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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055244/a-pilot-study-comparing-mechanical-properties-of-tissue-engineered-cartilages-and-various-endogenous-cartilages
#1
Andrew K Pappa, Sajjad Soleimani, Montserrat Caballero, Alexandra E Halevi, John A van Aalst
BACKGROUND: Mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage and a variety of endogenous cartilage were measured. The main goal was to evaluate if the tissue-engineered cartilage have similar mechanical characteristics to be replaced with rib cartilage in microtia reconstruction. Such study lays the foundation for future human clinical trials for microtia reconstruction. METHOD: Atomic force microscopy and compression testing were used to measure the viscoelasticity of tissue-engineered cartilage (stem cell seeded on Poly lactic co-glycolytic acid nanofibers and Pellet) and endogenous cartilage: conchal bowl, microtic ears, preauricular remnants, and rib...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054871/engineering-the-enantioselectivity-and-thermostability-of-a-%C3%AE-lactamase-from-microbacterium-hydrocarbonoxydans-for-the-kinetic-resolution-of-vince-lactam
#2
Shuaihua Gao, Shaozhou Zhu, Rong Huang, Hongxia Li, Hao Wang, Guojun Zheng
To produce promising biocatalysts, natural enzymes often need to be engineered to increase their catalytic performance. In this study, the enantioselectivity and thermostability of a (+)-γ-lactamase from Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans as the catalyst in the kinetic resolution of Vince lactam were improved. Enantiomerically pure (-)-Vince lactam is the key synthon in the synthesis of antiviral drugs such as carbovir and abacavir, which are used to fight against human HIV and hepatitis B viruses. The work was initialized by using the combinatorial active-site saturation test strategy to engineer the enantioselectivity of the enzyme...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048241/nanofibrous-electrospun-hdecm-based-hybrid-scaffold-as-wound-dressing-for-reducing-scarring
#3
Tae Hee Kim, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Produced via electrospinning, poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) membranes, which have a porous structure and are biodegradable, are of interest in various medical fields. The porous-structured electrospun membrane is particularly interesting because of several favorable properties: it exudes fluid from the wound, does not build up under the wound covering, and does not cause wound desiccation. Moreover, extracellular matrix (ECM)-based structures derived by tissue decellularization have application as engineered tissue scaffolds and as supports for cellular regeneration...
October 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047203/engineered-cross-reacting-nanobodies-simplify-comparative-oncology-between-humans-and-dogs
#4
E Mazzega, A de Marco
Antibodies cross-reacting with homologue antigens in different species would be essential reagents for the development of comparative oncology studies. In comparison with conventional immunoglobulin Gs, recombinant nanobodies (single-domain variable regions of heavy-chain only antibodies of Camelidae origin) can be easily isolated in vitro and engineered into a variety of reagents with optimized characteristics for different research and clinical applications. We recovered an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) nanobody from a naïve llama library by direct panning on whole cells and expressed it fused to Fc and green fluorescent protein...
October 18, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039474/evaluation-of-a-radiocobalt-labelled-affibody-molecule-for-imaging-of-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-3-expression
#5
Maria Rosestedt, Ken G Andersson, Bogdan Mitran, Sara S Rinne, Vladimir Tolmachev, John Löfblom, Anna Orlova, Stefan Ståhl
The human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is involved in the development of cancer resistance towards tyrosine kinase-targeted therapies. Several HER3‑targeting therapeutics are currently under clinical evaluation. Non-invasive imaging of HER3 expression could improve patient management. Affibody molecules are small engineered scaffold proteins demonstrating superior properties as targeting probes for molecular imaging compared with monoclonal antibodies. Feasibility of in vivo HER3 imaging using affibody molecules has been previously demonstrated...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035868/comparative-analysis-of-codon-usage-pattern-and-its-influencing-factors-in-schistosoma-japonicum-and-ascaris-suum
#6
Gulshana A Mazumder, Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum are considered as the major parasites of human which cause various life threatening diseases such as schistomiasis and ascariasis. The codon usage bias (CUB) is known as the phenomenon of more usage of a specific codon than the other synonymous codons for an amino acid. The factors that influence the codon usage bias are mutation pressure, natural selection, gene expression, gene length, GC content, RNA stability, recombination rates, codon position etc. Here we had used various bioinformatic tools and statistical analyses to understand the compositional features, expression level and codon usage bias in the genes of these two species...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035379/lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-and-invasive-lobular-breast-cancer-are-characterized-by-enhanced-expression-of-transcription-factor-ap-2%C3%AE
#7
Mieke Raap, Malte Gronewold, Henriette Christgen, Silke Glage, Mohammad Bentires-Alj, Shany Koren, Patrick W Derksen, Mirjam Boelens, Jos Jonkers, Ulrich Lehmann, Friedrich Feuerhake, Elna Kuehnle, Oleg Gluz, Ronald Kates, Ulrike Nitz, Nadia Harbeck, Hans H Kreipe, Matthias Christgen
Transcription factor AP-2β (TFAP2B) regulates embryonic organ development and is overexpressed in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, a rare childhood malignancy. Gene expression profiling has implicated AP-2β in breast cancer (BC). This study characterizes AP-2β expression in the mammary gland and in BC. AP-2β protein expression was assessed in the normal mammary gland epithelium, in various reactive, metaplastic and pre-invasive neoplastic lesions and in two clinical BC cohorts comprising >2000 patients. BCs from various genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models were also evaluated...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029643/an-integrated-methodology-for-assessing-the-impact-of-food-matrix-and-gastrointestinal-effects-on-the-biokinetics-and-cellular-toxicity-of-ingested-engineered-nanomaterials
#8
Glen M DeLoid, Yanli Wang, Klara Kapronezai, Laura Rubio Lorente, Roujie Zhang, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Nagarjun V Konduru, Maria Ericsson, Jason C White, Roberto De La Torre-Roche, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements, Philip Demokritou
BACKGROUND: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly added to foods to improve their quality, sensory appeal, safety and shelf-life. Human exposure to these ingested ENMs (iENMS) is inevitable, yet little is known of their hazards. To assess potential hazards, efficient in vitro methodologies are needed to evaluate particle biokinetics and toxicity. These methodologies must account for interactions and transformations of iENMs in foods (food matrix effect) and in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that are likely to determine nano-biointeractions...
October 13, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028070/gene-expression-in-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-comparison-of-2d-films-3d-electrospun-meshes-or-co-cultured-scaffolds-with-two-way-paracrine-effects
#9
S C Hess, W J Stark, D Mohn, N Cohrs, S Märsmann, M Calcagni, P Cinelli, J Buschmann
Finding the appropriate cues to trigger the desired differentiation is a challenge in tissue engineering when stem cells are involved. In this regard, three-dimensional environments are often compared to cells' two-dimensional culture behaviour (plastic culture dish). Here, we compared the gene expression pattern of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) seeded in a three-dimensional (3D) electrospun mesh and on a two-dimensional (2D) film - both of exactly the same material. Additionally, we conducted experiments with a scaffold floating above a film to investigate two-way paracrine effects (co-system)...
October 13, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024161/site-directed-fluorescence-labeling-of-intrinsically-disordered-region-of-human-transcription-factor-yy1-the-inhibitory-effect-of-zinc-ions
#10
Adam Kazimierz Górka, Andrzej Górecki, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska
Site-specific labeling of proteins with fluorescent dyes allows the study of protein structure and function using a wide variety of fluorescent techniques. However, specific labeling is not trivial in the case of proteins containing multiple cysteine residues. An example of such a protein is transcription factor Yin Yang 1, which comprises eight cysteine residues in four C2H2 type zinc fingers in the C-terminal region. Kinetic measurements of the labeling process allowed us to develop preparative labeling of three cysteine residues differently introduced to the N-terminal, disordered fragment of the protein...
October 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023999/occupational-exposure-to-diesel-engine-exhaust-and-serum-cytokine-levels
#11
Yufei Dai, Dianzhi Ren, Bryan A Bassig, Roel Vermeulen, Wei Hu, Yong Niu, Huawei Duan, Meng Ye, Tao Meng, Jun Xu, Ping Bin, Meili Shen, Jufang Yang, Wei Fu, Kees Meliefste, Debra Silverman, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan, Yuxin Zheng
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection...
October 12, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020045/human-amnion-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-osteogenic-and-angiogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#12
Chunli Zhang, Lidong Yu, Songjian Liu, Yuli Wang
Tissue engineering using suitable mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows great potential to regenerate bone defects. Our previous studies have indicated that human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) could promote the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). Human adipose-derived stem cells (HASCs), obtained from adipose tissue in abundance, are capable of multi-lineage differentiation. In this study, the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of HASCs were systematically investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018483/the-angiogenic-potential-of-dpscs-and-scaps-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-dental-pulp-regeneration
#13
Petra Hilkens, Annelies Bronckaers, Jessica Ratajczak, Pascal Gervois, Esther Wolfs, Ivo Lambrichts
Adequate vascularization, a restricting factor for the survival of engineered tissues, is often promoted by the addition of stem cells or the appropriate angiogenic growth factors. In this study, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) were applied in an in vivo model of dental pulp regeneration in order to compare their regenerative potential and confirm their previously demonstrated paracrine angiogenic properties. 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds containing DPSCs and/or SCAPs were subcutaneously transplanted into immunocompromised mice...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992805/the-effects-of-liquid-crystal-based-composite-substrates-on-cell-functional-responses-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-mechano-regulatory-process
#14
Hao Wu, Yupan Shang, Jiaqing Zhang, Lek Hang Cheang, Xiaoli Zeng, Mei Tu
Physical properties of extracellular matrix, including elasticity and microstructure, have been considered as important factors inducing stem cell differentiation. This study developed a novel type of liquid crystal-based matrix by combining the elastic property of polyurethane with viscoelastic liquid crystal to generate a soft elastic response resembling physical microenvironment of stem cell niche, and explored the mechano-driving cell behaviors. Addition of varying liquid crystal concentration (10 wt%, 30 wt% and 50 wt%) had great effects on surface morphology and elastic modulus of liquid crystal/ polyurethane composite substrates...
October 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992803/collagen-sponge-functionalized-with-chimeric-anti-bmp-2-monoclonal-antibody-mediates-repair-of-nonunion-tibia-defects-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-an-exploratory-study
#15
Lijia Guo, Seiko Min, Yingying Su, Jianxia Tang, Juan Du, Bee Tin Goh, Leonardo Saigo, Songlin Wang, Sahar Ansari, Alireza Moshaverinia, Homayoun H Zadeh, Yi Liu
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is an FDA-approved therapy for nonunion tibia fracture, though it has a number of biological and practical disadvantages. Our research group has developed a novel tissue engineering strategy termed antibody-mediated osseous regeneration. This entails application of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to capture endogenous BMP's to mediate in vivo bone formation. This has been documented in a number of animal models. The present exploratory study sought to investigate the application of antibody-mediated osseous regeneration for repair of nonunion tibia defect in a nonhuman primate model...
October 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987783/engineering-fibrin-hydrogels-to-promote-the-wound-healing-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroids
#16
Kaitlin C Murphy, Jacklyn Whitehead, Dejie Zhou, Steve S Ho, J Kent Leach
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete endogenous factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that promote angiogenesis, modulate the inflammatory microenvironment, and stimulate wound repair, and MSC spheroids secrete more trophic factors than dissociated, individual MSCs. Compared to injection of cells alone, transplantation of MSCs in a biomaterial can enhance their wound healing potential by localizing cells at the defect site and upregulating trophic factor secretion...
October 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984728/incidence-of-wrong-site-surgery-list-errors-for-a-2-year-period-in-a-single-national-health-service-board
#17
Alistair Geraghty, Lorna Ferguson, Craig McIlhenny, Paul Bowie
INTRODUCTION: Wrong-site/side surgical "never events" continue to cause considerable harm to patients, healthcare professionals, and organizations within the United Kingdom. Incidence has remained static despite the mandatory introduction of surgical checklists. Operating theater list errors have been identified as a regular contributor to these never events. The aims of the study were to identify and to learn from the incidence of wrong-site/side list errors in a single National Health Service board...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981128/modeling-angiogenesis-with-micro-and-nanotechnology
#18
REVIEW
Li-Jiun Chen, Hirokazu Kaji
Angiogenesis plays an important role not only in the growth and regeneration of tissues in humans but also in pathological conditions such as inflammation, degenerative disease and the formation of tumors. Angiogenesis is also vital in thick engineered tissues and constructs, such as those for the heart and bone, as these can face difficulties in successful implantation if they are insufficiently vascularized or unable to connect to the host vasculature. Considerable research has been carried out on angiogenic processes using a variety of approaches...
October 5, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980194/gene-editing-and-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-tools-for-advancing-diabetes-disease-modeling-and-beta-cell-development
#19
REVIEW
Katelyn Millette, Senta Georgia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on the multiple approaches to gene editing and address the potential use of genetically modified human pluripotent stem cell-derived beta cells (SC-β) as a tool to study human beta-cell development and model their function in diabetes. We will explore how new variations of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing may accelerate our understanding of beta-cell developmental biology, elucidate novel mechanisms that establish and regulate beta-cell function, and assist in pioneering new therapeutic modalities for treating diabetes...
October 5, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972822/inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-shed-enhances-endothelial-differentiation
#20
J G Xu, T Gong, Y Y Wang, T Zou, B C Heng, Y Q Yang, C F Zhang
Low efficiency of deriving endothelial cells (ECs) from adult stem cells hampers their utilization in tissue engineering studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether suppression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling could enhance the differentiation efficiency of dental pulp-derived stem cells into ECs. We initially used vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) to stimulate 2 dental pulp-derived stem cells (dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth [SHED]) and compared their differentiation capacity into ECs...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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