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Martin Holt, Toby Lea, Limin Mao, Johann Kolstee, Iryna Zablotska, Tim Duck, Brent Allan, Michael West, Evelyn Lee, Peter Hull, Andrew Grulich, John De Wit, Garrett Prestage
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been rapidly rolled out in large, publicly funded implementation projects in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Using behavioural surveillance of gay and bisexual men, we analysed the uptake and effect of PrEP, particularly on condom use by gay and bisexual men not using PrEP. METHODS: We collected data from the Melbourne and Sydney Gay Community Periodic Surveys (GCPS), cross-sectional surveys of adult gay and bisexual men in Melbourne, VIC, and Sydney, NSW...
June 6, 2018: Lancet HIV
Gabriela Tirado-Conte, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Ramón Rodríguez-Olivares, Marco Barbanti, Thibault Lhermusier, Ignacio Amat-Santos, Stefan Toggweiler, Asim N Cheema, Antonio J Muñoz-García, Vicenc Serra, Francesca Giordana, Gabriela Veiga, Pilar Jiménez-Quevedo, Francisco Campelo-Parada, Lucca Loretz, Denise Todaro, María Del Trigo, José M Hernández-García, Bruno García Del Blanco, Francesco Bruno, José M de la Torre Hernández, Pieter Stella, Corrado Tamburino, Carlos Macaya, Luis Nombela-Franco
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease is a known risk factor for perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Very little data exist about such patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Our objective was to evaluate early and late clinical outcomes in a large cohort of patients with liver disease undergoing TAVR and to determine predictive factors of mortality among these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This multicenter study collected data from 114 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent TAVR in 12 institutions...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Maksymilian Gajda, Małgorzata Kowalska, Jan E Zejda
The appropriate level of the society's health-oriented knowledge is essential for improving the effectiveness of actions to reduce the number of new cases and deaths caused by cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the role of web-based educational campaigns in the field of cancer prevention in Poland. From 14.05.2015 to 13.11.2016 readers of Polish scientific websites were invited to participate in the "PORINA" prospective interventional study. A total of 1118 volunteers (unrepresentative sample) were recruited and randomized (interventional and control groups)...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kari Guderud, Marthe Thoresen Mæhlen, Gry Beate Namløs Nordang, Marte Kathrine Viken, Bettina Kulle Andreassen, Øyvind Molberg, Siri Tennebø Flåm, Benedicte Alexandra Lie
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to jointly investigate the role of antipeptidyl arginine deiminase type 4 antibodies (anti-PAD4) and polymorphisms in the PADI4 gene together with clinical variables in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Serum IgG autoantibodies to human recombinant PAD4 were identified by DELFIA technique in 745 patients with RA (366 available from previous studies). Genotyping of PADI4 was performed using TaqMan assays in 945 patients and 1118 controls. Clinical data, anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) status, shared epitope status, and a combined genetic risk score were also available...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Sandra Payen, Shelley Falconer, Stewart F Ledgard
Water scarcity footprinting now has a consensual life cycle impact assessment indicator recommended by the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative called AWaRe. It was used in this study to calculate the water scarcity footprint of New Zealand (NZ) milk produced in two contrasting regions; "non-irrigated moderate rainfall" (Waikato) and "irrigated low rainfall" (Canterbury). Two different spatial and temporal resolutions for the inventory flows and characterisation factors (CFs) were tested and compared: country and annual vs...
May 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Althea C G Neblett, Tracey N Gibson, Carlos T Escoffery
There has been significant improvement in medical diagnostic technology, but discrepancy rates between clinical and postmortem diagnoses remain relatively high. This study aimed to identify misdiagnoses and missed (unexpected) findings documented during complete coroner's autopsies performed for trauma at the University of the West Indies (UWI) and evaluate their influence on patient outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all coroner's autopsies performed for trauma, between 2003 and 2012, at the UWI...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Mona Morland, Rolf Haagensen, Fredrik A Dahl, Jan-Erik Berdal
BACKGROUND: The purpose of medical intermediate care units is the observation and treatment of patients with incipient or manifest organ failure. We wished to obtain data on which conditions result in admission to these units and the prognosis for these patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All patients admitted to the medical intermediate care unit at Akershus University Hospital in 2014 were registered prospectively with reason for admission, period of hospitalisation, degree of severity, comorbidity, last place of hospitalisation prior to medical intermediate care and treatment limitations (do-not-resuscitate order and/or do-not-intubate order)...
May 8, 2018: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Michael G Cutter, Denis Drieghe, Simon P Liversedge
In the current study we investigated whether readers adjust their preferred saccade length (PSL) during reading on a trial-by-trial basis. The PSL refers to the distance between a saccade launch site and saccade target (i.e., the word center during reading) when participants neither undershoot nor overshoot this target (McConkie, Kerr, Reddix, & Zola in Vision Research, 28, 1107-1118, 1988). The tendency for saccades longer or shorter than the PSL to under or overshoot their target is referred to as the range error...
April 25, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Farzin Beygui, Eric Van Belle, Patrick Ecollan, Jacques Machecourt, Christian W Hamm, Estaeban Lopez De Sa, Marcus Flather, Freek W A Verheugt, Eric Vicaut, Faiez Zannad, Bertram Pitt, Gilles Montalescot
BACKGROUND: Two recent randomised trials studied the benefit of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) irrespective or in absence of heart failure. The studies were both undersized to assess hard clinical endpoints. A pooled analysis was preplanned by the steering committees. METHODS: We conducted a prespecified meta-analysis of patient-level data of patients with STEMI recruited in two multicentre superiority trials, randomised within 72 hours after symptom onset...
April 25, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
He Sun, Meng-Tao Xu, Xiao-Qi Wang, Meng-Hu Wang, Bao-Heng Wang, Feng-Zhe Wang, Shi-Nong Pan
Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides a unique, noninvasive diagnostic platform to quantify the physiological and biochemical variables of skeletal muscle at rest. This study was to investigate the difference in thigh skeletal muscles between snowboarding halfpipe athletes and healthy volunteers via multiparametric MR imaging. Methods: A comparative study was conducted between 12 healthy volunteers and 14 snowboarding halfpipe athletes. MR scanning targeted the left leg at the level of the proximal thigh on a 3...
May 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Osama Naji, Natalie Moska, Yaser Dajani, Awatuf El-Shirif, Hassan El-Ashkar, Mohamed M Hosni, Mohamed Khalil, Yacoub Khalaf, Virginia Bolton, Tarek El-Toukhy
This retrospective cohort study of 2051 consecutive fresh non-donor intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles investigated whether time from oocyte retrieval to denudation, precisely measured and recorded by an operator-independent automated radiofrequency-based system, affected cycle outcome. ICSI cycles were divided into two groups: group I (denudation within <2 h of oocyte retrieval, n = 1118) and group II (denudation 2-5 h after oocyte retrieval, n = 933). Univariate analysis by two-sample t-test or Mann-Whitney test was used, as appropriate...
July 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Hesheng Liu, Chengcheng Wang, Xiangyang Qi, Jian Zou, Zhida Sun
Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) is one kind of medical and edible plants with various health-promoting properties. Recently, its hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities have been reported, but the underlying mechanism remains to be explored. The current study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of mogroside extract (MGE) from Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle). The results showed that compared to glycated BSA, MGE at middle (125 μg/mL) and high dose (500 μg/mL) significantly inhibited BSA glycation evidenced by decreased fluorescent AGEs formation, protein carbonyls and Nε -(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) level at 500 μg/mL by 58...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yi-Ping Hou, Xue-Wei Mao, Xiang-Pu Qu, Jian-Xin Wang, Chang-Jun Chen, Ming-Guo Zhou
Cyprodinil belongs to the chemical class of anilinopyrimidines fungicides. In this study, baseline sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary to cyprodinil was determined using 100 strains collected from the fields in Jiangsu Province of China. The EC50 (50% effective concentration) values ranged from 0.0636-0.8163 μg/ml with a mean value of 0.1869 (±0.1118) ug/ml for mycelial growth. Nine cyprodinil-resistant mutants (Range of resistance factor: 20.22-271.59) were obtained from sensitive strains exposed on PDA medium amended with cyprodinil and the resistance was stable after their ten transfers on PDA without the fungicide or stored at 4 °C for two months...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jenna Donovan, Kristen Sullivan, Aimee Wilkin, Nada Fadul, Amy Heine, Jennifer Keller, Anna LeViere, Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan
Poor retention in care is associated with higher viral load (VL) results and decreased rates of viral load suppression (VS) in people living with HIV (PLWH). Therefore, improving retention in HIV care is a priority of national significance. The NC-LINK Retention Project utilized a systematic approach to identify, locate, and attempt to return to care patients who did not attend a clinic appointment for 6-9 months. Clinical and surveillance data were used to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and VL outcomes...
April 2, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Lin Deng, Hanxuan Zeng, Zhou Shi, Wen Zhang, Jinming Luo
In this study, a novel adsorbent was designed and synthesized via intercalation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the interlayer, and subsequent grafting of acrylamide (AM) on the layer of layered double hydroxides (LDH) (named as AM/SDS-LDH), and applied for congo red (CR) removal. The morphological structure, wettability and physicochemical properties of the adsorbents were thoroughly characterized using SEM, EDS, N2 -adsorption/desorption isotherm, static contact angle, XRD and FTIR. Results elucidated that SDS and AM were successfully introduced into the interlayer and onto the layer of LDH, respectively...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mahta Mirzaei, Saeed Mirdamadi, Mohamad Reza Ehsani, Mahmoud Aminlari
Kluyveromyces marxianus protein hydrolysates were prepared by two different sonicated-enzymatic (trypsin and chymotrypsin) hydrolysis treatments to obtain antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained by 5 h, exhibited the highest antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. After fractionation using ultrafiltration and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) techniques, two new peptides were identified. One fragment (LL-9, MW = 1180 Da) with the amino acid sequence of Leu-Pro-Glu-Ser-Val-His-Leu-Asp-Lys showed significant ACE inhibitory activity (IC50  = 22...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Temitayo Oyefunmike Oyegbile, Bronson Elizabeth Delasobera, Nassim Zecavati
The objective was to characterize cognitive deficits and postconcussive symptoms in a pediatric population with no concussion, a single concussion, and ≥2 concussions, using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive function and postconcussive symptoms were assessed in participants (age 10-20) with no concussion (n = 1118), single concussion (n = 368), and repeated (≥2) concussions (n = 252). Analyses were adjusted for age and gender. Individuals with ≥2 concussions exhibited more total postconcussive symptoms; more loss of consciousness, amnesia and confusion; more headaches; and poorer cognitive function compared to no concussion and single concussion...
May 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
He Zhao, Li-Jun Duan, Yu-Shan Gao, Yong-Dong Yang, Ding-Yan Zhao, Xiang-Sheng Tang, Zhen-Guo Hu, Chuan-Hong Li, Si-Xue Chen, Tao Liu, Xing Yu
BACKGROUND: Decompressive laminectomy (DI) is a standard operation for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patient with severe claudication symptoms for many years. However, patients whose symptom severity does not meet undergoing invasive surgery make therapeutic options into dilemma. Interspinous spacers (ISP) bridge the gap between surgical interventions and CC in management of LSS. In our study, we aim to systematically assess the two FDA-approved interspinous spacers for treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: Superion versus X-STOP...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Shuang Qiu, Chengfeng Xiao
The Drosophila melanogaster white-eyed w1118 line serves as a parental stock, allowing genetic recombination of any gene of interest along with a readily recognizable marker. w1118 flies display behavioral susceptibility to environmental stimulation such as light. It is of great importance to characterize the behavioral performance of w1118 flies because this would provide a baseline from which the effect of the gene of interest could be differentiated. Little work has been performed to characterize the walking behavior in adult w1118 flies...
May 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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