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Adolescent identity development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722199/facial-expression-coding-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-reduced-adaptability-but-intact-norm-based-coding
#1
Gillian Rhodes, Nichola Burton, Linda Jeffery, Ainsley Read, Libby Taylor, Louise Ewing
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have difficulty recognizing emotional expressions. Here, we asked whether the underlying perceptual coding of expression is disrupted. Typical individuals code expression relative to a perceptual (average) norm that is continuously updated by experience. This adaptability of face-coding mechanisms has been linked to performance on various face tasks. We used an adaptation aftereffect paradigm to characterize expression coding in children and adolescents with autism...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713007/future-fertility-for-individuals-with-differences-of-sex-development-parent-attitudes-and-perspectives-about-decision-making
#2
Emilie K Johnson, Ilina Rosoklija, Angela Shurba, Anthony D'Oro, Elisa J Gordon, Diane Chen, Courtney Finlayson, Jane L Holl
BACKGROUND: Children, adolescents, and young adults (children/youth) with differences/disorders of sex development (DSD) face challenges related to future fertility; this may be due to variations in gonadal development, and, for some, gonadectomy performed to reduce the risk of malignancy. Childhood may be the only time for preservation of biological fertility potential for children/youth who undergo gonadectomy or have early gonadal failure. Fertility-related decision-making for these patients is particularly complicated, due to the need for parental proxy decision-making, potential discordance between gender identity and gonadal type, and uncertain future assisted reproductive technologies...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701098/-ait-adolescent-identity-treatment-an-integrative-treatment-model-for-the-treatment-of-personality-disorders
#3
Susanne Schlüter-Müller
AIT (Adolescent Identity Treatment) - an Integrative Treatment Model for the Treatment of Personality Disorders Personality disorders are patterns of maladaptive personality traits that have an impact on the individual throughout the life span. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a very severe, but treatable mental disorder. Identity disturbance is seen as the central construct for detecting severe personality pathology - and, most notably, borderline personality disorder - in adults and adolescents. Crises in the development of identity usually resolve into a normal and consolidated identity with flexible and adaptive functioning whereas identity diffusion is viewed as a lack of integration of the concept of the self and significant others...
July 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641061/positive-parenting-as-responsible-care-risks-protective-factors-and-intervention-evaluation
#4
Silvia Donato, Anna Bertoni
In this themed issue of the Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, the first four contributions provide knowledge on factors that can support or hinder positive parenting throughout children's lives. In particular, the first article examined the spillover of work stressors on parenting behaviors and the role of spousal support as a moderator of stress spillover. The second contribution examines the association between parents' promotion of volitional functioning and adopted children's sense of strength of family bonds and belonging to the adoptive family...
July 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617180/lumbar-spondylolysis-a-report-of-four-cases-from-two-generations-of-a-family
#5
Takashi Yurube, Kenichiro Kakutani, Koji Okamoto, Michihiko Manabe, Koichiro Maeno, Masaho Yoshikawa, Norihide Sha, Ryosuke Kuroda, Kotaro Nishida
Spondylolysis is a major cause of back pain in children and adolescents. The prevalence of spondylolysis depends on the sex, race, and congenital abnormality. These biases suggest hereditary predisposition as an etiology of spondylolysis. However, no conclusive evidence still exists regarding the inheritance for spondylolysis. Herein, we report rare cases with familial occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis. In two generations of a Japanese family, three brothers including identical twins complained of back pain related to sports activities...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615000/-a-tribe-apart-sexuality-and-cancer-in-adolescence
#6
Nancy J Moules, Andrew Estefan, Catherine M Laing, Fiona Schulte, Gregory M T Guilcher, James C Field, Douglas Strother
This qualitative study employed hermeneutic phenomenology and narrative inquiry to examine the topic of sexuality and adolescents with cancer from the perspectives of survivors who had experienced cancer as adolescents. This investigation examined the potentially sensitive, disquieting, and often taboo issue of sexuality in the interest of optimizing wellness in young people, and, ultimately, in the health of adults. Understanding the adolescent body as a sensitive, sexual, and developing self can enrich our understanding of adolescent cancer and promote best health care and practices, examining ways that we might mitigate the long-term effects of arrested or delayed development of sexual identity...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612624/prototypes-reflect-normative-perceptions-implications-for-the-development-of-reasoned-action-theory
#7
Michael Hennessy, Amy Bleakley, Morgan Ellithorpe
The reasoned action approach is one of the most successful behavioral theories in the history of social psychology. This study outlines the theoretical principles of reasoned action and considers when it is appropriate to augment it with a new variable. To demonstrate, we use survey data collected from a 4 to 17 year old U.S. adolescents to test how the 'prototype' variables fit into reasoned action approach. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we find that the prototype measures are normative pressure measures and when treated as a separate theoretical construct, prototype identity is not completely mediated by the proximal predictors of behavioral intention...
June 14, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601369/body-representation-difficulties-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-may-be-due-to-delayed-development-of-visuo-tactile-temporal-binding
#8
Danielle Ropar, Katie Greenfield, Alastair D Smith, Mark Carey, Roger Newport
Recent research suggests visuo-tactile binding is temporally extended in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although it is not clear whether this specifically underlies altered body representation in this population. In the current study children and adolescents with ASD, and typically developing controls, placed their hand into mediated reality system (MIRAGE) and saw two identical live video images of their own right hand. One image was in the proprioceptively correct location (veridical hand) and the other was displaced to either side...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599376/pride-shame-and-health-among-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-survey
#9
Eva Randell, Junia Joffer, Renée Flacking, Bengt Starrin, Lars Jerdén
Background Pride and shame are important emotions known to influence identity development and psychological well-being in adolescence. Research evidence indicates that self-rated health (SRH) is a strong predictor of future health. This cross-sectional study, conducted during 2008-2009, aimed to investigate the associations between pride, shame and SRH among adolescent boys and girls. Methods The study sample comprised 705 adolescents in Sweden aged 17-18 years (318 boys and 387 girls) who completed a questionnaire that included items on SRH, shame and pride (participation rate 67%)...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599024/anxiety-disorders-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-primary-care-approach
#10
Sabrina Fernandez
Fears and worries are normal feelings that help us adapt to the ups and downs of life. Those ups and downs are especially normal as children and adolescents grow up and try to find where they fit in the world. With changing relationships at home and in social circles, they are establishing their worldview and solidifying their identity. These feelings of fear and worry can sometimes become overwhelming, and anxiety disorders can develop. Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders with onset in childhood...
June 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594347/-hidden-habitus-a-qualitative-study-of-socio-ecological-influences-on-drinking-practices-and-social-identity-in-mid-adolescence
#11
Stephanie Scott, Janet Shucksmith, Rachel Baker, Eileen Kaner
This study explored mid-adolescents' views and experiences of socio-ecological influences on their drinking practices in order to help inform the development of interventions to reduce alcohol-related risk. We conducted 31 in-depth interviews with young people aged 13-17 in North East England. Verbatim interview transcripts and field notes were coded systematically and analysed thematically, following the principles of constant comparison. We adopted Bourdieu's idea of social game-playing and elements of his conceptual toolkit (particularly habitus, capital and field) during analysis...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594072/empowering-marginalized-youth-a-self-transformative-intervention-for-promoting-positive-youth-development
#12
Kyle Eichas, Marilyn J Montgomery, Alan Meca, William M Kurtines
This article reports the results of a positive youth development (PYD) intervention for adolescents in alternative high schools (209 African American and Hispanic American adolescents, aged 14-18; 118 females and 91 males). The intervention was guided by a self-transformative model of PYD (Eichas, Meca, Montgomery, & Kurtines, 2014). This model proposes that the actions youth take to define themselves function as active ingredients in positive development over the life course. Consistent with the self-transformative model, results provided support for direct or mediated intervention effects on the self-transformative processes of self-construction and self-discovery, life goal development, identity synthesis, and internalizing problems...
June 8, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582399/effect-of-verbal-task-complexity-in-a-working-memory-paradigm-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-fmri-study
#13
Joan Guàrdia-Olmos, Geisa B Gallardo-Moreno, Esteve Gudayol-Ferré, Maribel Peró-Cebollero, Andrés A González-Garrido
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is commonly diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, and the developing brain has to cope with its deleterious effects. Although brain adaptation to the disease may not result in evident cognitive dysfunction, the effects of T1D on neurodevelopment could alter the pattern of BOLD fMRI activation. The aim of this study was to explore the neural BOLD activation pattern in patients with T1D versus that of healthy matched controls while performing two visuospatial working memory tasks, which included a pair of assignments administered through a block design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546737/racial-socialization-private-regard-and-behavior-problems-in-african-american-youth-global-self-esteem-as-a-mediator
#14
BreAnna L Davis, Mia A Smith-Bynum, Farzana T Saleem, Tiffany Francois, Sharon F Lambert
Racial socialization messages appear to have varying impacts on the adjustment of African American youth. To further explore this, we examined how two types of racial socialization messages might influence African American youth internalizing and externalizing behavior. The Youth Self Report was used to measure these behavior outcomes. Given that racial socialization messages may not be directly linked to behavior outcomes, we considered private regard, an aspect of racial identity, to serve as a mediator. Additionally, we examined global self-esteem as a mediator of the complex dynamic between racial socialization messages and behavior outcomes...
March 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546095/puberty-suppression-in-transgender-children-and-adolescents
#15
REVIEW
Simone Mahfouda, Julia K Moore, Aris Siafarikas, Florian D Zepf, Ashleigh Lin
The World Professional Association for Transgender Health's standards of care recommend suspending puberty, preferably with the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, in certain gender non-conforming minors (aged under 18 years) who have undergone a psychiatric assessment and have reached at least Tanner stage II of puberty. This approach seeks to lessen the discordance between assigned natal sex and gender identity by temporarily halting the development of secondary sexual characteristics, essentially widening the temporal window for gender clarification...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497279/aspiring-to-have-the-looks-of-a-celebrity-young-girls-engagement-in-appearance-management-behaviors
#16
Jolien Trekels, Steven Eggermont
Research suggests that sexualizing media messages are present in teen media and negatively affect young girls' body image. Yet, it is unknown whether exposure to teen television programs is associated with girls' engagement in appearance management behaviors. Two-wave longitudinal data among 785 girls (Mage = 11.65 years) were collected. Results show that teen television exposure was longitudinally related to appearance management, while the reverse relation was not supported. Approximately half of the girls indicated to manage their appearance to some extent, and 13- to 14-year-old girls were more likely to invest in their appearance than younger girls...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494125/harassment-and-mental-distress-among-adolescent-female-students-by-sexual-identity-and-bmi-or-perceived-weight-status
#17
Michelle Marie Johns, Richard Lowry, Zewditu Demissie, Leah Robin
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. METHODS: Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight...
May 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493734/pubertal-timing-racial-identity-neighborhood-and-school-context-among-black-adolescent-females
#18
Eleanor K Seaton, Rona Carter
OBJECTIVES: This study bridges the empirical research on pubertal timing effects, racial identity, and school and neighborhood context to understand the pubertal development and depression link among Black adolescent females. We examined whether racial identity content dimensions moderated the relation between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among Black adolescent females and the moderating capacity of school and neighborhood racial composition. METHOD: We administered measures of pubertal development, racial identity, and depressive symptoms to a sample of 217 Black adolescent females, aged 14 to 18...
May 11, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493172/tenofovir-alafenamide-a-review-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#19
REVIEW
Lesley J Scott, Henry L Y Chan
Tenofovir alafenamide (AF) [Vemlidy(®)], an oral prodrug of tenofovir, was developed to optimize the antiviral potency and clinical safety of the active moiety tenofovir diphosphate (selective reverse transcriptase nucleotide inhibitor). In two identically designed, ongoing, multinational trials in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive or -negative chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, once-daily tenofovir AF 25 mg provided effective and sustained viral suppression (120-week analysis), and was generally well tolerated...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487735/variations-in-the-3-utr-of-the-cyp21a2-gene-in-heterozygous-females-with-hyperandrogenaemia
#20
Vassos Neocleous, Pavlos Fanis, Meropi Toumba, Alexia A P Phedonos, Michalis Picolos, Elena Andreou, Tassos C Kyriakides, George A Tanteles, Christos Shammas, Leonidas A Phylactou, Nicos Skordis
Heterozygosity for CYP21A2 mutations in females is possibly related to increased risk of developing clinical hyperandrogenism. The present study was designed to seek evidence on the phenotype-genotype correlation in female children, adolescents, and women with CYP21A2 mutations and variants in the 3'UTR region of the gene. Sixty-six patients out of the 169 were identified as carriers of CYP21A2 mutations. Higher values of stimulated 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels were found in the carriers of the p...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
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