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Thoracic imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804730/breast-dose-reduction-with-organ-based-wide-angle-tube-current-modulated-ct
#1
Wanyi Fu, Gregory M Sturgeon, Greeshma Agasthya, William Paul Segars, Anuj J Kapadia, Ehsan Samei
This study aimed to estimate the organ dose reduction potential for organ-dose-based tube current modulated (ODM) thoracic computed tomography (CT) with a wide dose reduction arc. Twenty-one computational anthropomorphic phantoms (XCAT) were used to create a virtual patient population with clinical anatomic variations. The phantoms were created based on patient images with normal anatomy (age range: 27 to 66 years, weight range: 52.0 to 105.8 kg). For each phantom, two breast tissue compositions were simulated: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (glandular-to-adipose ratio)...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802976/prognostic-factors-associated-with-the-accuracy-of-deformable-image-registration-in-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#2
Yasuharu Sugawara, Hidenobu Tachibana, Noriyuki Kadoya, Nozomi Kitamura, Amit Sawant, Keiichi Jingu
We evaluated the accuracy of an in-house program in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cancer patients, and explored the prognostic factors associated with the accuracy of deformable image registrations (DIRs). The accuracy of the 3 programs which implement the free-form deformation and the B-spline algorithm was compared regarding the structures on 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) image datasets between the peak-inhale and peak-exhale phases. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and normalized DSC (NDSC) were measured for the gross tumor volumes from 19 lung SBRT patients...
August 9, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802696/community-acquired-pneumonia-visualized-on-computed-tomography-but-not-chest-x-ray-pathogens-severity-and-clinical-outcomes
#3
Cameron P Upchurch, Carlos G Grijalva, Richard G Wunderink, Derek J Williams, Grant W Waterer, Evan J Anderson, Yuwei Zhu, Eric M Hart, Frank Carroll, Anna M Bramley, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Wesley H Self
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of pneumonia visualized on computed tomography (CT) in the setting of a normal chest x-ray (CXR) is uncertain. METHODS: In a multicenter prospective surveillance study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we compared the presenting clinical features, pathogens, and outcomes of patients with pneumonia visualized on CT but not on concurrent CXR (CT-only pneumonia) and those with pneumonia visualized on CXR...
August 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802510/aortic-dilatation-associated-with-bicuspid-aortic-valve-relation-to-sex-hemodynamics-and-valve-morphology-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-sponsored-national-registry-of-genetically-triggered-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-and-cardiovascular-conditions
#4
Mary J Roman, Norma L Pugh, Richard B Devereux, Kim A Eagle, Kathryn Holmes, Scott A LeMaire, Rita K Milewski, Shaine A Morris, Siddharth K Prakash, Reed E Pyeritz, William J Ravekes, Ralph V Shohet, Howard K Song, Federico M Asch
This study analyzed the impact of sex, hemodynamic profile, and valve fusion pattern on aortopathy associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute-sponsored National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC) provided comprehensive information on a large population of well-characterized patients with BAV. Of 969 enrolled patients with BAV, 551 (57%, 77% male) had already undergone valvular and/or aortic surgery...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801800/the-horizontal-plane-appearances-of-scoliosis-what-information-can-be-obtained-from-top-view-images
#5
REVIEW
Tamás S Illés, Máté Burkus, Szabolcs Somoskeőy, Fabien Lauer, Francois Lavaste, Jean F Dubousset
PURPOSE: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. METHODS: We used an EOS two-/three-dimensional (2D/3D) system and its sterEOS 3D software for 3D reconstruction of 139 normal and 814 scoliotic spines-of which 95 cases were analyzed pre-operatively and post-operatively, as well...
August 11, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801298/-application-of-3d-visualization-technique-in-breast-cancer-surgery-with-immediate-breast-reconstruction-using-laparoscopically-harvested-pedicled-latissimus-dorsi-muscle-flap
#6
Pu-Sheng Zhang, Li-Kun Wang, Yun-Feng Luo, Fu-Jun Shi, Lin-Yun He, Cheng-Bing Zeng, Yu Zhang, Chi-Hua Fang
OBJECTIVE: To study the value of 3D visualization technique in breast-preserving surgery for breast cancer with immediate breast reconstruction using laparoscopically harvested pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap. METHODS: From January, 2015 to May, 2016, 30 patients with breast cancer underwent breast-preserving surgery with immediate breast reconstruction using pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap. The CT data of the arterial phase and venous phase were collected preoperatively and imported into the self-developed medical image 3D visualization system for image segmentation and 3D reconstruction...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800950/added-value-of-bone-subtraction-in-dual-energy-digital-radiography-in-the-detection-of-pneumothorax-impact-of-reader-expertise-and-medical-specialty
#7
Ayla Urbaneja, Gauthier Dodin, Gabriela Hossu, Omar Bakour, Rachid Kechidi, Pedro Gondim Teixeira, Alain Blum
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the value of dual-energy thoracic radiography in the diagnosis of pneumothorax considering the reader's experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with a suspected pneumothorax, imaged with dual-energy chest radiographs, were divided into two groups: those with pneumothorax as the final diagnosis (n = 19) and those without (n = 21). The images were analyzed by 36 readers (5 interns, 16 residents, 15 senior physicians) for the presence or absence of pneumothorax during three readout sessions at 2-week intervals: standard images alone (session 1), dual-energy images with bone subtraction alone (session 2), and a combination of the two (session 3)...
August 8, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800442/pre-trained-convolutional-neural-networks-as-feature-extractors-for-tuberculosis-detection
#8
U K Lopes, J F Valiati
It is estimated that in 2015, approximately 1.8 million people infected by tuberculosis died, most of them in developing countries. Many of those deaths could have been prevented if the disease had been detected at an earlier stage, but the most advanced diagnosis methods are still cost prohibitive for mass adoption. One of the most popular tuberculosis diagnosis methods is the analysis of frontal thoracic radiographs; however, the impact of this method is diminished by the need for individual analysis of each radiography by properly trained radiologists...
August 4, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800299/representing-the-dosimetric-impact-of-deformable-image-registration-errors
#9
Jason Vickress, Jerry Battista, Rob Barnett, Slav Yartsev
Deformable image registration (DIR) is emerging as a tool in radiation therapy for calculating the cumulative dose distribution across multiple fractions of treatment. Unfortunately, due to the variable nature of DIR algorithms and dependence of performance on image quality, registration errors can result in dose accumulation errors. In this study, landmarked images were used to characterize the DIR error throughout an image space and determine its impact on dosimetric analysis. Ten thoracic 4DCT images with 300 landmarks per image study matching the end-inspiration and end-expiration phases were obtained from 'dir-labs'...
August 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798719/fulminant-acute-ascending-hemorrhagic-myelitis-treated-with-eculizumab
#10
Nang Boe Ohnmar Hsam, Klemens Angstwurm, Sebastian Peters, Kornelius Fuchs, Gerhard Schuierer, Ulrich Bogdahn, Robert Weissert
We describe an 18-year-old patient who developed back pain, rapidly ascending sensomotory deficits, bladder dysfunction, Lhermitte's sign, absent abdominal reflexes of all three levels, brisk tendon reflexes, and positive Babinski's sign. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord showed a long segment of cervical and thoracic intramedullary signal hyperintensity suggesting a longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis possibly within the course of a fast progressing ascending immune-mediated hemorrhagic myelopathy...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797700/4dct-imaging-to-assess-radiomics-feature-stability-an-investigation-for-thoracic-cancers
#11
Ruben T H M Larue, Lien Van De Voorde, Janna E van Timmeren, Ralph T H Leijenaar, Maaike Berbée, Meindert N Sosef, Wendy M J Schreurs, Wouter van Elmpt, Philippe Lambin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative tissue characteristics derived from medical images, also called radiomics, contain valuable prognostic information in several tumour-sites. The large number of features available increases the risk of overfitting. Typically test-retest CT-scans are used to reduce dimensionality and select robust features. However, these scans are not always available. We propose to use different phases of respiratory-correlated 4D CT-scans (4DCT) as alternative. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In test-retest CT-scans of 26 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and 4DCT-scans (8 breathing phases) of 20 NSCLC and 20 oesophageal cancer patients, 1045 radiomics features of the primary tumours were calculated...
August 7, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796043/smith-petersen-osteotomy-combined-with-anterior-debridement-and-allografting-for-active-thoracic-and-lumbar-spinal-tuberculosis-with-kyphotic-deformity-in-young-children-a-prospective-study-and-literature-review
#12
Yakefu Abulizi, Wei-Dong Liang, Maierdan Maimaiti, Wei-Bin Sheng
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of Smith-Petersen osteotomy combined with anterior debridement and allogenic strut bone grafting for the treatment of active thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis with kyphotic deformity in young children.Spinal tuberculosis is more destructive in young children and often causes severe kyphosis and paraplegia. Despite much progress has been made, surgical treatment is still controversial and technically challenging.From October 2010 to August 2014, 25 children (11 males, 14 females; aged under 6 years) with active thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis treated by Smith-Petersen osteotomy combined with anterior debridement and allogenic strut bone grafting were enrolled in this study...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795978/update-on-bicuspid-aortic-valve-aortopathy
#13
Evaldas Girdauskas, Johannes Petersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The appropriate treatment of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)-associated aortopathy is still controversial. We aimed to summarize recent evidence from the literature that focused on the prediction of aortopathy progression and adverse aortic events. RECENT FINDINGS: Following the detailed description of valvulo-aortic phenotypes in BAV disease in the previous imaging studies, the most current research focused on the definition of hemodynamic markers that may affect the progression of BAV-associated aortopathy and search for blood-born biomarkers to improve the prediction of adverse aortic events...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795277/mr-imaging-findings-of-vertebral-involvement-in-gorham-stout-disease-generalized-lymphatic-anomaly-and-kaposiform-lymphangiomatosis
#14
Hiroki Kato, Michio Ozeki, Toshiyuki Fukao, Masayuki Matsuo
PURPOSE: To assess the MR imaging findings of vertebral involvement in Gorham-Stout disease (GSD), generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA), and kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA). METHODS: Nine patients (three patients with GSD, three with GLA, and three with KLA) who underwent whole-spine MR examinations were included. MR findings of fatty marrow replacement and prolonged T1 and T2 lesions of the vertebrae were retrospectively assessed. Prolonged T1 and T2 lesions were defined as well-defined and round-, oval-, or geographic-shaped areas...
August 9, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794826/incidental-extravascular-findings-in-computed-tomographic-angiography-for-planning-or-monitoring-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair-smoker-patients-increased-lung-cancer-prevalence
#15
Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Susanna Guerrini, Francesco Gentili, Giuseppe Galzerano, Francesco Setacci, Domenico Benevento, Francesco Giuseppe Mazzei, Luca Volterrani, Carlo Setacci
AIM: To validate the feasibility of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung prior to computed tomography angiography (CTA) in assessing incidental thoracic findings during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) planning or follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among 181 patients (143 men, mean age 71 years, range 50-94) referred to our centre for CTA EVAR planning or follow-up. HRCT and CTA were performed before or after 1 or 12 mo respectively to EVAR in all patients...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792797/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-clinical-findings-associated-with-choroid-plexus-spinal-cord-drop-metastases
#16
Carmen L Yeamans, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana, Allison Haley, Catherine G Lamm
A 5 yr old castrated male whippet presented with a unique presentation of ambulatory paraparesis and subsequent diagnosis of primary intracranial choroid plexus carcinoma, with metastases to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord segments. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed initially of the thoracolumbar vertebral column and was followed by MRI sequences of the brain for confirmation of the presence of a primary intracranial tumor. The dog was euthanized immediately following diagnostic imaging due to the severity of clinical signs and poor prognosis...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792468/real-time-external-respiratory-motion-measuring-technique-using-an-rgb-d-camera-and-principal-component-analysis
#17
Udaya Wijenayake, Soon-Yong Park
Accurate tracking and modeling of internal and external respiratory motion in the thoracic and abdominal regions of a human body is a highly discussed topic in external beam radiotherapy treatment. Errors in target/normal tissue delineation and dose calculation and the increment of the healthy tissues being exposed to high radiation doses are some of the unsolicited problems caused due to inaccurate tracking of the respiratory motion. Many related works have been introduced for respiratory motion modeling, but a majority of them highly depend on radiography/fluoroscopy imaging, wearable markers or surgical node implanting techniques...
August 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791193/spinal-thoracic-extradural-angiolipoma-manifesting-as-acute-onset-of-paraparesis-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#18
Franz Jooji Onishi, Flavio Augusto Sekeff Salem, Diogo Luis de Melo Lins, Rafi Felicio Bauab Dauar, João Norberto Stavale
BACKGROUND: Angiolipomas are benign tumors most commonly found in the thoracic spine. They are composed of mature adipocytes and abnormal vascular elements that usually present with a slowly progressive course of neurological deterioration. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 35-year-old female, with a prior history of back pain, acutely developed paraparesis. When the thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a dorsal epidural mass at the T3-T5 level, she underwent a laminectomy for gross total excision of the lesion that proved to be an angiolipoma...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789867/malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-segmentation-for-photodynamic-therapy-planning
#19
Wael Brahim, Makram Mestiri, Nacim Betrouni, Kamel Hamrouni
Medical imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) combined with computer-aided diagnostic processing have already become important part of clinical routine specially for pleural diseases. The segmentation of the thoracic cavity represents an extremely important task in medical imaging for different reasons. Multiple features can be extracted by analyzing the thoracic cavity space and these features are signs of pleural diseases including the malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) which is the main focus of our research...
July 26, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782691/first-case-of-autonomic-dysrefleixa-following-elective-lower-thoracic-spinal-cord-transection-in-a-spina-bifida-adult
#20
Juanita Garces, Mansour Mathkour, Tyler Scullen, Lora Kahn, Erin Biro, Olawale A R Sulaiman, Roger Smith, Cuong J Bui
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord transection is a radical but effective treatment for highly selective cases of symptomatic spinal re-tethering in paraplegic spina bifida patients. Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome involving a dysregulated sympathetic discharge reflex commonly seen following cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury leading to a disconnect between autonomic pathways above and below the lesion that can lead to severe complications including uncontrolled hypertension, bradycardia, stroke, and potentially death...
August 3, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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