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Thoracic imaging

Daisuke Nakashima, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Saki Ito, Junji Ohgi, Hidenori Suzuki, Yasuaki Imajo, Masahiro Funaba, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
Vertebral fractures commonly occur at the thoracolumbar junction. These fractures can be treated with mild residual deformity in many cases, but are reportedly associated with increased risk of secondary vertebral fractures. In the present study, a three-dimensional (3D) whole spine model was constructed using the finite element method to explore the mechanism of development of compression fractures. The 3D model of the whole spine, from the cervical spine to the pelvis, was constructed from computed tomography (CT) images of an adult male...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
James R Thunes, Julie A Phillippi, Thomas G Gleason, David A Vorp, Spandan Maiti
High lethality of aortic dissection necessitates accurate predictive metrics for dissection risk assessment. The not infrequent incidence of dissection at aortic diameters <5.5 cm, the current threshold guideline for surgical intervention (Nishimura et al., 2014), indicates an unmet need for improved evidence-based risk stratification metrics. Meeting this need requires a fundamental understanding of the structural mechanisms responsible for dissection evolution within the vessel wall. We present a structural model of the repeating lamellar structure of the aortic media comprised of elastic lamellae and collagen fiber networks, the primary load-bearing components of the vessel wall...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Tyler P Robin, Timothy S Sannes, Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Francoise Mornex, Fred R Hirsch, Chad G Rusthoven, Laurie E Gaspar
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines have recommended prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer with at least a partial response after thoracic chemoradiation. However, the survival advantage has been small and was observed in an era before magnetic resonance imaging and surveillance. Neurotoxicity also remains a concern, especially in older adults. Thus, patients have a complex value-laden decision to make. We sought to better understand the role physicians play in patient decision making and introduce a patient decision aid (PDA) to potentially facilitate these discussions...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Rolf Quam, Nohemi Sala, Morgane Bardey, James C Ohman, Antoine Balzeau
The La Ferrassie 1 (LF1) skeleton, discovered over a century ago, is one of the most important Neandertal individuals both for its completeness and due to the role it has played historically in the interpretation of Neandertal anatomy and lifeways. Here we present new skeletal remains from this individual, which include a complete right middle ear ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes), three vertebral fragments, and two costal remains. Additionally, the study of the skeleton has allowed us to identify new pathological lesions, including a congenital variant in the atlas, a greenstick fracture of the left clavicle, and a lesion in a mid-thoracic rib of unknown etiology...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Federico Vilaplana Grosso, Stacy Tinkler, Mario Sola, Margaret Miller, Hock Gan Heng
A 2-year-old Boer doe was presented with respiratory distress and severe inspiratory dyspnea. Cervical and thoracic radiographs revealed a marked retropharyngeal soft tissue mass effect, several mineralized pharyngeal and retropharyngeal structures, and a pulmonary mass. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a severely enlarged right medial retropharyngeal lymph node, which caused laryngeal compression, leading to upper airway obstruction. Multiple cervical and thoracic lymph nodes, and the pulmonary mass had an irregular layered/laminated pattern of mineralization...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Saba Pasha, Malcolm Ecker, Vincent Deeney
PURPOSE: To predict the sagittal spinal parameters as measured in a 3D model of the spine using the 2D radiographic measurements. METHODS: Bi-planar low-dose stereoradiography images of 73 right thoracic AIS patients were processed to generate 3D models of the spine and pelvis. T1-T12 kyphosis, L1-S1 lordosis, and pelvic rotation were calculated using these 3D models. With the same X-rays, T1-T12 kyphosis, L1-S1 lordosis, thoracic and lumbar frontal curves, and pelvic rotation (calculated from the frontal and sagittal distances between the femoral heads) were manually measured on the X-rays by two independent observers...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Zhimin Li, Jun Gao, Tianyu Wang, Xiangyi Kong, Jian Guan, Yongning Li
Central neurocytomas (CNs) are rare benign tumors located in the central nervous system with a good prognosis. These tumors are predominantly located in the lateral ventricle near the foramen of Monro or in the third ventricle. Similar tumors that are located outside the ventricle are also called extraventricular neurocytomas, and have an even lower morbidity. Until now, several tumors have been identified in the thalamus, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. In total, 24 cases of neurocytomas located in the spinal cord have been reported in English journals...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Gustavo Lemos Pelandré, Nathália Martins Pereira Sanches, Marcelo Souto Nacif, Edson Marchiori
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of visual analysis and of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in nontriggered computed tomography (CT), in comparison with that of the CAC score in electrocardiogram-triggered CT, in identifying coronary calcification. Materials and Methods: A total of 174 patients for whom CT was indicated for CAC scoring underwent nontriggered and triggered CT in a 64-channel multislice scanner, in a single session without a change in position...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Sovira Tan, Michael M Ward
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being used in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) for imaging the spine and sacroiliac joint (SIJ). We review new insights to diagnosis and evaluation revealed by the use of CT. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies using low-dose CT in AS to detect syndesmophytes can image the entire spine, but semiquantitative scoring of the scans by human readers decreases the reliability and validity of this method. The thoracic spine is the segment most involved with syndesmophytes...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Sun-Ju Choi, Young Woo Do, Tak-Hyuk Oh, Hoseok Lee, Hyejin Cheon, Jae-Kwang Lim, Sang Yub Lee
INTRODUCTION: Central venous catheterization-induced central vein pseudoaneurysm is rare. Several treatment options have been recommended. We describe a case of central venous catheterization-induced right brachiocephalic vein pseudoaneurysm successfully treated with an uncovered self-expandable stent-assisted coil embolization and discuss the imaging findings, treatment strategy, and review of literature associated with thoracic venous pseudoaneurysm. CASE REPORT: A 77-year-old woman was referred to our trauma center to undergo treatment for central venous catheterization-induced central vein pseudoaneurysm...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
John H Harris, William H Harris, Sanjay Jain, A Y Ferguson, David A Hill, Amy M Trahan
PURPOSE: CTA is routinely ordered on level II blunt thoraco-abdominally injured patients for assessment of injury to the thoracic aorta. The vast majority of such assessments are negative. The question being asked is, Does the accurate interpretation of the three mediastinal signs permit reliable determination of which patients need CTA for aortic assessment? The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of three specifically selected mediastinal anatomic signs on the initial supine chest radiograph (CXR) of adult level II blunt thoraco-abdominally injured patients for the presence or absence of a mediastinal hematoma...
March 13, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Y Y Go, P Lancellotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Kwi Young Kang, In Je Kim, Sung-Hwan Park, Yeon Sik Hong
Objectives: To compare trabecular bone scores (TBS) between axial SpA (axSpA) patients with and without vertebral fractures and investigate associations between TBS and vertebral fractures. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-five patients fulfilling the imaging arm of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society axSpA criteria were enrolled. TBS and BMD were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Vertebral fracture of the thoracic and lumbar spine was defined according to the Genant criteria...
March 9, 2018: Rheumatology
Feng Xie, Jun Bian, Zhi-Wei Wang, Wei-Shan Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the difference of spino-pelvic sagittal alignment between lumbar disc herniation(LDH) and lumbar canal stenosis(LCS) in adults. METHODS: The integrated imaging data of 88 patients with lumbar disc herniation (42 cases) or lumbar canal stenosis(46 cases) were searched from January 1, 2015 to September 10, 2016 in our hospital.Twenty-two cases were excluded because of age factor, 36 cases of LDH (LDH group) and 30 cases of LCS (LCS group) were internalized in the study...
January 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Simon Smith, Paul Jennings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Wataru Hirose, Masayoshi Harigai, Takashi Uchiyama, Kenji Itoh, Toshiaki Ishizuka, Mitsuyo Matsumoto, Toshihiro Nanki
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). We aimed to identify factors associated with MAC-PD in RA patients, and investigate their clinical significance for diagnosis of this disease. METHODS: We examined 396 patients with RA for the presence of MAC-PD, using the criteria of the American Thoracic Society and conducted three years of follow-up on these patients. Multivariate logistic analyses were employed for selecting factors associated with MAC-PD...
March 13, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Kate M Richmond, Katharine G Warburton, Simon J Finney, Sachin Shah, Benjamin A J Reddi
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive clinical examination can be compromised in patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Adjunctive diagnostic imaging strategies range from bedside imaging only to routine computed tomography (CT). The risk-benefit of either approach remains to be evaluated. Patients retrieved to the Royal Brompton Hospital (RBH) on VV-ECMO routinely undergo admission CT imaging of head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. This study aimed to identify how frequently changes in therapy or adverse events could be attributed to routine CT scanning...
March 1, 2018: Perfusion
Michael C Tracy, Roshni Mathew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide clinicians engaged in the care of infants and children an update on the current understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical management of complicated pneumonia. The review provides timely information surrounding areas of consensus and ongoing research. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemiology and etiologies of complicated pneumonia continue to evolve over the past several decades in context of the introduction of new vaccines...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Yue Yan, Jinzhong Yang, Sam Beddar, Geoffrey S Ibbott, Zhifei Wen, Laurence E Court, Ken-Pin Hwang, Mo Kadbi, Sunil Krishnan, Clifton Fuller, Steven J Frank, James N Yang, Peter A Balter, Rajat J Kudchadker, Jihong Wang
We developed a novel technique to study the impact of geometric distortion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning.&#13; The measured 3D datasets of residual geometric distortion (a 1.5-T MRI component of an MRI linear accelerator system) was fitted with a second-order polynomial model to map the spatial dependence of geometric distortions. Then the geometric distortion model was applied to computed tomography (CT) image and structure data to simulate the distortion of MRI data and structures...
March 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Nancy E Epstein
Background: Spinal meningiomas are found in patients typically between the ages of 75 and 84: some report the average age to be 50. They occur with an incidence of approximately 1000 patients per year in the US, are mostly single (90%) rather than multiple (10%), and arise from the spinal meninges (arachnoid/dura). Tumors are typically posterior/posterolateral (70%) in location, leaving the remaining 30% in the anterior/anterolateral spinal canal. They produce symptoms and signs of radiculopathy (nerve root) and/or myelopathy (cord compression) depending on their site of origin...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
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