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John D Lapek, Robert H Mills, Jacob M Wozniak, Anaamika Campeau, Ronnie H Fang, Xiaoli Wei, Kirsten van de Groep, Araceli Perez-Lopez, Nina M van Sorge, Manuela Raffatellu, Rob Knight, Liangfang Zhang, David J Gonzalez
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) remains one of the top 10 deadliest human pathogens worldwide despite its sensitivity to penicillin. Although the most common GAS infection is pharyngitis (strep throat), it also causes life-threatening systemic infections. A series of complex networks between host and pathogen drive invasive infections, which have not been comprehensively mapped. Attempting to map these interactions, we examined organ-level protein dynamics using a mouse model of systemic GAS infection. We quantified over 11,000 proteins, defining organ-specific markers for all analyzed tissues...
April 28, 2018: Cell Systems
Junyan Liu, Ruiru Xu, Huamin Zhong, Yukui Zhong, Yongqiang Xie, Lin Li, Bing Li, Dingqiang Chen, Zhenbo Xu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to understand the surveillance of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) serotype and genotype which help developing specific vaccine for GBS infection. METHODS: The GBS serotype was determined by strep-B-Latex rapid agglutination method and multiplex PCR assay based on the differences among serotypes. Alleles and multilocus sequence types (MLST) were determined using the GBS MLST Web site. RESULTS: Four GBS serotypes (Ia, Ib, III, and V) were identified, with serotype III which was intimately associated with purulent meningitis and sepsis, as the dominance...
May 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Arivazhagan Rajendran, Narumi Shigi, Jun Sumaoka, Makoto Komiyama
Scission of human genome at predetermined sites and isolation of a particular fragment are of great interest for the analysis of le-sion/modification sites, proteomics, and for gene therapy. However, methods for human genome scission and specific fragment isolation are limited. Here, we report a novel one-pot method for the site-specific scission of DNA by using the combination of biotinylated pcPNA/S1 nuclease, and isolation of a desired fragment by strep-tavidin coated magnetic beads. The proof-of-concept was initially demonstrated for the clipping of plasmid DNA and isolation of required fragment...
May 3, 2018: Biochemistry
Shu Kato, Motoi Yanazaki, Kino Hayashi, Fumiko Satoh, Ichiro Isobe, Yutaka Tsutsumi
Five autopsy cases of fulminant group A streptococcal infection without gangrene in the extremities are presented. Clinical course of the fulminant illness was short (2-4 days). One pathological autopsy case was aged (86-years-old), and hemorrhagic cystitis was observed. The other four forensic autopsy cases were young (24-38 years-old) with the mean age of 32, and the primary infective lesions were located in the postpartum endometrium, tonsil and bronchus (2 cases). Systemic coccal dissemination with poor neutrophilic reaction was seen in two of five cases...
May 3, 2018: Pathology International
David Gleeson, Jimmy Flynn, Bernadette O' Brien
Background: The practise of teat disinfection prior to cluster attachment for milking is being adopted by farmers in Ireland, particularly where there are herd issues with new infection rates. Pre-milking teat disinfection has been shown to reduce bacterial numbers on teat skin and to be most effective against environmental bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis. A split udder design experiment was undertaken on two research herds (A = 96 cows: B = 168 cows) to test the benefit of pre-milking teat disinfection on new mastitis infection levels...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
Xueting Liu, Liping Zeng, Zhongqiu Zhao, Yang Xie, Shan Wang, Junyan Zhang, Ying He, Zehong Zou, Jianguo Zhang, Ailin Tao
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is well known as a superantigen and able to be used for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A was genetically conjugated to epidermal growth factor to produce a chimeric protein recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-epidermal growth factor expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-epidermal growth factor protein was purified using Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography and Endotoxin Removal Resin and identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropheresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
JaBaris D Swain, Colleen Sinnott, Suellen Breakey, Rian Hasson Charles, Gita Mody, Napthal Nyirimanzi, Ceeya Patton-Bolman, Patricia Come, Gapira Ganza, Emmanuel Rusingiza, Nathan Ruhamya, Joseph Mucumbitsi, Jorge Borges, Martin Zammert, Jochen D Muehlschlegel, Robert Oakes, Bruce Leavitt, R Morton Bolman
OBJECTIVE: Despite its near complete eradication in resource-rich countries, rheumatic heart disease remains the most common acquired cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa. With a ratio of physicians/population of 1 per 10,500, including only 4 cardiologists for a population of 11.4 million, Rwanda represents a resource-limited setting lacking the local capacity to detect and treat early cases of strep throat and perform lifesaving operations for advanced rheumatic heart disease...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Yeonjin Ko, Geng-Min Lin, Mark W Ruszczycky, Hung-Wen Liu
DesII is a radical SAM lyase that catalyzes a deamination reaction during the biosynthesis of desosamine in Streptomyces venezuelae. Competing mechanistic hypotheses for this radical-mediated reaction are differentiated according to whether a 1,2-migration takes place and the timing of proton abstraction following generation of a substrate α-hydroxyalkyl radical intermediate. In this study, the deuterated C4 epimer of the natural substrate, TDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-d-[3-2 H]fucose, was prepared and shown to be a substrate for DesII undergoing deamination alone with a specific activity that is only marginally reduced (∼3-fold) with respect to that of deamination of the natural substrate...
February 28, 2018: Biochemistry
Feiyan Liang, Peter Lindblad
The ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) oxygenation reaction catalyzed by Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is competing with carboxylation, being negative for both energy and carbon balances in photoautotrophic organisms. This makes RuBisCO one of the bottlenecks for oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon fixation. In this study, RuBisCO was overexpressed in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Relative RuBisCO levels in the engineered strains FL50 and FL52 increased 2.1 times and 1...
June 2017: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Masaharu Iwasaki, Petra Minder, Yíngyún Caì, Jens H Kuhn, John R Yates, Bruce E Torbett, Juan C de la Torre
Several mammalian arenaviruses (mammarenaviruses) cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans and pose serious public health concerns in their endemic regions. Additionally, mounting evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed, prototypic mammarenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Concerns about human-pathogenic mammarenaviruses are exacerbated by of the lack of licensed vaccines, and current anti-mammarenavirus therapy is limited to off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Joseph G Kotora, Eric J Schmieler, Christian S McEvoy, Stephen L Noble
This case is significant to the practice of emergency medicine because it represents the development of an uncommon and potentially fatal mediastinal infection from a commonly encountered and appropriately treated community respiratory pathogen. Most published reports on mediastinitis are those that are status-post cardiothoracic surgery. In our report, we discuss a case of a healthy, young individual who developed this morbid entity from extension of a simple respiratory infection where Group C Streptococcus has been isolated as the causative organism, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported...
May 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lauren Vogel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
C A Bauman, H W Barkema, J Dubuc, G P Keefe, D F Kelton
The objective of this study was to estimate Canadian national milk quality parameters and estimate the bulk tank milk (BTM) prevalence of 4 mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Prototheca spp., on Canadian dairy farms. A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian dairy producers. Of the 1,062 producers who completed the questionnaire, 374 producers from across the country were visited and milking hygiene was assessed. Farm-level milk quality data for all Canadian dairy producers was collected from the provincial marketing boards and combined with the questionnaire and farm visit data...
March 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Anis Raddaoui, Farah Ben Tanfous, Wafa Achour, Rekaya Baaboura, Assia Ben Hassen
Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae among other α-haemolytic streptococci is based on phenotypic or genotypic characteristics such as colony morphology, bile solubility and optochin susceptibility. This study reports three optochin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains isolated from immunocompromised patients in Tunisia. The three isolates were positive for the bile solubility test. Biochemical identification with API® 20 Strep was not discriminatory for two strains. The three strains had different serotypes (6C, 19F and 23F) and three different sequence types (ST386, ST320 and ST326)...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Deirdre L Church, Tracie Lloyd, Oscar Larios, Daniel B Gregson
Diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis is confirmed by detection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) in patient throat samples. Testing of throat samples has historically relied on culture, but new molecular methods allow much faster test turnaround time (i.e., same day versus 48 to 72 h for culture). Our laboratory uses the Hologic GAS Direct (GASD) assay for screening more than 125,000 throat samples per year. Simplexa GAS Direct is a new real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that does not require initial DNA extraction...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Gregory J Berry, Catherine R Miller, Mariana Moreno Prats, Christopher Marquez, Olajumoke O Oladipo, Michael J Loeffelholz, John R Petersen
Rapid detection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an integral component of treatment decisions in the clinic, especially in the pediatric population. We prospectively collected 216 specimens from symptomatic, predominantly pediatric patients and evaluated the performance of the Alere i Strep A test (Alere i; Alere Inc., Scarborough, ME) and the BD Veritor system (BD Veritor; Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, MD), with culture results being used as a comparator. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was performed as an arbiter in discordant cases...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Amparo Escribano Montaner, Juan García de Lomas, José Ramón Villa Asensi, Oscar Asensio de la Cruz, Olga de la Serna Blázquez, Mikel Santiago Burruchaga, Pedro Mondéjar López, Alba Torrent Vernetta, Yang Feng, Melissa K Van Dyke, Janet Reyes, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Carla A Talarico
This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of bacteria isolated from Spanish children with suspected chronic lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) for whom bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was indicated. BAL fluid (BALF) was collected from 191 children (aged ≥ 6 months to < 6 years, with persistent or recurrent respiratory symptoms, non-responders to usual treatment) and cultured. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) were also obtained and cultured to assess concordance of BALF and NPS findings in the same patient...
February 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
David Durán, Juan Imperial, José Palacios, Tomás Ruiz-Argüeso, Michael Göttfert, Susanne Zehner, Luis Rey
Several genes coding for proteins with metal ion-inducible autocleavage (MIIA) domains were identified in type III secretion system tts gene clusters from draft genomes of recently isolated Bradyrhizobium spp. MIIA domains have been first described in the effectors NopE1 and NopE2 of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110. All identified genes are preceded by tts box promoter motifs. The identified proteins contain one or two MIIA domains. A phylogenetic analysis of 35 MIIA domain sequences from 16 Bradyrhizobium strains revealed four groups...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Zuzana Nahacka, Jan Svadlenka, Martin Peterka, Marie Ksandrova, Simona Benesova, Jiri Neuzil, Ladislav Andera
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine that can trigger apoptosis in many types of human cancer cells via engagement of its two pro-apoptotic receptors TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5). TRAIL can also activate several other signaling pathways such as activation of stress kinases, canonical NF-κB signaling and necroptosis. Though both receptors are ubiquitously expressed, their relative participation in TRAIL-induced signaling is still largely unknown. To analyze TRAIL receptor-specific signaling, we prepared Strep-tagged, trimerized variants of recombinant human TRAIL with high affinity for either DR4 or DR5 receptor...
March 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Behannis Mena, Kayanush Aryana
Lactose is an energy source for culture bacteria. Bile tolerance is an important probiotic property. Our aim was to elucidate the effect of lactose on bile tolerance of yogurt starter culture Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-12 and Streptococcus thermophilus ST-M5. Bile tolerance of pure cultures was determined using 0.3% oxgall in MRS THIO broth (Difco, Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) for L. bulgaricus and 0.3% oxgall in M17 broth (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) for Strep. thermophilus. Lactose was added to both broths at 0 (control), 1, 3, and 5% (wt/vol) broth...
March 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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