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physiology of uvea

Ethan M Dawson-Baglien, Erica L Noland, Dodd G Sledge, Matti Kiupel, Simon M Petersen-Jones
OBJECTIVE: Cairn terriers with ocular melanosis (OM) accumulate large, heavily pigmented melanocytes in the anterior uvea. Darkly pigmented plaques develop within the sclera, leading us to hypothesize that OM uveal melanocytes may have an abnormal migratory capacity. ANIMALS STUDIED: Globes from OM-affected Cairn terriers and unaffected control eyes enucleated for reasons unrelated to this study were used for immunohistochemistry and to culture melanocytes for in vitro cell behavior assays...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Sithranga Boopathy Natarajan, Jin-Woo Hwang, Yon-Suk Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Pyo-Jam Park
The eye is a sensitive organ with complex optical system involves in the perception of light. Although it has several protective mechanisms by itself, various physiological and metabolic disorders are detrimental to the proper functioning of the visual system. Grape juice has long been used worldwide for its potent medicinal values including ocular promotion. Bioactivities of grape products are highly attributed to the presence of health promoting phytochemicals in them. Some phytochemicals present in the grape juice have been involved in the maintenance of intra-ocular pressure, regulation of glucose metabolisms and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the system...
March 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kate E Keller, Janice A Vranka, Ramez I Haddadin, Min-Hyung Kang, Dong-Jin Oh, Douglas J Rhee, Yong-Feng Yang, Ying Ying Sun, Mary J Kelley, Ted S Acott
PURPOSE: Tenascin C (TNC) is a matricellular glycoprotein whose expression in adult tissue is indicative of tissue remodeling. The purpose of the current study was to determine the localization of TNC in trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue and to analyze the effects of TNC on intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS: Human TM frontal sections were immunostained with anti-TNC and imaged by confocal microscopy. TNC mRNA and protein levels were quantitated in anterior segments perfused at physiological and elevated pressure...
2013: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sara Azevedo-Pinto, Paulo Pereira-Silva, Amândio Rocha-Sousa
Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid acylated peptide produced in several organs that binds the growth hormone secretagogues receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a). It acts over a wide range of systems, e.g. the endocrine, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and immune systems and the eye. The aim of this work is to review the physiologic and pathologic implications of the ghrelin-GHSR-1a in the eye. A systematic revision of studies published between 2000 and 2013 in English, Spanish or Portuguese in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus was performed...
September 2013: Peptides
I P Rodríguez-Sánchez, M L Garza-Rodríguez, K Mohamed-Noriega, V S Voruganti, M E Tejero, I Delgado-Enciso, D C Pérez-Ibave, N E Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, J Mohamed-Noriega, M L Martinez-Fierro, D Reséndez-Pérez, S A Cole, H Cavazos-Adame, A G Comuzzie, J Mohamed-Hamsho, H A Barrera-Saldaña
BACKGROUND: Olfactomedin-like is a family of polyfunctional polymeric glycoproteins. This family has at least four members. One member of this family is OLFML3, which is preferentially expressed in placenta but is also detected in other adult tissues including the liver and heart. However, its orthologous rat gene is expressed in the iris, sclera, trabecular meshwork, retina, and optic nerve. METHODS: OLFML3 messenger amplification was performed by RT-PCR from human and baboon ocular tissues...
June 2013: Journal of Medical Primatology
Daniel R Binder, Ian P Herring, Kurt L Zimmerman, J Phillip Pickett, William R Huckle
OBJECTIVE:   To immunohistochemically evaluate expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and -2 (VEGFR2) in ocular tissue of healthy dogs and dogs affected with primary glaucoma, uveitic glaucoma, and intraocular neoplasia. SAMPLE POPULATION:   Enucleated globes from five dogs with primary glaucoma, five dogs with uveitic glaucoma, six dogs with intraocular neoplasms and three ophthalmically normal control dogs. PROCEDURE:   Ocular tissues were obtained from enucleated globes of clinical cases or immediately following euthanasia for control dogs...
July 2012: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Albert Alm, Siv F E Nilsson
The uveoscleral outflow route was described more than 40 years ago. Part of aqueous leaves the eye through the iris root. The ciliary muscle, and there are large species differences in the fraction of aqueous outflow that leaves the eye through this route. In non-human primates 40-50% of aqueous leaves the eye by the uveoscleral route. In human eyes most data has been collected by indirect calculations, with results suggesting a similar fraction, at least in eyes from younger individuals. An age-dependent reduction in uveoscleral flow in human eyes may explain the initial difference seen between non-human primate and human eyes...
April 2009: Experimental Eye Research
David L Williams
Oxidative and particularly photo-oxidative processes are critical factors many ocular conditions but are often poorly recognized by those investigating ocular disease. The author discusses oxidative stress in inflammatory processes of the conjunctiva, cornea, and uvea; in cataract formation in the lens; in retinal degeneration; and in optic nerve pathologic conditions, inflammatory in optic neuritis and degenerative in glaucoma.
January 2008: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Heping Xu, Mei Chen, Delyth M Reid, John V Forrester
PURPOSE: A functioning lymphatic system is necessary not only to permit the organism to mount a rapid and effective immune response but, even more so, to maintain tissue fluid homeostasis. However, no clear evidence of lymphatic vessels draining intraocular and orbital tissues--retina, choroid, sclera, and extraocular muscles--exists. METHODS: Ocular tissue flatmounts from normal or enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) chimeric mice were immunostained for lymphatic endothelium hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1, a routinely used lymphatic endothelial marker), podoplanin, Flt4/VEGFR3, Sca-1, CD11b, or F4/80 and were observed by confocal microscopy...
May 2007: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Siv F E Nilsson, Enken Drecoll, Elke Lütjen-Drecoll, Carol B Toris, Achim H-P Krauss, Alexander Kharlamb, Amelia Nieves, Teresa Guerra, David F Woodward
PURPOSE: To investigate the ocular hypotensive effect of the prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist butaprost and to establish its mechanism of action. METHODS: All experiments were performed in cynomolgus monkeys after topical application of butaprost (0.1%). The effects of butaprost on aqueous humor flow were determined by fluorophotometry. Total outflow facility was measured by the two-level, constant-pressure perfusion method, and uveoscleral outflow was determined by perfusion of FITC-labeled dextran through the anterior chamber...
September 2006: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
William H Tolleson
The human melanocytes of the skin, hair, eyes, inner ears, and covering of the brain provide physiologic functions important in organ development and maintenance. Melanocytes develop from embryonic neural crest progenitors and share certain traits with other neural crest derivatives found in the adrenal medulla and peripheral nervous system. The distinctive metabolic feature of melanocytes is the synthesis of melanin pigments from tyrosine and cysteine precursors involving over 100 gene products. These complex biochemical mechanisms create inherent liabilities for melanocytic cells if intracellular systems necessary for compartmentalization, detoxification, or repair are compromised...
2005: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Douglas H Johnson
PURPOSE: To describe current laboratory models used to study aqueous outflow. Because development of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is rare in animals, no animal model of POAG is available for laboratory study on the pathogenesis of this condition. This review will discuss the alternative models used in the laboratory to study aqueous outflow. METHODS: This is a brief review of published techniques, with commentary upon advantages and limitations of each. RESULTS: Whole eyes and anterior segments are useful in assessing aqueous outflow resistance and anatomical changes in the meshwork...
August 2005: Journal of Glaucoma
Rumy Hilloowala
This study confirms Leonardo's claim to have experimented on the bovine eye to determine the internal anatomy of the eye. The experiment, as described by Leonardo, was repeated in our laboratory. The study further discusses Leonardo's primary interest in the study of the eye (especially the lens), to determine how the image of an object which enters the eye in an inverted form is righted. The study shows the evolution of Leonardo's understanding of the anatomy and the physiology of vision. Initially, in keeping with his reading of the literature, the lens was placed in the centre but he made it globular...
June 2004: Vesalius: Acta Internationales Historiae Medicinae
Maria A Saornil
Iris pigmentation has several physiologic functions, including protection of the underlying tissues from ultraviolet radiation and a protective role in various diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, cataract and uveal melanoma. Uveal melanoma has been reported to be more prevalent among white people with light irides. It has been suggested that the increased risk may be due to the lack of pigmentation, which allows greater light transmission to the uvea. In this article the author reviews the association between iris colour and ocular disease, particularly uveal melanoma...
June 2004: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Päivi Alajuuma, Olli Oksala, Hannu Uusitalo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding sites have been identified previously in the eyes of monkey, cat, pig, and guinea pig. In this study, the ability of cat, human, and rat amylins to displace the binding of CGRP in the anterior part of the eye of monkey, cat, and pig was studied. The location and displacement of 125I-hCGRPalpha by amylins as concentrations of 1-1000 nM were studied in cryosections by autoradiography. In the monkey eye, cat and rat amylins were able to compete for the binding sites of CGRP in ciliary muscle and ciliary processes...
December 2003: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1955: Annales D'oculistique
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1965: Archives of Ophthalmology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1964: Experimental Eye Research
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1955: Bollettino D'oculistica
Suzana Rogoz, Carmen Avramescu, Isabela Siloşi, Ourania Drackoulogona, P Badea, Anca State
OBJECTIVES: There is an amount of controversy regarding the patho-physiology of uveitis. Due to the fact that the eye (and especially the highly vascular tissues such as the uvea and the conjunctiva) is considered a special "target" for the immunopathologic reactions, the goal of our study is to contribute to the understanding of the causal role of the immune reactions in the development of idiopathic uveitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have studied 48 patients with idiopathic uveitis and 20 control subjects (with no ocular symptomatology) for the following humoral and cellular immune markers: IgM and IgG, the C3 complement fraction, circulating immune complexes, autoantibodies (antinuclear autoantibodies, anti-double stranded DNA autoantibodies, anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies, anti-neutrophilic cytoplasm autoantibodies, anti-cardiolipin autoantibodies, anti-parietal cell autoantibodies), and lymphocyte subtypes...
2002: Oftalmologia
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