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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820389/hippo-pathway-brief-overview-of-its-relevance-in-cancer
#1
A L Zygulska, K Krzemieniecki, P Pierzchalski
The Hippo pathway is the major regulator of organ growth and proliferation. Described initially in Drosophila, it is now recognized as one of the most conserved molecular pathways in all metazoan. Recent studies have revealed the Hippo signalling pathway might contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer development. The core components of the Hippo pathway include the mammalian sterile 20-like kinases (MSTs), large tumour suppressor kinases (LATSs), the adaptor proteins Salvador homologue 1 (SAV1, also called WW45) and Mps One Binder kinase activator proteins...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815333/comparison-of-different-culture-conditions-for-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-of-human-umbilical-cord-vein-cd146-perivascular-cells
#2
Beyza Gökçinar-Yagci, Betül Çelebi-Saltik
Pericytes are CD146+ perivascular cells (PCs) that have multipotential differentiation capacity as mesenchymal stem cells. Beside their crucial roles in vascular development and blood flow regulation, they have ability to differentiate into vascular cell types in vivo. These properties make pericytes preferred cells in the field of vascular tissue engineering. Culture medium for in vitro differentiation of pericytes to vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) has not been defined yet. The aim of this study is to try different culture media for SMC differentiation of CD146+ PCs...
August 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809529/multiphoton-fabrication-of-fibronectin-functionalized-protein-micropatterns-stiffness-induced-maturation-of-cell-matrix-adhesions-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Jiaoni Ma, Chuen Wai Li, Nan Huang, Xinna Wang, Minghui Tong, Alfonso H W Ngan, Barbara P Chan
Cell-matrix adhesions are important structures governing the interactions between cells and their microenvironment at the cell-matrix interface. Focal complex (FC) and focal adhesion (FA) have been substantially investigated in conventional 2D culture system using fibroblast as in vitro model. However, the formation of more mature types of cell-matrix adhesion in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), including fabrillar adhesion (FBA) and 3D matrix adhesion (3DMA), have not been fully elucidated. Here, we try to provide some hints on which niche factor(s) dominate(s) the maturation of FBA and 3DMA by using multiphoton fabrication-based micropatterning technique...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809406/clot-entrapped-blood-cells-in-synergy-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-create-a-pro-angiogenic-healing-response
#4
Melanie A Burkhardt, Isabel Gerber, Cameron Moshfegh, Miriam S Lucas, Jasmin Waser, Maximilian Y Emmert, Simon P Hoerstrup, Falko Schlottig, Viola Vogel
Blood clots stop bleeding and provide cell-instructive microenvironments. Still, in vitro models used to study implant performance typically neglect any possible interactions of recruited cells with surface-adhering blood clots. Here we study the interaction and synergies of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with surface-induced blood clots in an in vitro model by fluorescence microscopy, scanning and correlative light and electron microscopy, ELISA assays and zymography. The clinically used alkali-treated rough titanium (Ti) surfaces investigated here are known to enhance blood clotting compared to native Ti and to improve the healing response, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
August 15, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806225/preventing-retained-central-venous-catheter-guidewires-a-randomized-controlled-simulation-study-using-a-human-factors-approach
#5
Maryanne Z A Mariyaselvam, Ken R Catchpole, David K Menon, Arun K Gupta, Peter J Young
BACKGROUND: Retained central venous catheter guidewires are never events. Currently, preventative techniques rely on clinicians remembering to remove the guidewire. However, solutions solely relying upon humans to prevent error inevitably fail. A novel locked procedure pack was designed to contain the equipment required for completing the procedure after the guidewire should have been removed: suture, suture holder, and antimicrobial dressings. The guidewire is used as a key to unlock the pack and to access the contents; thereby, the clinician must remove the guidewire from the patient to complete the procedure...
August 11, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796529/designed-ankyrin-repeat-proteins-as-her2-targeting-domains-in-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-t-cells
#6
Elizabeth Siegler, Si Li, Yu Jeong Kim, Pin Wang
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineering is a branch of cancer immunotherapy that equips immune cells to target tumor antigens expressed on the cell surface using antibody-derived single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). However, other antibody mimetics, such as designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins), can also serve as antigen-binding domains in CARs. This study shows that CAR-engineered T (CAR-T) cells utilizing Her2-targeting DARPins G3 and 929 can target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-overexpressing cancer cells as effectively as CAR-T cells with the scFv 4D5 in vitro, and G3 CAR-T cells can slow or eliminate tumor growth in vivo as effectively as 4D5 CAR-T cells...
June 22, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794289/differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-nephrogenic-lineage-and-their-enhanced-resistance-to-oxygen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress
#7
Asima Tayyeb, Naveed Shahzad, Gibran Ali
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been publicized to ameliorate kidney injury both in vitro and in vivo. However, very less is known if MSCs can be differentiated towards renal lineages and their further application potential in kidney injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study developed a conditioning system of growth factors fibroblast growth factor 2, transforming growth factor-β2, and leukemia inhibitory factor for in vitro differentiation of MSCs isolated from different sources towards nephrogenic lineage...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790931/microtissues-enhance-smooth-muscle-differentiation-and-cell-viability-of-hadscs-for-three-dimensional-bioprinting
#8
Jin Yipeng, Xu Yongde, Wu Yuanyi, Sun Jilei, Guo Jiaxiang, Gao Jiangping, Yang Yong
Smooth muscle differentiated human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) provide a crucial stem cell source for urinary tissue engineering, but the induction of hADSCs for smooth muscle differentiation still has several issues to overcome, including a relatively long induction time and equipment dependence, which limits access to abundant stem cells within a short period of time for further application. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting holds great promise in regenerative medicine due to its controllable construction of a designed 3D structure...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783260/plasma-proteome-association-and-catalytic-activity-of-stealth-polymer-grafted-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#9
Miaoyi Wang, Ghizal Siddiqui, Ove J R Gustafsson, Aleksandr Käkinen, Ibrahim Javed, Nicolas H Voelcker, Darren J Creek, Pu Chun Ke, Thomas P Davis
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is widely used as an antifouling and stealth polymer in surface engineering and nanomedicine. However, recent research has revealed adverse effects of bioaccumulation and immunogenicity following the administration of PEG, prompting this proteomic examination of the plasma protein coronae association with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) grafted with brushed PEG (bPEG) and an alternative, brushed phosphorylcholine (bPC). Using label-free quantitation by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry, this study determines protein abundances for the in vitro hard coronae of bare, bPC-, and bPEG-grafted IONPs in human plasma...
August 7, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780115/foreign-gene-expression-and-induction-of-antibody-response-by-recombinant-fowl-adenovirus-9-based-vectors-with-exogenous-promoters
#10
James G Ackford, Juan C Corredor, Yanlong Pei, Peter J Krell, Grégoy Bédécarrats, E Va Nagy
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are promising vectors for poultry vaccines and gene therapy. The commonly used human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in recombinant FAdV-9 viruses (recFAdV-9s) leads to foreign gene expression that elicits an antibody response. Despite its strength, studies have shown that the CMV promoter is prone to silencing by methylation hampering the in vivo application of vectors containing this promoter. Therefore, to improve our virus vector system and circumvent potential limitations of silencing, we engineered recFAdV-9s with foreign gene expression cassettes carrying the CMV enhancer/chicken β-actin (CAG) or the human elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α) promoters with or without the posttranscriptional regulatory element of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WPRE)...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775169/loss-of-igf2-gene-imprinting-in-murine-prostate-promotes-widespread-neoplastic-growth
#11
Nathan Damaschke, Bing Yang, Sachin Bhusari, Mele Avilla, Weixiong Zhong, Michael L Blute, Wei Huang, David F Jarrard
Loss of imprinting (LOI) is an epigenetic event which relaxes an allele-specific restriction on gene expression. One gene that experiences LOI is the paracrine insulin-like growth factor IGF2, which occurs commonly in human prostate tissues during aging and tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between IGF2 LOI and prostate tumorigenesis has not been established functionally. In this study, we created a mouse model with CTCF binding site mutations at the Igf2-H19 imprint control region that abolishes CTCF insulator activity, resulting in biallelic Igf2 expression that mimics increased levels seen with aging-induced LOI...
August 3, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774590/human-adipose-mesenchymal-cells-inhibit-melanocyte-differentiation-and-the-pigmentation-of-human-skin-via-increased-expression-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#12
Agnes S Klar, Thomas Biedermann, Katarzyna Michalak, Teresa Michalczyk, Claudia Meuli-Simmen, Arnaud Scherberich, Martin Meuli, Ernst Reichmann
There is accumulating evidence that interactions between epidermal melanocytes and stromal cells play an important role in the regulation of skin pigmentation. In this study we established a pigmented dermo-epidermal skin model (melDESS) of human origin to investigate the effects of distinct stromal cells on melanogenesis. melDESS is a complex, clinically relevant skin equivalent composed of an epidermis containing both melanocytes and keratinocytes. Its dermal compartment consisted either of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC), dermal fibroblasts, or a mixture of both cell types...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771038/classification-of-driving-workload-affected-by-highway-alignment-conditions-based-on-classification-and-regression-tree-algorithm
#13
Jiangbi Hu, Ronghua Wang
OBJECTIVE: Guaranteeing a safe and comfortable driving workload can contribute to reducing traffic injuries. In order to provide safe and comfortable threshold values, this study attempted to classify driving workload from the aspects of human factors mainly affected by highway geometric conditions, and to determine the thresholds of different workload classifications. This paper stated a hypothesis that the values of driver workload change within a certain range. METHODS: Driving workload scales were stated based on a comprehensive literature review...
August 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756234/anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-with-a-glyco-engineered-fc-region-has-increased-efficacy-in-mice-with-colitis
#14
Felicia M Bloemendaal, Alon D Levin, Manon E Wildenberg, Pim J Koelink, Bradford L McRae, Jochen Salfeld, Jenifer Lum, Marijn van der Neut Kolfschoten, Jill W Claassens, Remco Visser, Arthur Bentlage, Geert R A M D'Haens, J Sjef Verbeek, Gestur Vidarsson, Gijs R van den Brink
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists reduce many clinical features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), complete mucosal healing occurs in less than 50% of patients. The Fc region of monoclonal antibodies against TNF has immunosuppressive properties via effects on macrophage polarization. We examined the interaction between the anti-TNF Fc region and Fcγ receptors (FcγR), and whether the absence of the Fc core fucose (which increases binding to FcγRIIIa) increases the efficacy of anti-TNF in mice with colitis...
July 26, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752194/from-engineering-to-editing-the-rat-genome
#15
Stephen Meek, Tomoji Mashimo, Tom Burdon
Since its domestication over 100 years ago, the laboratory rat has been the preferred experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research (Lindsey and Baker The laboratory rat. Academic, New York, pp 1-52, 2006). Its physiology, size, genetics, reproductive cycle, cognitive and behavioural characteristics have made it a particularly useful animal model for studying many human disorders and diseases. Indeed, through selective breeding programmes numerous strains have been derived that are now the mainstay of research on hypertension, obesity and neurobiology (Okamoto and Aoki Jpn Circ J 27:282-293, 1963; Zucker and Zucker J Hered 52(6):275-278, 1961)...
July 27, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750600/towards-modular-bone-tissue-engineering-using-ti-co-doped-phosphate-glass-microspheres-cytocompatibility-and-dynamic-culture-studies
#16
Carlotta Peticone, David De Silva Thompson, Gareth J Owens, Hae-Won Kim, Martina Micheletti, Jonathan C Knowles, Ivan Wall
The production of large quantities of functional vascularized bone tissue ex vivo still represent an unmet clinical challenge. Microcarriers offer a potential solution to scalable manufacture of bone tissue due to their high surface area-to-volume ratio and the capacity to be assembled using a modular approach. Microcarriers made of phosphate bioactive glass doped with titanium dioxide have been previously shown to enhance proliferation of osteoblast progenitors and maturation towards functional osteoblasts...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747655/strategies-to-mitigate-variability-in-engineering-human-nasal-cartilage
#17
Stephen H J Andrews, Melanie Kunze, Aillette Mulet-Sierra, Lynn Williams, Khalid Ansari, Martin Osswald, Adetola B Adesida
Skin cancer and its associated treitments can have devastating consequences for survivors; this is particularly true when cancer occurs on the nose. Recent work has applied cell-based tissue engineering (TE) strategies to develop nasal cartilage constructs for reconstruction of the nose. In this study, we have generated human nasal cartilage on a clinically approved collagen scaffold to investigate the donor-to-donor variability of TE cartilage and evaluated strategies to mitigate it. We also evaluated the gene expression of the family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1-4) and their association with tissue quality...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741264/why-are-diabetes-medications-so-expensive-and-what-can-be-done-to-control-their-cost
#18
REVIEW
Laura N McEwen, Sarah Stark Casagrande, Shihchen Kuo, William H Herman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this study were to describe how medication prices are established, to explain why antihyperglycemic medications have become so expensive, to show trends in expenditures for antihyperglycemic medications, and to highlight strategies to control expenditures in the USA. RECENT FINDINGS: In the U.S., pharmaceutical manufacturers set the prices for new products. Between 2002 and 2012, expenditures for antihyperglycemic medications increased from $10 billion to $22 billion...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739415/human-factors-evaluation-of-surgeons-working-positions-for-gynaecological-minimal-access-surgery
#19
Sue Hignett, Diane Gyi, Lisa Calkins, Laura Jones, Esther Moss
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) in gynaecological minimal access surgery (MAS), including bariatric (plus size) patients DESIGN: Mixed methods DESIGN CLASSIFICATION: Level III (descriptive and qualitative) SETTING: UK Teaching Hospital PATIENTS: Not applicable INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable MEASUREMENTS: Survey, observations (anthropometry, postural analysis) and interviews. RESULTS: WRMSD were present in 63% of survey respondents (n=67)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739109/generation-of-glucose-sensitive-insulin-secreting-beta-like-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-incorporating-a-synthetic-lineage-control-network
#20
Pratik Saxena, Daniel Bojar, Henryk Zulewski, Martin Fussenegger
We previously reported novel technology to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells by engineering a synthetic lineage-control network regulated by the licensed food additive vanillic acid. This genetic network was able to program intricate expression dynamics of the key transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3, OFF-ON-OFF), Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, ON-OFF-ON) and MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A, OFF-ON) to guide the differentiation of IPSC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells to beta-like cells...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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