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Susana L Matias, Malay K Mridha, Rebecca T Young, Md Showkat A Khan, Zakia Siddiqui, Md Barkat Ullah, Stephen A Vosti, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among young children are public health concerns in developing countries. Objective: We evaluated the effects of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) and micronutrient powder (MNP) on anemia, ID, and IDA in 18-mo-old Bangladeshi children. Methods: We enrolled 4011 pregnant women in a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial with 4 arms-1) LNS-LNS: LNSs (including 20 mg Fe) for women daily during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and LNSs (including 9 mg Fe) for children daily from 6 to 24 mo of age (LNS-C); 2) IFA-LNS: iron (60 mg) and folic acid (IFA) for women daily during pregnancy and every other day for 3 mo postpartum and LNS-C for children; 3) IFA-MNP: IFA for women, and MNP (including 10 mg Fe) for children daily from 6 to 24 mo; and 4) IFA-Control: IFA for women and no child supplement...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Robert J Mentz, Melissa A Greiner, Paul Muntner, Daichi Shimbo, Mario Sims, Tanya M Spruill, Benjamin F Banahan, Wei Wang, Stanford Mwasongwe, Karen Winters, Adolfo Correa, Lesley H Curtis, Emily C O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to medications is common and leads to suboptimal outcomes. Non-adherence can be intentional (e.g., deciding to skip dosages) or unintentional (e.g., forgetting), yet few studies have distinguished these reasons. An improved understanding of the reasons for non-adherence could inform the development of effective interventions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study who were prescribed medications for one or more chronic conditions...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
Lilian C Johnson, Benjamin J Landrum, Roseanna N Zia
Yield of colloidal gels during start-up of shear flow is characterized by an overshoot in shear stress that accompanies changes in network structure. Prior studies of yield of reversible colloidal gels undergoing strong flow model the overshoot as the point at which network rupture permits fluidization. However, yield under weak flow, which is of interest in many biological and industrial fluids shows no such disintegration. The mechanics of reversible gels are influenced by bond strength and durability, where ongoing rupture and re-formation impart aging that deepens kinetic arrest [Zia et al...
June 5, 2018: Soft Matter
Shun-Xian Zhang, Yong-Ming Zhou, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Rita Tinoco-Torres, Emmanuel Serrano, Shi-Zhu Li, Shao-Hong Chen, Lin Ai, Jun-Hu Chen, Shang Xia, Yan Lu, Shan Lv, Xue-Jiao Teng, Wen Xu, Wen-Peng Gu, Si-Tang Gong, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Lan-Lan Geng, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial diarrhea is one of the most common causes for medical consultations, mortality and morbidity in the world. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are major intestinal pathogens in developing countries, and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has greatly contributed to resistant strains. Hence, the aim of the present study is to identify the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the molecular characteristics of DEC and NTS in southwest, China...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Yu-Hang Chen, Fan Chen, Tao Zhou, Jia-Yi Chen, Tian-Li Zheng, Xin Xu, Xiao-Fang Pei
OBJECTIVES: Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children. However, little is known about the epidemiological and clinical profile of rotavirus A (RVA) in diarrheal children or the efficacy of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) in Chengdu, China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical profile of RVA in diarrheal children and provide gene analysis information for RVA vaccination programs. METHODS: 1121 fecal samples were collected from outpatient children with diarrhea between 2009 and 2014...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Yuanjun Zhao, Sarah R Weber, Joshua Lease, Mariano Russo, Christopher A Siedlecki, Li-Chong Xu, Han Chen, Weiwei Wang, Michael Ford, Rafael Simó, Jeffrey M Sundstrom
Purpose: To investigate the molecular components of the vitreous in order to better understand retinal physiology and disease. Methods: Vitreous was acquired from patients undergoing vitrectomy for macular hole and/or epiretinal membrane, postmortem donors, and C57BL/6J mice. Unbiased proteomic analysis was performed via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Gene ontology analysis was performed and results were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)...
May 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Ban Leong Sng, Yanzhi Zeng, Nurun Nisa A de Souza, Wan Ling Leong, Ting Ting Oh, Fahad Javaid Siddiqui, Pryseley N Assam, Nian-Lin R Han, Edwin Sy Chan, Alex T Sia
BACKGROUND: Childbirth may cause the most severe pain some women experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour and is considered to be the reference standard. Traditionally epidural analgesia has been delivered as a continuous infusion via a catheter in the epidural space, with or without the ability for the patient to supplement the analgesia received by activating a programmable pump to deliver additional top-up doses, known as patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA)...
May 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tim Eakin, Tarynn M Witten
In this paper we extend the previous work of Witten and her team on defining a classical physics-driven model of survival in aging populations (Eakin, Bull Math Biol 56(6):1121-1141, 1994; Eakin and Witten, Mech Aging Dev 78(2):85-101, 1995; Witten and Eakin, Exp Gerontol 32(2):259-285, 1997) by revisiting the concept of a force of aging and introducing the concepts of a momentum of aging, a kinetic energy and a potential energy of an aging population. We further extend the analysis beyond the deterministic Newtonian mechanics of a macroscopic population as a whole by considering the probabilistic nature of survival of individual population cohort members, thus producing new statistical physics-based concepts of entropy and of a gerontological "temperature"...
May 10, 2018: Biogerontology
Matthew T Oetjens, Axel Martin, Krishna R Veeramah, Jeffrey M Kidd
BACKGROUND: Most genetic analyses of ancient and modern dogs have focused on variation in the autosomes or on the mitochondria. Mitochondrial DNA is more easily obtained from ancient samples than nuclear DNA and mitochondrial analyses have revealed important insights into the evolutionary history of canids. Utilizing a recently published dog Y-chromosome reference, we analyzed Y-chromosome sequence across a diverse collection of canids and determined the Y haplogroup of three ancient European dogs...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Caitlin W Elgarten, Staci D Arnold, Yimei Li, Yuan-Shung V Huang, Marcie L Riches, Jeffrey S Gerber, Richard Aplenc, Wael Saber, Brian T Fisher
OBJECTIVETo explore the prevalence and drivers of hospital-level variability in antibiotic utilization among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients to inform antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.DESIGNRetrospective cohort study using data merged from the Pediatric Health Information System and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.SETTINGThe study included 27 transplant centers in freestanding children's hospitals.METHODSThe primary outcome was days of broad-spectrum antibiotic use in the interval from day of HCT through neutrophil engraftment...
May 8, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jie Chen, Mao-Wen Xu, Jinggao Wu, Chang Ming Li
Iodine edge-doped graphene can improve the capacity and stability of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Our theoretical calculations indicate that center-iodization can further significantly enhance the anode catalytic process. To experimentally prove the theoretical prediction, iodine-doped graphene materials were prepared by one-pot hydrothermal and ball-milling approaches to realize different doping-sites. Results show that the center-iodinated graphene (CIG) anode exhibits a remarkably high reversible capacity (1121 mA h g-1 after 180 cycles at 0...
May 2, 2018: Nanoscale
Shinichi Yoshimura, Nobuyuki Sakai, Kazutaka Uchida, Hiroshi Yamagami, Masayuki Ezura, Yasushi Okada, Kazuo Kitagawa, Kazumi Kimura, Makoto Sasaki, Norio Tanahashi, Kazunori Toyoda, Eisuke Furui, Yuji Matsumaru, Kazuo Minematsu, Takeshi Morimoto
BACKGROUND: Endovascular therapy has been shown to be effective in patients with acute cerebral large-vessel occlusion, but real-world efficacies are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective registry at 46 centers between October 2014 and January 2017. Eligible patients were those who were aged 20 years or older, with acute cerebral large-vessel occlusion, and who were hospitalized within 24 hours of the onset. We enrolled both consecutive patients who were treated with or without endovascular therapy...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Ignacio Migues, Nieves Baenas, Amadeo Gironés-Vilaplana, María Verónica Cesio, Horacio Heinzen, Diego A Moreno
The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively...
April 24, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Satoshi Higuchi, Yusuke Kabeya, Junko Uchida, Kiyoe Kato, Nobuhiro Tsukada
Recent studies have reported that deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging scans are related to the risk of developing impaired cognitive function in future. Bilirubin exhibits a potent antioxidant effect and an inverse relationship has been reported between bilirubin levels and the risk of several atherosclerotic diseases; however, there is limited evidence with regard to the effect of bilirubin levels on cerebrovascular diseases including DWMLs. This cross-sectional study included 1121 apparently healthy Japanese adults...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
G Y Ahn, D Kim, S Won, S T Song, H-J Jeong, I-W Sohn, S Lee, Y B Joo, S-C Bae
Objective The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and impact on mortality of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). Methods Patients from the Hanyang BAE lupus cohort were registered and followed from 1998 to 2015. NPSLE was defined using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) case definitions and Ainiala criteria. Demographics, autoantibodies, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinic (SLICC)/ACR Damage Index were collected at baseline and then annually...
July 2018: Lupus
Vijaipal Singh, Ashok Kumar Singh, Trilochan Mohapatra, Gopala Krishnan S, Ranjith Kumar Ellur
Pusa Basmati 1121 (PB 1121) is a landmark Basmati rice variety having Basmati quality traits introgressed from traditional Basmati varieties such as Basmati 370 and Type 3. It was released for commercial cultivation in 2003. It possesses extra-long slender milled grains (9.00 mm), pleasant aroma, and an exceptionally high cooked kernel elongation ratio of 2.5 with a cooked kernel length of up to 22 mm, volume expansion more than four times, appealing taste, good mouth feel and easy digestibility. Owing to its exceptional quality characteristics, it has set new standards in the Basmati rice market...
April 9, 2018: Rice
Ståle H Nymo, Marianne Hartford, Thor Ueland, Arne Yndestad, Erik Lorentzen, Katarina Truvé, Thomas Karlsson, Annica Ravn-Fischer, Pål Aukrust, Kenneth Caidahl
BACKGROUND: Circulating neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) concentration increases in cardiovascular disease, but the long-term prognostic value of NGAL concentration has not been evaluated in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We examined the association between NGAL concentration and prognosis in patients with ACS after non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: NGAL concentration was measured in blood from 1121 consecutive ACS patients (30% women, mean age 65 years) on the first morning after admission...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Ayub Ebadi Fathabad, Nabi Shariatifar, Mojtaba Moazzen, Shahrokh Nazmara, Yadolah Fakhri, Mahmood Alimohammadi, Ali Azari, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
In this study, the levels of Cd, Hg, Sn, Al, Pb and As of 72 samples (36 samples for fruits juices and 36 samples for fruits canned) of three different brands including of Peach, Orange, Cherry, and Pineapple (18 samples of each fruits) marketed in Tehran, Iran (2015) were evaluated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Also, Probabilistic risk assessment (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models include target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) model...
May 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Vanessa A Thomas, Kristy O Murray, Heather L Crouse
Chikungunya is a mosquito-transmitted virus found primarily in Africa and Asia. In late 2013, chikungunya virus emerged in the Western hemisphere, spreading from the Caribbean to South, Central, and North America (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:1121-1128). Symptoms can be similar to nonspecific viral presentations including fever, joint pain, joint swelling, and rash. The diagnosis of infectious tropical diseases in the emergency department often requires a high index of suspicion, given the nonspecific early findings that characterize many of these tropical diseases...
March 28, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
D Yu, J Graffy, D Holman, P Robins, Y Cai, Z Zhao, D Simmons
AIM: To investigate the impact of a low-cost diabetes peer-support intervention, aimed at reducing inpatient and outpatient care utilization and healthcare payments, by conducting a cohort study that followed up a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 1121 adults with Type 2 diabetes were recruited through general practices in Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire, UK, and were followed up for 3.25 financial years after 8-12 months of one-to-one, group or combined diabetes peer support and usual care...
June 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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