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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335823/-drugs-for-intravenous-induction-of-anesthesia-propofol
#1
D Bolkenius, C Dumps, E Halbeck
In a series of articles dealing with hypnotics for induction of anesthesia, this article describes the development and current value of propofol. Its significance far exceeds that of a pure induction hypnotic (sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and on the intensive care unit). Propofol is also used for sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and on the intensive care unit. In the field of induction of anesthesia, the alternatives are barely used. Some contraindications are still controversial whereas others are no longer sufficiently anchored in the users' awareness (widespread off-label use)...
January 15, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333093/bactericidal-effects-of-deep-ultraviolet-light-emitting-diode-for-solutions-during-intravenous-infusion
#2
Sachiko Omotani, Katsuji Tani, Mai Aoe, Seiji Esaki, Katsuhito Nagai, Yasutoshi Hatsuda, Junji Mukai, Hitomi Teramachi, Michiaki Myotoku
Background: Ultraviolet irradiation is effectively used as a disinfection method for inactivating microorganisms. Methods: We investigated the bactericidal effects by irradiation with a deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV-LED) on the causative microorganisms of catheter related blood stream infection contaminating the solution for intravenous infusion. For irradiation, prototype modules for water disinfection with a DUV-LED were used. Experiments were conducted on five kinds of microorganisms. We examined the dependence of bactericidal action on eleven solutions...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323200/heat-transfer-enhancement-during-water-and-hydrocarbon-condensation-on-lubricant-infused-surfaces
#3
Daniel J Preston, Zhengmao Lu, Youngsup Song, Yajing Zhao, Kyle L Wilke, Dion S Antao, Marcel Louis, Evelyn N Wang
Vapor condensation is routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat or separating fluids. Dropwise condensation, where discrete droplets form on the condenser surface, offers a potential improvement in heat transfer of up to an order of magnitude compared to filmwise condensation, where a liquid film covers the surface. Low surface tension fluid condensates such as hydrocarbons pose a unique challenge since typical hydrophobic condenser coatings used to promote dropwise condensation of water often do not repel fluids with lower surface tensions...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310475/human-factors-and-usability-engineering-in-the-development-of-smt-101-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#4
Peter Noymer, Assaf Shaked, Kay Newell
BACKGROUND: SMT-101, a novel, proprietary, water-resistant wearable infusion pump prefilled with a preset dosage of treprostinil, was designed to address many of the administration-related shortcomings of existing parenteral therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The objective of the human factors (HF) program was to demonstrate that the SMT-101 system is safe and effective when used by patients with PAH, their caregivers, or healthcare providers. METHODS: The HF program for SMT-101 consisted of 8 studies (148 participants): an ethnographic study, an online survey of patients with PAH, 4 formative studies, a study of the instructions for use (IFU), and a summative study for validation...
January 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304774/assessment-of-the-association-between-increasing-membrane-pore-size-and-endotoxin-permeability-using-a-novel-experimental-dialysis-simulation-set-up
#5
Eva Schepers, Griet Glorieux, Sunny Eloot, Michael Hulko, Adriana Boschetti-de-Fierro, Werner Beck, Bernd Krause, Wim Van Biesen
BACKGROUND: Membranes with increasing pore size are introduced to enhance removal of large uremic toxins with regular hemodialysis. These membranes might theoretically have higher permeability for bacterial degradation products. In this paper, permeability for bacterial degradation products of membranes of comparable composition with different pore size was investigated with a new in vitro set-up that represents clinical flow and pressure conditions. METHODS: Dialysis was simulated with an AK200 machine using a low-flux, high-flux, medium cut-off (MCO) or high cut-off (HCO) device (n = 6/type)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302209/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats-with-experimental-cushing-s-syndrome
#6
Mina Kim, Hae-Ahm Lee, Hyun-Min Cho, Seol-Hee Kang, Eunjo Lee, In Kyeom Kim
Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a collection of symptoms caused by prolonged exposure to excess cortisol. Chronically elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels contribute to hepatic steatosis. We hypothesized that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) could attenuate hepatic steatosis through glucocorticoid receptor (GR) acetylation in experimental CS. To induce CS, we administered adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 40 ng/kg/day) to Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous infusion with osmotic mini-pumps. We administered the HDACi, sodium valproate (VPA; 0...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301340/carbon-dioxide-and-nitrogen-infused-compressed-air-foam-for-depopulation-of-caged-laying-hens
#7
Shailesh Gurung, Dima White, Gregory Archer, Darrel Styles, Dan Zhao, Yuhua Farnell, James Byrd, Morgan Farnell
Depopulation of infected poultry flocks is a key strategy to control and contain reportable diseases. Water-based foam, carbon dioxide inhalation, and ventilation shutdown are depopulation methods available to the poultry industry. Unfortunately, these methods have limited usage in caged layer hen operations. Personnel safety and welfare of birds are equally important factors to consider during emergency depopulation procedures. We have previously reported that compressed air foam (CAF) is an alternative method for depopulation of caged layer hens...
January 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290380/are-postoperative-intravenous-fluids-in-patients-undergoing-elective-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-necessity-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Jessimara Ribeiro Henriques, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) fluid therapy should be individualized according to each patient's weight, disease, and comorbidities, as well as the type and duration of the operative procedure. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represents one of the most common, short-duration operations; thus, the aim of this study was to assess the necessity of postoperative administration of IV fluids. METHOD: A randomized clinical trial with patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed...
December 29, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288014/efficacy-of-different-cooling-technologies-for-therapeutic-temperature-management-a-prospective-intervention-study
#9
Petra Sonder, Gladys N Janssens, Albertus Beishuizen, Connie L Henry, Jon C Rittenberger, Clifton W Callaway, Cameron Dezfulian, Kees H Polderman
BACKGROUND: Mild therapeutic hypothermia (32-36 °C) is associated with improved outcomes in patients with brain injury after cardiac arrest (CA). Various devices are available to induce and maintain hypothermia, but few studies have compared the performance of these devices. We performed a prospective study to compare four frequently used cooling systems in inducing and maintaining hypothermia followed by controlled rewarming. METHODS: We performed a prospective multi-centered study in ten ICU's in three hospitals within the UPMC health system...
December 26, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286674/a-lubricant-sandwiched-coating-with-long-term-stable-anticorrosion-performance
#10
Mizuki Tenjimbayashi, Sachiko Nishioka, Yuta Kobayashi, Koki Kawase, Jiatu Li, Jyunichiro Abe, Seimei Shiratori
Lubricant-infused surface(s) (LIS) bio-inspired by the Nepenthes pitcher plant are receiving enormous attention owing to their excellent hydrophobicity as well as their self-healing ability. Thus, they have been applied as anticorrosion coatings. However, the loss of lubricant mediated by vapor or other liquids deteriorates their functions. Herein, we introduce a lubricant-inserted (sandwiched) microporous triple-layered surface (LIMITS) that prevents the sudden loss of lubricant. The sandwiched lubricant gradually self-secretes toward the surface, resulting in long-term stability even under water...
December 29, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285741/effects-of-polygonum-cuspidatum-on-ampk-foxo3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-uric-acid-induced-renal-damage
#11
Wei-Guo Ma, Jie Wang, Xiang-Wei Bu, Hong-Hong Zhang, Jian-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Xu Zhang, Yu-Xi He, Da-Li Wang, Zheng-Ju Zhang, Feng-Xian Meng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Polygonum cuspidatum (PC) on adenosine 5'-monophosphateactivated protein kinase (AMPK), forkhead box O3α (FOXO3α), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in a rat model of uric acid-induced renal damage and to determine the molecular mechanism. METHODS: A rat model of uric acid-induced renal damage was established, and rats were randomly divided into a model group, a positive drug group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose Chinese medicine (CM) PC groups (n=12 per group)...
December 28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279786/studies-on-chemical-composition-and-antioxidant-activity-of-rudbeckia-triloba
#12
Zenovia Moldovan, Mihaela Buleandră, Eliza Oprea, Zamfirica Mînea
The paper describes the physicochemical studies made on the decorative plant, Rudbeckia triloba (Asteraceae). For this purpose, essential oil, infusion, decoction, and hydroalcoholic macerate obtained from different aerial parts of Rudbeckia triloba were analyzed. The main phytochemical constituents identified by GC-MS analysis were found to be α-pinene (in dried leaves (46.0%) and flowers (40.1%)) and β-phellandrene (in essential oil of dried inflorescences (26.09%)). The Folin-Ciocalteu and quercetin assays revealed different values of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of petals, leaves, and seeds as a function of the solvent used and extraction procedure...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274978/relative-bioavailability-of-carnitine-delivered-by-ruminal-or-abomasal-infusion-or-by-encapsulation-in-dairy-cattle
#13
K E Olagaray, J E Shaffer, C K Armendariz, A Bellamine, S Jacobs, E C Titgemeyer, B J Bradford
Two studies were designed to evaluate the relative bioavailability of l-carnitine delivered by different methods in dairy cattle. In experiment 1, 4 Holstein heifers were used in a split-plot design to compare ruminally or abomasally infused l-carnitine. The study included 2 main-plot periods, with infusion routes allocated in a crossover design. Within main-plot periods, each of 3 subplot periods consisted of 4-d infusions separated with 4-d rest periods. Subplot treatments were infusion of 1, 3, and 6 g of l-carnitine/d in conjunction with 6 g/d of arabinogalactan given in consideration of eventual product manufacturing...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250952/marine-anti-fouling-behavior-of-lubricant-infused-nanowrinkled-polymeric-surfaces
#14
Cameron S Ware, Truis Smith-Palmer, Sam Peppou-Chapman, Liam R Scarratt, Erin Humphries, Daniel Balzer, Chiara Neto
A new family of polymeric, lubricant-infused, nanostructured wrinkled surfaces was designed that effectively retains inert non-toxic silicone oil, upon draining by spin-coating and vigorous shear for two weeks. The wrinkled surfaces were fabricated using three different polymers (Teflon AF, polystyrene, and poly(4-vinylpyridine)) and two shrinkable substrates (polyshrink and shrinkwrap), and Teflon on polyshrink was found to be the most effective system. The volume of trapped lubricant was quantified by adding Nile red to the silicone oil before infusion, then extracting the oil and Nile red from the surfaces in heptane and measuring by fluorimetry...
December 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248667/the-lateral-habenula-interacts-with-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-response-upon-stressful-cognitive-demand-in-rats
#15
Victor Mathis, Brigitte Cosquer, Alexandra Barbelivien, Karine Herbeaux, Béatrice Bothorel, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Vincent-Joseph Poirel, Chantal Mathis, Lucas Lecourtier
The lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in emotional and cognitive behaviors. Recently, we have shown in rats that blockade of excitatory inputs to the LHb not only induced deficits of memory retrieval in the water maze, but also altered swim strategies (i.e., induced excessive thigmotaxis). The latter observation, although consistent with the occurrence of memory deficits, could also possibly be the consequence of an excessive level of stress, further suggesting a role for the LHb in the stress response in our behavioral paradigm...
December 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248482/targeted-inhibition-of-rage-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-influx-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-db-db-mice
#16
Hao Wang, Fang Chen, Yi-Feng Du, Yan Long, Miranda N Reed, Mei Hu, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Hao Hong, Su-Su Tang
AIMS: To investigate restorative effects of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-specific inhibitor FPS-ZM1 on abnormal amyloid (Aβ) influx across the blood brain-barrier (BBB) and cognitive deficits in db/db mice. METHODS: Aβ influx across the BBB was determined by intra-arterial infusion of 125I-Aβ1-40. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), Aβ, NF-κB p65, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PSD-95 and synaptophysin were assayed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry or RT-PCR...
December 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244174/the-attractiveness-of-the-gravid-aedes-trap-to-dengue-vectors-in-fiji
#17
James F Harwood, Vineshwaran Rama, John M Hash, Scott W Gordon
The Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) is a passive trap that relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure and capture gravid mosquitoes. The GAT was designed as a dengue vector surveillance tool for use in conditions where power sources are not readily available. Experiments were conducted over a 10-d period in Fiji to determine which species of mosquitoes the GAT would collect, how different infusion types affect the attractiveness of the trap, how long each infusion type took to begin attracting mosquitoes, and how long the infusion was attractive to container breeding Aedes mosquitoes...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242169/c60-fullerenes-disrupt-cellular-signalling-leading-to-trpc4-and-trpc6-channels-opening-by-the-activation-of-muscarinic-receptors-and-g-proteins-in-small-intestinal-smooth-muscles
#18
Dariia O Dryn, Mariia I Melnyk, Lina T Al Kury, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Uwe Ritter, Alexander V Zholos
The effect of water-soluble pristine C60 fullerene nanoparticles (C60NPs) on receptor-operated cation channels formed by TRPC4/C6 proteins in ileal smooth muscle cells was investigated for the first time. Activation of these channels subsequent to acetylcholine binding to the expressed in these cells M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors represents the key event in the parasympathetic control of gastrointestinal smooth muscle motility and cholinergic excitation-contraction coupling. Experiments were performed on single collagenase-dispersed mouse ileal myocytes using patch-clamp techniques with symmetrical 125mM Cs+ solutions and [Ca2+]i 'clamped' at 100nM in order to isolate the muscarinic cation current (mICAT)...
December 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235039/uv-lamp-as-a-facile-ozone-source-for-structural-analysis-of-unsaturated-lipids-via-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#19
Craig A Stinson, Wenpeng Zhang, Yu Xia
Ozonolysis of alkene functional groups is a type of highly specific and effective chemical reaction, which has found increasing applications in structural analysis of unsaturated lipids via coupling with mass spectrometry (MS). In this work, we utilized a low-pressure mercury lamp (6 W) to initiate ozonolysis inside electrospray ionization (ESI) sources. By placing the lamp near a nanoESI emitter that partially transmits 185 nm ultraviolet (UV) emission from the lamp, dissolved dioxygen in the spray solution was converted into ozone, which subsequently cleaved the double bonds within fatty acyls of lipids...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230855/a-role-for-autophagy-in-long-term-spatial-memory-formation-in-male-rodents
#20
Michael J Hylin, Jing Zhao, Karthikeyan Tangavelou, Natalia S Rozas, Kimberly N Hood, Jacalyn S MacGowan, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash
A hallmark of long-term memory formation is the requirement for protein synthesis. Administration of protein synthesis inhibitors impairs long-term memory formation without influencing short-term memory. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) that has been shown to block protein synthesis and impair long-term memory. In addition to regulating protein synthesis, TORC1 also phosphorylates Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase-1 (Ulk-1) to suppress autophagy. As autophagy can be activated by rapamycin (and rapamycin inhibits long-term memory), our aim was to test the hypothesis that autophagy inhibitors would enhance long-term memory...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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