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Human Factors Engineering Study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106824/identification-of-the-muc2-promoter-as-a-strong-promoter-for-intestinal-gene-expression-through-generation-of-transgenic-quail-expressing-gfp-in-gut-epithelial-cells
#1
Rachel M Woodfint, Paula R Chen, Jinsoo Ahn, Yeunsu Suh, Seongsoo Hwang, Sang Suk Lee, Kichoon Lee
Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097682/evaluation-of-perforated-demineralized-dentin-scaffold-on-bone-regeneration-in-critical-size-sheep-iliac-defects
#2
Md Arafat Kabir, Masaru Murata, Toshiyuki Akazawa, Kaoru Kusano, Katsuhisa Yamada, Manabu Ito
OBJECTIVES: Regenerating critical-size bone injury is a major problem that continues to inspire the design of new graft materials. Therefore, tissue engineering has become a novel approach for targeting bone regeneration applications. Human teeth are a rich source of stem cells, matrix, trace metal ions, and growth factors. A vital tooth-derived demineralized dentin matrix is acid-insoluble and composed of cross-linked collagen with growth factors. In this study, we recycled human non-functional tooth into a unique geometric dentin scaffold, entitled perforated root-demineralized dentin matrix (PR-DDM)...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096221/efficient-crispr-cas9-assisted-gene-targeting-enables-rapid-and-precise-genetic-manipulation-of-mammalian-neural-stem-cells
#3
Raul Bardini Bressan, Pooran Singh Dewari, Maria Kalantzaki, Ester Gangoso, Mantas Matjusaitis, Claudia Garcia-Diaz, Carla Blin, Vivien Grant, Harry Bulstrode, Sabine Gogolok, William C Skarnes, Steven M Pollard
Mammalian neural stem (NS) cell lines provide a tractable model for discovery across stem cell and developmental biology, regenerative medicine and neuroscience. They can be derived from foetal or adult germinal tissues and continuously propagated in vitro as adherent monolayers. NS cells are clonally expandable, genetically stable, and easily transfectable - experimental attributes compatible with targeted genetic manipulations. However, gene targeting - so critical for functional studies of embryonic stem cells - has not been exploited to date in NS cells...
January 17, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095751/crispr-based-epigenome-editing-of-cytokine-receptors-for-the-promotion-of-cell-survival-and-tissue-deposition-in-inflammatory-environments
#4
Niloofar Farhang, Jonathan M Brunger, Joshua D Stover, Pratiksha I Thakore, Brandon Lawrence, Farshid Guilak, Charles A Gersbach, Lori A Setton, Robert D Bowles
Musculoskeletal diseases have been associated with inflammatory cytokine action, particularly action by TNF-α and IL-1β. These inflammatory cytokines promote apoptosis and senescence of cells in diseased tissue and extracellular matrix breakdown. Stem cell-based therapies are being considered for the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases, but the presence of these inflammatory cytokines will have similar deleterious action on therapeutic cells delivered to these environments. Methods that prevent inflammatory-induced apoptosis and pro-inflammatory signaling, in cell and pathway specific manners are needed...
January 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#5
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090699/modelling-irf8-deficient-human-hematopoiesis-and-dendritic-cell-development-with-engineered-ips-cells
#6
Stephanie Sontag, Malrun Förster, Jie Qin, Paul Wanek, Saskia Mitzka, Herdit M Schüler, Steffen Koschmieder, Stefan Rose-John, Kristin Seré, Martin Zenke
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, including hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is a transcription factor, which acts in hematopoiesis as lineage determining factor for myeloid cells, including dendritic cells (DC). Autosomal recessive or dominant IRF8 mutations occurring in patients cause severe monocytic and DC immunodeficiency. To study IRF8 in human hematopoiesis we generated human IRF8-/- iPS cells and IRF8-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells using RNA guided CRISPR/Cas9n genome editing...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090513/an-update-and-review-of-cell-based-wound-dressings-and-their-integration-into-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Austin Pourmoussa, Daniel J Gardner, Maxwell B Johnson, Alex K Wong
Chronic wounds affect over 4 million individuals and pose a significant burden to the US healthcare system. Diabetes, venous stasis, radiation or paralysis are common risk factors for chronic wounds. Unfortunately, the current standard of care (SOC) has a high relapse rate and these wounds continue to adversely affect patients' quality of life. Fortunately, advances in tissue engineering have allowed for the development of cell-based wound dressings that promote wound healing by improving cell migration and differentiation...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088579/the-microrna-449-family-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-liver-cancer-cell-migration-by-targeting-sox4
#8
Maria Sandbothe, Reena Buurman, Nicole Reich, Luisa Greiwe, Beate Vajen, Engin Gürlevik, Vera Schäffer, Marlies Eilers, Florian Kühnel, Alejandro Vaquero, Thomas Longerich, Stephanie Roessler, Peter Schirmacher, Michael P Manns, Thomas Illig, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Britta Skawran
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Modulation of microRNA expression is considered for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, we characterized the epigenetically regulated microRNA-449 family (miR-449a, miR-449b, miR-449c) with regards to its functional effects and target genes in HCC. METHODS: After transfection of miR-449a, miR-449b, and/or miR-449c, tumor-relevant functional effects were analyzed using in vitro assays and a xenograft mouse model. Binding specificities, target genes, and regulated pathways of each microRNA were identified by microarray analyses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077981/dna-polymerase-kappa-protects-human-cells-against-mmc-induced-genotoxicity-through-error-free-translesion-dna-synthesis
#9
Yuki Kanemaru, Tetsuya Suzuki, Akira Sassa, Kyomu Matsumoto, Noritaka Adachi, Masamitsu Honma, Satoshi Numazawa, Takehiko Nohmi
BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and environment are critical factors for causing cancer in humans. The genotoxicity of environmental chemicals can be enhanced via the modulation of susceptible genes in host human cells. DNA polymerase kappa (Pol κ) is a specialized DNA polymerase that plays an important role in DNA damage tolerance through translesion DNA synthesis. To better understand the protective roles of Pol κ, we previously engineered two human cell lines either deficient in expression of Pol κ (KO) or expressing catalytically dead Pol κ (CD) in Nalm-6-MSH+ cells and examined cytotoxic sensitivity against various genotoxins...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#10
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076902/decellularized-extracellular-matrix-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-promotes-endothelial-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth
#11
Ting Gong, Boon Chin Heng, Jianguang Xu, Shaoyue Zhu, Changyong Yuan, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chengfei Zhang
Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells (ECs) for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075698/older-adults-and-management-of-medical-devices-in-the-home-five-requirements-for-appropriate-use
#12
Sara C Keller, Ayse P Gurses, Nicole Werner, Dawn Hohl, Ashley Hughes, Bruce Leff, Alicia I Arbaje
Medical devices, or instruments or tools to manage disease, are increasingly used in the home, yet there have been limited evaluations of how older adults and caregivers safely use these devices. This study concerns a qualitative evaluation of (1) barriers and facilitators of appropriate use, and (2) outcomes of inappropriate use, among older adults at the transition from hospital to home with skilled home health care (SHHC). Guided by a human factors engineering work system model, the authors (1) conducted direct observations with contextual inquiry of the start-of-care or resumption-of-care SHHC provider visit, and (2) semi-structured interviews with 24 older adults and their informal caregivers, and 39 SHHC providers and administrators...
January 11, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071742/core-transcription-factors-micrornas-and-small-molecules-drive-transdifferentiation-of-human-fibroblasts-towards-the-cardiac-cell-lineage
#13
Nicolas Christoforou, Syandan Chakraborty, Robert D Kirkton, Andrew F Adler, Russell C Addis, Kam W Leong
Transdifferentiation has been described as a novel method for converting human fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells. Such an approach can produce differentiated cells to study physiology or pathophysiology, examine drug interactions or toxicities, and engineer cardiac tissues. Here we describe the transdifferentiation of human dermal fibroblasts towards the cardiac cell lineage via the induced expression of transcription factors GATA4, TBX5, MEF2C, MYOCD, NKX2-5, and delivery of microRNAs miR-1 and miR-133a...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068879/electrospun-template-architecture-and-composition-regulate-neutrophil-netosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Allison E Fetz, Indira Neeli, Isaac A Rodriguez, Marko Z Radic, Gary Bowlin
Mounting evidence indicates that neutrophils, first responders to an implanted biomaterial, prime the microenvironment for recruited immune cells by secreting factors and releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) through NETosis. In this study, we investigated the role of electrospun template architecture and composition in regulating NETosis. Electrospun polydioxanone (PDO), collagen type I (COL), and blended PDO-COL templates (PC) were fabricated with small (0.25-0.35µm) and large (1.0-2.00µm) diameter fibers...
January 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068621/formation-of-porous-hpcl-lpcl-ha-scaffolds-with-supercritical-co2-gas-foaming-method
#15
M Zahedi Moghadam, Sh Hassanajili, F Esmaeilzadeh, M Ayatollahi, M Ahmadi
Scaffold is a 3D porous structure that is made of different materials, such as synthetic and natural polymers. It plays the role of a synthetic extracellular matrix and permits adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of the cells. Porosity and pore size are the important factors for any 3D scaffold used in bone tissue engineering. In this study, porous scaffolds were prepared by adding hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles as filler to the polymeric matrix of polycaprolactone (PCL) blends with two different molecular weight by using supercritical CO2 (ScCO2) foaming method...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064157/fviii-specific-human-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-regulatory-cells-suppress-t-and-b-cell-responses-to-fviii
#16
Jeongheon Yoon, Anja Schmidt, Ai-Hong Zhang, Christoph Königs, Yong Chan Kim, David W Scott
Replacement therapy with factor VIII (FVIII) is used in hemophilia A patients for treatment of bleeding episodes or for prophylaxis. A common and serious problem with this therapy is the patient's immune response to FVIII, due to a lack of tolerance, leading to the formation of inhibitory antibodies. Development of tolerogenic therapies, other than standard ITI, is an unmet goal. We previously generated engineered antigen- specific regulatory T cells (Tregs), created by transduction of a recombinant T cell receptor (TCR) isolated from a hemophilia A subject's T cell clone...
November 15, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063980/plant-viral-nanoparticles-based-her2-vaccine-immune-response-influenced-by-differential-transport-localization-and-cellular-interactions-of-particulate-carriers
#17
Sourabh Shukla, Jay T Myers, Sarah E Woods, Xingjian Gong, Anna E Czapar, Ulrich Commandeur, Alex Y Huang, Alan D Levine, Nicole F Steinmetz
Cancer vaccines are designed to elicit an endogenous adaptive immune response that can successfully recognize and eliminate residual or recurring tumors. Such approaches can potentially overcome shortcomings of passive immunotherapies by generating long-lived therapeutic effects and immune memory while limiting systemic toxicities. A critical determinant of vaccine efficacy is efficient transport and delivery of tumor-associated antigens to professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) with natural tropism for APCs and a high payload carrying capacity may be particularly effective vaccine carriers...
December 27, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057266/t-box-genes-in-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#18
A Kispert
T-box (Tbx) genes encode an ancient group of transcription factors that play important roles in patterning, specification, proliferation, and differentiation programs in vertebrate organogenesis. This is testified by severe organ malformation syndromes in mice homozygous for engineered null alleles of specific T-box genes and by the large number of human inherited organ-specific diseases that have been linked to mutations in these genes. One of the organ systems that has not been associated with loss of specific T-box gene function in human disease for long is the excretory system...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056402/engineering-hepatitis-b-virus-core-particles-for-targeting-her2-receptors-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Izzat Fahimuddin Bin Mohamed Suffian, Julie Tzu-Wen Wang, Naomi O Hodgins, Rebecca Klippstein, Mitla Garcia-Maya, Paul Brown, Yuya Nishimura, Hamed Heidari, Sara Bals, Jane K Sosabowski, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
Hepatitis B Virus core (HBc) particles have been studied for their potential as drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy. HBc particles are hollow nano-particles of 30-34 nm diameter and 7 nm thick envelopes, consisting of 180-240 units of 21 kDa core monomers. They have the capacity to assemble/dis-assemble in a controlled manner allowing encapsulation of various drugs and other biomolecules. Moreover, other functional motifs, i.e. receptors, receptor binding sequences, peptides and proteins can be expressed...
December 14, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052579/poly-trimethylene-carbonate-as-an-elastic-biodegradable-film-for-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#20
Anni Sorkio, Suvi Haimi, Vincent Verdoold, Kati Juuti-Uusitalo, Dirk Grijpma, Heli Skottman
Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cell therapies show tremendous potential for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. A tissue engineering approach, where cells are delivered to the subretinal space on a biodegradable carrier as a sheet, shows great promise for these RPE cell therapies. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a flexible, elastic and biodegradable poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) film promotes the formation of functional hESC-RPE and performs better than often used biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) film...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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