rats following gavage. We used fixed-point chloroform infusions on different postnatal days (PNDs) to investigate the effects of early olfactory bilateral deprivation on the main olfactory bulbs in Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups included rats infused with chloroform (5 μl) or saline (sham, 5 μl) on PNDs 3 and 8, and rats not receiving infusions (control) (n = 6 in all groups). Rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 showed significant hypoevolutism when compared to those in other groups (P < 0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663741/interactive-involvement-of-hippocampal-camp-pka-and-cyclooxygenase-2-signaling-pathways-in-spatial-learning-in-the-morris-water-maze
#18
Kaveh Tabrizian, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Ali Akbar Nasiri, Sheyda Najafi, Fatemeh Amelinia, Mehdi Sanati, Farzaneh Shamshirgaran, Sahar Fanoudi
INTRODUCTION: Accumulated evidence shows that the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays a key role in memory functions. Cyclooxygenase-2, a critical player in neuroinflammation, has been confirmed in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is aimed to assess the effect of the interaction of cAMP-PKA and cyclooxygenase pathways on spatial memory acquisition in animal models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study, the effects of the four-day bilateral intra-hippocampal infusions of H-89 as a protein kinase AII inhibitor (10 µM/side), celecoxib (0...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657727/preoperative-fluid-restriction-for-trauma-patients-with-hemorrhagic-shock-decreases-ventilator-days
#19
Shigenari Matsuyama, Ryusuke Miki, Hirotada Kittaka, Haruki Nakayama, Shota Kikuta, Satoshi Ishihara, Shinichi Nakayama
Aim: In recent years, with the concept of damage control resuscitation, hemostasis and preoperative fluid restriction have been carried out, but there is controversy regarding the effectiveness of fluid restriction. Methods: From April 2007 to March 2013, 101 trauma patients presented with hemorrhagic shock (systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg) at the prehospital or emergency department and were admitted to Hyogo Emergency Medical Center (Hyogo, Japan). They underwent emergency hemostasis by surgery and transcatheter arterial embolization...
April 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648981/glibenclamide-produces-region-dependent-effects-on-cerebral-edema-in-a-combined-injury-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-in-mice
#20
Ruchira Jha, Bradley J Molyneaux, Travis C Jackson, Jessica Wallisch, Seo-Young Park, Samuel M Poloyac, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko-Feldman, Keito Hoshitsuki, Margaret Beth Minnigh, Patrick M Kochanek
Cerebral edema is critical to morbidity/mortality in TBI and is worsened by hypotension. Glibenclamide may reduce cerebral edema by inhibiting sulfonylurea receptor-1 (Sur1); its effect on diffuse cerebral edema exacerbated by hypotension/resuscitation is unknown. We aimed to determine if glibenclamide improves pericontusional and/or diffuse edema in controlled cortical impact (CCI, 5m/s, 1 mm-depth)+hemorrhagic shock (HS, 35 minutes), and compare its effects in CCI alone. C57/BL6 mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10/group): naïve, CCI+vehicle, CCI+glibenclamide, CCI+HS+vehicle, and CCI+HS+glibenclamide...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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