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Evan H Dart, Keith C Radley
Visual analysis is the primary method for detecting the presence of treatment effects in graphically displayed single-case data and it is often referred to as the "gold standard." Although researchers have developed standards for the application of visual analysis (e.g., Horner et al., 2005), over- and underestimation of effect size magnitude is not uncommon among analysts. Several characteristics have been identified as potential contributors to these errors; however, researchers have largely focused on characteristics of the data itself (e...
August 2017: Journal of School Psychology
Jennifer Grau-Sánchez, Neus Ramos, Esther Duarte, Teppo Särkämö, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that Music-Supported Therapy (MST) can improve the motor function and promote functional neuroplastic changes in motor areas; however, the time course of motor gains across MST sessions and treatment periods remain unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the progression of the rehabilitation of motor deficits in a chronic stroke patient for a period of 7 months. METHOD: A reversal design (ABAB) was implemented in a chronic stroke patient where no treatment was provided in the A periods and MST was applied in the B periods...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
Renee O Hawkins, Todd Haydon, Dacia McCoy, Andrea Howard
An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three classes of students, and the dependent variable was the percentage of students ready to begin class at the appropriate time. Data revealed significant improvements in student behavior, providing support for implementation of group contingencies for students with EBDs in alternative educational settings and an example of feasible procedures and data collection methods...
April 6, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
Joy F Xin, Mary E Sheppard, Michelle Brown
This study examined the effect of using an iPad for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on self-monitoring their behaviors in class. Four students with ASD were taught on-task behaviors by watching self-modeled video saved in the application "Choiceworks" on their iPads, and collected data on their own behaviors. A single subject research design with ABAB phases was used. Student behaviors were observed using interval recording and behavioral occurrences were compared across phases. Results showed that the participating students' on-task behaviors (e...
May 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Ettore Fazio, Javier Jaramillo-García, María Medel, Maxence Urbani, Michael Grätzel, Mohammad K Nazeerudin, Gema de la Torre, Tomas Torres
Unique donor-π-acceptor phthalocyanines have been synthesized through the asymmetric functionalization of an ABAB phthalocyanine, crosswise functionalized with two iodine atoms through Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with adequate electron-donor and electron-acceptor moieties. These push-pull molecules have been optically and electrochemically characterized, and their ability to perform as chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cells has been tested.
February 2017: ChemistryOpen
Sabine Thomassen, Alexandra Bendixen
Empirical research on the sequential decomposition of an auditory scene primarily relies on interleaved sound mixtures of only two tone sequences (e.g., ABAB…). This oversimplifies the sound decomposition problem by limiting the number of putative perceptual organizations. The current study used a sound mixture composed of three different tones (ABCABC…) that could be perceptually organized in many different ways. Participants listened to these sequences and reported their subjective perception by continuously choosing one out of 12 visually presented perceptual organization alternatives...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Dan Zhu, Jing Shang, Xiaodong Ye, Jian Shen
The understanding of macromolecular structures and interactions is important but difficult, due to the facts that a macromolecules are of versatile conformations and aggregate states, which vary with environmental conditions and histories. In this work two polyamides with parallel or anti-parallel dipoles along the linear backbone, named as ABAB (parallel) and AABB (anti-parallel) have been studied. By using a combination of methods, the phase behaviors of the polymers during the aggregate and gelation, i.e...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rongwang Yang, Rong Li, Weijia Gao, Zhengyan Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for tic disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX) has been accepted as an alternative medication for patients with ADHD and a comorbid tic disorder. It is rarely reported that tic symptoms are induced by ATX. METHODS: This present report described a boy with ADHD who developed tic symptoms during ATX initiation. We used an ABAB trial to confirm the tics were related to ATX administration...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Lei Geng, Qiang Li, Hongyan Lu, Kai Dai, P Shiv Halasyamani
Three new Sb-based antiferromagnetic oxychlorides: MnSb2O3(OH)Cl (1), FeSb2O3(OH)Cl (2), and CoSb2O3(OH)Cl (3) have been synthesized by using hydrothermal reaction methods. Their crystal structures are isostructural and incorporate two types of structural units: sphenoid SbO4 polyhedra and M2O8Cl2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) dimers, that share edges forming a two dimensional (2D) MSb2O3(OH)Cl network. The neutral MSb2O3(OH)Cl 2D layers are arranged from ABAB-type for compounds 1 and 2 to AA'B'B-type for 3 with smaller cation radii...
October 28, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Fabien Gagnon, Patrick Poulin, Jean-Marc Leclerc, Jean-Claude Dessau, Aryan Abab, Pamela Arsenault, Fady El-Turaby, Guillaume Lachance-Paquette, Félix-Antoine Vézina
OBJECTIVES: To invite and support managers of child care centres to measure radon concentrations in their buildings. Their ability to carry out a measurement protocol and communication plan was also evaluated as well as the intention of parents and educators to test for radon at home. PARTICIPANTS: Managers, parents and educators of child care centres. SETTING: 36 child care centres located in two priority investigation areas in Québec. INTERVENTION: A kit containing radon detectors with installation and recovery instructions was shipped by mail in addition to factsheets intended for parents and educators...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Luis C O Dacal, A Cantarero
The existence of polytypism in semiconductor nanostructures gives rise to the appearance of stacking faults which many times can be treated as quantum wells. In some cases, despite of a careful growth, the polytypism can be hardly avoided. In this work, we perform an ab initio study of zincblende stacking faults in a wurtzite InP system, using the supercell approach and taking the limit of low density of narrow stacking faults regions. Our results confirm the type II band alignment between the phases, producing a reliable qualitative description of the band gap evolution along the growth axis...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
L Matthew Law, David A Bulkin, David M Smith
Hippocampal neurons exhibit spatially localized firing patterns that, at the population level, represent a particular environment or context. Many studies have examined how hippocampal neurons switch from an existing representation to a new one when the environment is changed, a process referred to as remapping. New representations were commonly thought to emerge rapidly, within a few minutes and then remain remarkably stable thereafter. However, a number of recent studies suggest that hippocampal representations may be more fluid than previously thought and most of the previous studies only required that subjects switch from a familiar environment to a novel one...
December 2016: Hippocampus
Giulio E Lancioni, Nirbhay Singh, Mark F O'Reilly, Jeff Sigafoos, Fiora D'Amico, Francesca Buonocunto, Jorge Navarro, Crocifissa Lanzilotti, Pietro Fiore, Marisa Megna, Sabino Damiani, Riccardo Marvulli
BACKGROUND: Post-coma persons in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and with extensive motor impairment cannot independently access and control environmental stimulation. AIM: Assessing the effects of a microswitch-aided program aimed at helping MCS persons develop responding and stimulation control and conducting a social validation/evaluation of the program. DESIGN: A single-subject ABAB design was used for each participant to determine the impact of the program on his or her responding...
September 1, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Susann Deike, Matthias Deliano, André Brechmann
One hypothesis concerning the neural underpinnings of auditory streaming states that frequency tuning of tonotopically organized neurons in primary auditory fields in combination with physiological forward suppression is necessary for the separation of representations of high-frequency A and low-frequency B tones. The extent of spatial overlap between the tonotopic activations of A and B tones is thought to underlie the perceptual organization of streaming sequences into one coherent or two separate streams...
October 2016: Neuropsychologia
Junjie Zhang, Yu-Sheng Chen, D Phelan, Hong Zheng, M R Norman, J F Mitchell
The quasi-2D nickelate La4Ni3O8 (La-438), consisting of trilayer networks of square planar Ni ions, is a member of the so-called T' family, which is derived from the Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) parent compound La4Ni3O10-x by removing two oxygen atoms and rearranging the rock salt layers to fluorite-type layers. Although previous studies on polycrystalline samples have identified a 105-K phase transition with a pronounced electronic and magnetic response but weak lattice character, no consensus on the origin of this transition has been reached...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Selda Halis, A Ken Inge, Niklas Dehning, Thomas Weyrich, Helge Reinsch, Norbert Stock
Two new dihydroxybenzoquinone-based metal-organic frameworks, ((CH3)2NH2)3[Al4(L1)3(L1(•))3]·3DMF (1, denoted CAU-20) and ((CH3)2NH2)3[Al4(L2)3(L2(•))3]·9DMF (2, denoted CAU-20-Cl2), were synthesized at 120 °C in DMF using 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone ((C6H2(OH)2(O)2), H2L1) and 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone ((C6Cl2(OH)2(O)2), H2L2), respectively. Compared to other Al-MOFs, which contain carboxylate or phosphonate groups that connect the metal sites, in 1 and 2 the Al(3+) are coordinated by oxido groups...
August 1, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Alexandra Protopopova, Dmitri Kisten, Clive Wynne
The aim of this study was to develop a humane alternative to the traditional remote devices that deliver punishers contingent on home-alone dog barking. Specifically, we evaluated the use of remote delivery of food contingent on intervals of not barking during the pet owner's absence. In Experiment 1, 5 dogs with a history of home-alone nuisance barking were recruited. Using an ABAB reversal design, we demonstrated that contingent remote delivery of food decreased home-alone barking for 3 of the dogs. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that it is possible to thin the differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule gradually, resulting in a potentially more acceptable treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sharon X Lin, Leanne Morrison, Peter W F Smith, Charlie Hargood, Mark Weal, Lucy Yardley
N-of-1 study designs involve the collection and analysis of repeated measures data from an individual not using an intervention and using an intervention. This study explores the use of semi-parametric and parametric bootstrap tests in the analysis of N-of-1 studies under a single time series framework in the presence of autocorrelation. When the Type I error rates of bootstrap tests are compared to Wald tests, our results show that the bootstrap tests have more desirable properties. We compare the results for normally distributed errors with those for contaminated normally distributed errors and find that, except when there is relatively large autocorrelation, there is little difference between the power of the parametric and semi-parametric bootstrap tests...
November 2016: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Serena Vanzan, David Wilkinson, Heather Ferguson, Patrick Pullicino, Mohamed Sakel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether caloric vestibular stimulation, a non-invasive form of neuro-modulation, alters the level of awareness in people residing in a minimally conscious state. DESIGN: Single-case (n = 2), prospective, controlled (ABAB) efficacy study. SETTING: Tertiary, neuro-rehabilitation inpatient ward within a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two individuals in a minimally conscious state. INTERVENTION: Left ear caloric vestibular stimulation was performed in two four/five-week blocks interleaved with two four/five-week blocks of sham stimulation...
April 27, 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Salima Punja, Cecilia Bukutu, Larissa Shamseer, Margaret Sampson, Lisa Hartling, Liana Urichuk, Sunita Vohra
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the methods of design, analysis, and meta-analysis used in N-of-1 trials. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Electronic search for English language articles published from 1950 to 2013. N-of-1 trials were selected if they followed an ABAB design and if they assessed a health intervention for a medical condition. Elements of design, analysis, and meta-analysis were extracted. RESULTS: We included 100 reports representing 1,995 participants...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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