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Human Factors Engineering Study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521202/dual-growth-factor-loaded-nonmulberry-silk-fibroin-carbon-nanofiber-composite-3d-scaffolds-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-bone-regeneration
#1
Deboki Naskar, Ananta K Ghosh, Mahitosh Mandal, Piyali Das, Samit K Nandi, Subhas C Kundu
In recent years the potential application of nanocomposite biomaterials in tissue engineering field is gaining importance because of the combined features of all the individual components. A bottom-up approach is acquired in this study to recreate the bone microenvironment. The regenerated silk protein fibroin obtained from nonmulberry tropical tasar Antheraea mylitta species is reinforced with functionalized carbon nano fiber (CNF) and the composite sponges are fabricated using facile green aqueous based method...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518098/engineering-artificial-factors-to-specifically-manipulate-alternative-splicing-in-human-cells
#2
Huan-Huan Wei, Yuanlong Liu, Yang Wang, Qianyun Lu, Xuerong Yang, Jiefu Li, Zefeng Wang
The processing of most eukaryotic RNAs is mediated by RNA Binding Proteins (RBPs) with modular configurations, including an RNA recognition module, which specifically binds the pre-mRNA target and an effector domain. Previously, we have taken advantage of the unique RNA binding mode of the PUF domain in human Pumilio 1 to generate a programmable RNA binding scaffold, which was used to engineer various artificial RBPs to manipulate RNA metabolism. Here, a detailed protocol is described to construct Engineered Splicing Factors (ESFs) that are specifically designed to modulate the alternative splicing of target genes...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514897/biomaterials-and-bioactive-agents-in-spinal-fusion
#3
Rui M Duarte, Pedro Varanda, Rui L Reis, Ana Rita C Duarte, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Management of degenerative spine pathologies frequently leads to the need for spinal fusion, where bone growth is induced towards stabilization of the interventioned spine. Autologous bone graft (ABG) remains the gold standard inducer, while new bone graft substitutes attempt to achieve effective de novo bone formation and solid fusion. Limited fusion outcomes have driven motivation for more sophisticated and multidisciplinary solutions, involving new biomaterials and/or biologics, through innovative delivery platforms...
May 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514851/blood-brain-barrier-penetrating-biologic-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitor-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Rudy Chang, Jillian Knox, Jae Chang, Aram Derbedrossian, Vitaly Vasilevko, David Cribbs, Ruben J Boado, William M Pardridge, Rachita Sumbria
OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) driven processes are involved at multiple stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology and disease progression. Biologic TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) are the most potent class of TNFIs but cannot be developed for AD since these macromolecules do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A BBB-penetrating TNFI was engineered by the fusion of the extracellular domain of the type II human TNF receptor (TNFR) to a chimeric monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the mouse transferrin receptor (TfR), designated as the cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500952/isolation-and-characterization-of-lymphoid-enhancer-factor-1-positive-deciduous-dental-pulp-stem-like-cells-after-transfection-with-a-piggybac-vector-containing-lef1-promoter-driven-selection-markers
#5
Tomoya Murakami, Issei Saitoh, Masahiro Sato, Emi Inada, Miki Soda, Masataka Oda, Hisanori Domon, Yoko Iwase, Tadashi Sawami, Kazunari Matsueda, Yutaka Terao, Hayato Ohshima, Hirofumi Noguchi, Haruaki Hayasaki
OBJECTIVE: Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEF1) is a 48-kD nuclear protein that is expressed in pre-B and T cells. LEF1 is also an important member of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that plays important roles in the self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. We speculated that LEF1 might function in the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). In this study, we attempted to isolate such LEF1-positive cells from human deciduous dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) by genetic engineering technology, using the human LEF1 promoter...
May 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492986/biosynthesis-and-bioactivity-of-glucosinolates-and-their-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#6
REVIEW
Pedro Joaquín Sánchez-Pujante, María Borja-Martínez, María Ángeles Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Glucosinolates are biologically active compounds which are involved in plant defense reaction. The use of plant in vitro cultures and genetic engineering is a promising strategy for their sustainable production. Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites found mainly in Brassicaceae, which contain nitrogen and sulfur in their structures. Glucosinolates are divided into three groups depending on the amino acid from which they are biosynthesized. Aliphatic glucosinolates are generally derived from leucine, valine, methionine, isoleucine and alanine while indole and aromatic glucosinolates are derived from tryptophan and phenylalanine or tyrosine, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486755/mechanical-stimulations-on-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhance-cells-differentiation-in-a-3d-layered-scaffold
#7
Jessica Schiavi, Loïc Reppel, Naceur Charif, Natalia de Isla, Didier Mainard, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, Jean-François Stoltz, Rachid Rahouadj, Céline Huselstein
Scaffolds laden with stem cells are a promising approach for articular cartilage repair. Investigations have shown that implantation of artificial matrices, growth factors or chondrocytes can stimulate cartilage formation; but no existing strategy apply mechanical stimulation on stratified scaffolds to mimic the cartilage environment. The purpose of this study was to adapt a spraying method for stratified cartilage engineering and to stimulate the bio-substitute. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Bone Marrow (BM-MSCs) were seeded in an Alginate/Hyaluronic Acid (Alg/HA) or Alg/Hydroxyapatite (Alg/Hap) gel to direct cartilage and hypertrophic cartilage/sub-chondral bone differentiation, respectively, in different layers linked with polyelectrolyte multilayer films, in a single scaffold...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486747/a-simple-rocker-induced-mechanical-stimulus-upregulates-mineralization-by-human-osteoprogenitor-cells-in-fibrous-scaffolds
#8
Sasima Puwanun, Robin M Delaine Smith, Helen E Colley, Julian M Yates, Sheila MacNeil, Gwendolen C Reilly
Biodegradable electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds can be used to support bone-forming cells and could fill a thin bony defect, such as in cleft palate. Oscillatory fluid flow (OFF) has been shown to stimulate bone production in human progenitor cells in monolayer culture. The aim of this study was to examine whether bone matrix production by primary human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow (hBMSC) or jaw periosteal tissue (HJP) could be stimulated using OFF supplied by a standard see-saw rocker...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482571/optimization-and-development-of-maghemite-%C3%AE-fe2o3-filled-poly-l-lactic-acid-plla-thermoplastic-polyurethane-tpu-electrospun-nanofibers-using-taguchi-orthogonal-array-for-tissue-engineering-heart-valve
#9
Ehsan Fallahiarezoudar, Mohaddeseh Ahmadipourroudposht, Ani Idris, Noordin Mohd Yusof
Tissue engineering (TE) is an advanced principle to develop a neotissue that can resemble the original tissue characteristics with the capacity to grow, to repair and to remodel in vivo. This research proposed the optimization and development of nanofiber based scaffold using the new mixture of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) filled poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) for tissue engineering heart valve (TEHV). The chemical, structural, biological and mechanical properties of nanofiber based scaffold were characterized in terms of morphology, porosity, biocompatibility and mechanical behaviour...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482232/control-of-angiogenesis-and-host-response-by-modulating-the-cell-adhesion-properties-of-an-elastin-like-recombinamer-based-hydrogel
#10
Sebastian Manuel Staubli, Giulia Cerino, Israel Gonzalez De Torre, Matilde Alonso, Daniel Oertli, Friedrich Eckstein, Katharina Glatz, José Carlos Rodríguez Cabello, Anna Marsano
The control of the in vivo vascularization of engineered tissue substitutes is essential in order to obtain either a rapid induction or a complete inhibition of the process (e.g. in muscles and hyaline-cartilage, respectively). Among the several polymers available, Elastin-Like Recombinamers (ELR)-based hydrogel stands out as a promising material for tissue engineering thanks to its viscoelastic properties, non-toxicity, and non-immunogenicity. In this study, we hypothesized that varying the cell adhesion properties of ELR-hydrogels could modulate the high angiogenic potential of adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells, predominantly composed of endothelial/mural and mesenchymal cells...
April 28, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464229/functional-characterization-of-the-neuron-restrictive-silencer-element-in-the-human-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-expression
#11
Yukino Nawa, Hanae Kaneko, Masayuki Oda, Masaaki Tsubonoya, Tomoko Hiroi, Maria Teresa Gentile, Luca Colucci-D'Amato, Ryoya Takahashi, Hiroaki Matsui
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of neuronal serotonin. Although previous studies suggest that TPH2 NRSE (neuron-restrictive silencer element) functions as a negative regulator dependent on NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor) activity, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we show a detailed analysis of the NRSE-mediated repression of the human TPH2 (hTPH2) promoter activity in RN46A cells, a cell line derived from rat raphe neurons. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of serotonergic marker genes (Mash1, Nkx2...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463545/meniscal-tissue-engineering-using-aligned-collagen-fibrous-scaffolds-comparison-of-different-human-cell-sources
#12
Jihye Baek, Sujata Sovani, Wonchul Choi, Sungho Jin, Shawn P Grogan, Darryl D'Lima
Hydrogel and electrospun scaffold materials support cell attachment and neotissue development and can be tuned to structurally and mechanically resemble native ECM by altering either electrospun fiber or hydrogel properties. In this study, we examined meniscus tissue generation from different human cell sources including meniscus cells derived from vascular and avascular regions, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), synovial cells, and cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP). All cells were seeded onto aligned electrospun collagen type I scaffolds and were optionally encapsulated in a tricomponent hydrogel...
May 2, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460646/evaluation-of-engineered-aav-capsids-for-hepatic-factor-ix-gene-transfer-in-murine-and-canine-models
#13
David M Markusic, Timothy C Nichols, Elizabeth P Merricks, Brett Palaschak, Irene Zolotukhin, Damien Marsic, Sergei Zolotukhin, Arun Srivastava, Roland W Herzog
BACKGROUND: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy vectors have shown the best outcomes in human clinical studies for the treatment of genetic diseases such as hemophilia. However, these pivotal investigations have also identified several challenges. For example, high vector doses are often used for hepatic gene transfer, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against viral capsid may occur. Therefore, achieving therapy at reduced vector doses and other strategies to reduce capsid antigen presentation are desirable...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460618/specific-targeting-of-her2-positive-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-line-hn5-by-idarubicin-zher2-affibody-conjugate
#14
Marzieh Ghanemi, Aminollah Pourshohod, Mohammad Ali Ghaffari, Alireza Kheirollah, Mansour Amin, Majid Zeinali, Mostafa Jamalan
Expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line HN5 can be employed with great opportunities of success for specific targeting of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In the current study, HER2-specific affibody molecule, ZHER2:342 (an engineered protein with great affinity for HER2 receptors) was selected for conjugation to idarubicin (an anti-neoplastic antibiotic). ZHER2:342 affibody gene with one added cysteine code at the its 5' end was synthesized de novo and then inserted into pET302 plasmid and transferred to E...
April 26, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459049/engineering-blood-and-lymphatic-microvascular-networks-in-fibrin-matrices
#15
Lea Knezevic, Mira Schaupper, Severin Mühleder, Katharina Schimek, Tobias Hasenberg, Uwe Marx, Eleni Priglinger, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
Vascular network engineering is essential for nutrient delivery to tissue-engineered constructs and, consequently, their survival. In addition, the functionality of tissues also depends on tissue drainage and immune cell accessibility, which are the main functions of the lymphatic system. Engineering both the blood and lymphatic microvasculature would advance the survival and functionality of tissue-engineered constructs. The aim of this study was to isolate pure populations of lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and blood vascular endothelial cells (BEC) from human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and to study their network formation in our previously described coculture model with adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) in fibrin scaffolds...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456746/genetically-engineered-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-producing-il3-and-tpo-to-further-improve-human-scaffold-based-xenograft-models
#16
M Carretta, B de Boer, J Jaques, A Antonelli, S J Horton, H Yuan, J D de Bruijn, R W J Groen, E Vellenga, J J Schuringa
Recently, NOD-SCID IL2Rγ(-/-) (NSG) mice were implanted with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of ceramic scaffolds or matrigel in order to mimic the human bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. This approach allowed the engraftment of leukemic samples that failed to engraft in NSG mice without humanized niches and resulted in a better preservation of leukemic stem cell self-renewal properties [1-3]. To further improve our humanized niche scaffold model, we genetically engineered human MSCs to secrete human IL3 and TPO...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450402/designing-methuselah-an-ethical-argument-against-germline-genetic-modification-to-prolong-human-longevity
#17
Isabelle L Robertson
Precise editing of the human germline has been considered an unlikely and an unethical proposition. Recently, tools to edit the human germline have been developed and it is now a realistic prospect. Consequently, the ethical arguments around prohibiting human genome editing need to be re-evaluated. It is anticipatable that using it to eradicate disease-causing mutations will be acceptable if clinical risks can be shown to be sufficiently low. Some go further and advocate that genetically 'enhancing' humans will also be permissible...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448484/tissue-engineered-3d-human-lymphatic-microvascular-network-for-in-vitro-studies-of-lymphangiogenesis
#18
Laure Gibot, Todd Galbraith, Jennifer Bourland, Anita Rogic, Mihaela Skobe, François A Auger
This protocol describes a unique in vitro method for the generation of a 3D human lymphatic network within native connective tissue devoid of any exogenous material such as scaffolds or growth factors. In this five-stage protocol, human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) cocultured with dermal fibroblasts spontaneously organize into a stable 3D lymphatic capillary network. Stage 1 involves the isolation of primary fibroblasts and LECs from human skin. Fibroblasts are then cultured to produce connective tissue rich in extracellular matrix (stage 2), onto which LECs are seeded to form a network (stage 3)...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447733/gene-expression-profile-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-chondrogenic-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vitro-part-b
#19
Ewelina Augustyniak, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Tomasz Trzeciak, Magdalena Richter
The development of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is considered a turning point in tissue engineering. However, more data are required to improve understanding of key aspects of the cell differentiation process, including how specific chondrogenic processes affect the gene expression profile of chondrocyte‑like cells and the relative value of cell differentiation markers. The main aims of the present study were as follows: To determine the gene expression profile of chondrogenic‑like cells derived from hiPSCs cultured in mediums conditioned with HC‑402‑05a cells or supplemented with transforming growth factor β3 (TGF‑β3), and to assess the relative utility of the most commonly‑used chondrogenic markers as indicators of cell differentiation...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447543/human-egf-derived-direct-and-reverse-short-linear-motifs-conformational-dynamics-insight-into-the-receptor-binding-residues
#20
Nurbubu T Moldogazieva, Konstantin V Shaitan, Mikhail Yu Antonov, Innokenty M Mokhosoev, Olga V Levtsova, Аlexander A Terentiev
Short linear motifs (SLiMs) have been recognized to perform diverse functions in a variety of regulatory proteins through the involvement in protein-protein interactions, signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, protein secretion, etc. However, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying their functions including roles of definite amino acid residues remain obscure. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that conformational dynamics of amino acid residues in oligopeptides derived from regulatory proteins such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and pregnancy specific β1-glycoproteins (PSGs) contributes greatly to their biological activities...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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