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Human Factors Engineering Study

Massimo Alfano, Manuela Nebuloni, Raffaele Allevi, Pietro Zerbi, Erika Longhi, Roberta Lucianò, Irene Locatelli, Angela Pecoraro, Marco Indrieri, Chantal Speziali, Claudio Doglioni, Paolo Milani, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
In the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering simulating the native microenvironment is of utmost importance. As a major component of the microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to tissue homeostasis, whereas modifications of native features are associated with pathological conditions. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) geometry is an important feature of synthetic scaffolds favoring cell stemness, maintenance and differentiation. We analyzed the 3D structure, geometrical measurements and anisotropy of the ECM isolated from (i) human bladder mucosa (basal lamina and lamina propria) and muscularis propria; and, (ii) bladder carcinoma (BC)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guankui Wang, Fangfang Chen, Nirmal K Banda, V Michael Holers, LinPing Wu, S Moein Moghimi, Dmitri Simberg
While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Jia Guo, Ming Jiang, Lingjing Jin, Yanxin Yin, Hui Sun, Lihua Yu, Yuting Mao, Jianmin Fang
Objective To construct lentiviral vectors for the expression of monovalent antibody against human c-mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (c-Met) using anti-c-Met chimeric antibody ch3E1D7 plasmid, and test the affinity and neutralizing ability of the purified monovalent antibody in transfected HEK293T cells. Methods The anti-c-Met monovalent antibody was designed, namely mono3E1D7. Three different lentiviral expression vectors of the monovalent antibody were then constructed using genetic engineering technology...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Hossein E Jazayeri, Mohammadreza Tahriri, Mehdi Razavi, Kimia Khoshroo, Farahnaz Fahimipour, Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Luis Almeida, Lobat Tayebi
Tissue regeneration is rapidly evolving to treat anomalies in the entire human body. The production of biodegradable, customizable scaffolds to achieve this clinical aim is dependent on the interdisciplinary collaboration among clinicians, bioengineers and materials scientists. While bone grafts and varying reconstructive procedures have been traditionally used for maxillofacial defects, the goal of this review is to provide insight on all materials involved in the progressing utilization of the tissue engineering approach to yield successful treatment outcomes for both hard and soft tissues...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jing Wang, Binbin Sun, Lingling Tian, Xiaomin He, Qiang Gao, Tong Wu, Seeram Ramakrishna, Jinghao Zheng, Xiumei Mo
Tracheal injuries are one of major challenging issues in clinical medicine because of the poor intrinsic ability of tracheal cartilage for repair. Tissue engineering provides an alternative method for the treatment of tracheal defects by generating replacement tracheal structures. In this study, core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated to encapsulate bovine serum albumin & rhTGF-β3 (recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3) into the core of the nanofibers for tracheal cartilage regeneration. Characterization of the core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and tensile mechanical test...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Maria Chatzinikolaidou, Charalampos Pontikoglou, Konstantina Terzaki, Maria Kaliva, Athanasia Kalyva, Eleni Papadaki, Maria Vamvakaki, Maria Farsari
The regeneration of bone via a tissue engineering approach involves components from the macroscopic to the nanoscopic level, including appropriate 3D scaffolds, cells and growth factors. In this study, hexagonal scaffolds of different diagonals were fabricated by Direct Laser Writing using a photopolymerizable hybrid material. The proliferation of bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on structures with various diagonals, 50, 100, 150 and 200μm increased significantly after 10days in culture, however without significant differences among them...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Shang-Chun Guo, Shi-Cong Tao, Wen-Jing Yin, Xin Qi, Jia-Gen Sheng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) represents a debilitating complication following glucocorticoid (GC)-based therapy. Synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can exert protective effect in the animal model of GC-induced ONFH by inducing cell proliferation and preventing cell apoptosis. Recent studies indicate the transplanted cells exert therapeutic effects primarily via a paracrine mechanism and exosomes are an important paracrine factor that can be directly used as therapeutic agents for tissue engineering...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Luiz Alexandre Chisini, Marcus Cristian Muniz Conde, Jose Carlos Bernedo Alcázar, Adriana Fernandes da Silva, Jacques Eduardo Nör, Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquinio, Flávio Fernando Demarco
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and osteonectin (ON) in pulp-like tissues developed by tissue engineering and to compare it with the expression of these proteins in pulps treated with Ca(OH)2 therapy. Tooth slices were obtained from non-carious human third molars under sterile procedures. The residual periodontal and pulp soft tissues were removed. Empty pulp spaces of the tooth slice were filled with sodium chloride particles (250-425 µm)...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Carmen Martinez-Valenzuela, Fernanda Balderrama Soto, Stefan M Waliszewski, Enrique Meza, Sandra Gómez Arroyo, Luis Daniel Ortega Martínez, Eliakym Arambula Meraz, Mario Caba
Gasoline is a blend of organic compounds used in internal combustion engines. Gasoline-station attendants are exposed to gasoline vapors, which pose a potentially mutagenic risk. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, exposure to gasoline and engine exhaust is possibly carcinogenic to humans. We determined the frequency of micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities, such as pyknotic nuclei, chromatin condensation, cells with nuclear buds, karyolytic cells, karyorrhexis, and binucleated cells in buccal mucosal smears of 60 gasoline-station attendants and 60 unexposed controls...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cheng Zhong, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Xiao Xu, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Because of an increasing discrepancy between the number of potential liver graft recipients and the number of organs available, scientists are trying to create artificial liver to mimic normal liver function and therefore, to support the patient's liver when in dysfunction. 3D printing technique meets this purpose. The present study was to test the feasibility of 3D hydrogel scaffolds for liver engineering. METHODS: We fabricated 3D hydrogel scaffolds with a bioprinter...
October 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Yeji Kim, Julie C Liu
Peripheral artery disease often requires treatments with vascular grafts for vessel reconstruction. Endothelialization of the vascular grafts is important to achieve long-term patency because endothelial cells regulate thrombosis, inflammation, and growth of smooth muscle cells. One potential source of endothelial cells is human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which can be routinely differentiated towards the endothelial lineage using exogenous growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Jezamine Lim, Zainul Rashid Mohamad Razi, Jiaxian Law, Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Ruszymah Binti Haji Idrus, Min Hwei Ng
BACKGROUND AIMS: Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) are possibly the most suitable allogeneic cell source for stromal cell therapy and tissue engineering applications because of their hypo-immunogenic and non-tumorigenic properties, easy availability and minimal ethical concerns. Furthermore, hWJMSCs possess unique properties of both adult mesenchymal stromal cells and embryonic stromal cells. The human umbilical cord (UC) is approximately 50-60 cm long and the existing studies in the literature have not provided information on which segment of the UC was studied...
October 7, 2016: Cytotherapy
Mei-Chi Chang, Hsiao-Hua Chang, Po-Shuan Lin, Yu-An Huang, Chiu-Po Chan, Yi-Ling Tsai, Shen-Yang Lee, Po-Yuan Jeng, Han-Yueh Kuo, Sin-Yuet Yeung, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in the pulpal repair and dentinogenesis. Plasminogen activation (PA) system regulates extracellular matrix turnover. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on PA system of dental pulp cells and its signaling pathways. Dental pulp cells were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1. MTT assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) were used to detect the effect of TGF-β1 on cell viability, mRNA and protein expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as well as their secretion...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Yu-Chieh Chiu, Eliza L Fong, Brian J Grindel, Fred K Kasper, Daniel A Harrington, Mary C Farach-Carson
BACKGROUND: Biomaterial scaffolds that deliver growth factors such as recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins-2 (rhBMP-2) have improved clinical bone tissue engineering by enhancing bone tissue regeneration. This approach could be further improved if the controlled delivery of bioactive rhBMP-2 were sustained throughout the duration of osteogenesis from fibrous scaffolds that provide control over dose and bioactivity of rhBMP-2. In nature, heparan sulfate attached to core proteoglycans serves as the co-receptor that delivers growth factors to support tissue morphogenesis...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Galina Kochneva, Galina Sivolobova, Anastasiya Tkacheva, Antonina Grazhdantseva, Olga Troitskaya, Anna Nushtaeva, Anastasiya Tkachenko, Elena Kuligina, Vladimir Richter, Olga Koval
Vaccinia virus (VACV) oncolytic therapy has been successful in a number of tumor models. In this study our goal was to generate a double recombinant vaccinia virus (VV-GMCSF-Lact) with enhanced antitumor activity that expresses exogenous proteins: the antitumor protein lactaptin and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Lactaptin has previously been demonstrated to act as a tumor suppressor in mouse hepatoma as well as MDA-MB-231 human adenocarcinoma cells grafted into SCID mice. VV-GMCSF-Lact was engineered from Lister strain (L-IVP) vaccinia virus and has deletions of the viral thymidine kinase and vaccinia growth factor genes...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Tessa D Nauta, Marloes van den Broek, Sue Gibbs, Tineke C T M van der Pouw-Kraan, Cees B Oudejans, Victor W M van Hinsbergh, Pieter Koolwijk
During prolonged hypoxic conditions, endothelial cells change their gene expression to adjust to the low oxygen environment. This process is mainly regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Although endothelial cells do not form sprouts during prolonged hypoxic culturing, silencing of HIF-2α partially restores sprout formation. The present study identifies novel HIF-2α-target genes that may regulate endothelial sprouting during prolonged hypoxia. The gene expression profile of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs) that were cultured at 20 % oxygen was compared to hMVECs that were cultured at 1 % oxygen for 14 days by using genome-wide RNA-sequencing...
October 3, 2016: Angiogenesis
Susann Grosse, Jørgen Stenvik, Asbjørn M Nilsen
Co-stimulation of the immune system to more than one agent concomitantly is very common in real life, and considering the increasing use of engineered nanoparticles and nanomaterials, it is highly relevant to assess the ability of these materials to modulate key innate immune responses, which has not yet been studied in detail. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of 10 nm and 30 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) on primary human monocytes in the presence and absence of Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Tissue-engineered regeneration of a failing human heart remains a major challenge, while cardiovascular disease continues to take more lives than all cancers combined. Much has been learned from the basic and clinical studies, with the most interesting developments happening at the interfaces of disciplines. This seems to be the right time to step back and rethink the evolving paradigm of tissue engineering, and to reflect about the most promising directions to take. We clearly need new therapeutic modalities that are effective and yet simple enough to be practical, and the field is looking into the therapeutic potential of stem-progenitor cells, cardiac and vascular, that are enabled by bioactive factors and functionalized biomaterials...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
G Portocarrero Huang, A Molina, N Tran, G Collins, T Livingston Arinzeh
Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal and currently, no treatment exists that can restore normal hyaline cartilage. Creating tissue engineering scaffolds that more closely mimic the native extracellular matrix may be an attractive approach. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are present in native cartilage tissue, provide signaling and structural cues to cells. This study evaluated the use of a GAG mimetic, derived from cellulose, as a potential scaffold for cartilage repair applications. Fully sulfated, sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) was initially evaluated in soluble form as an additive to cell culture media...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Jessica Ratajczak, Annelies Bronckaers, Yörg Dillen, Pascal Gervois, Tim Vangansewinkel, Ronald B Driesen, Esther Wolfs, Ivo Lambrichts, Petra Hilkens
Within the field of tissue engineering, natural tissues are reconstructed by combining growth factors, stem cells, and different biomaterials to serve as a scaffold for novel tissue growth. As adequate vascularization and innervation are essential components for the viability of regenerated tissues, there is a high need for easily accessible stem cells that are capable of supporting these functions. Within the human tooth and its surrounding tissues, different stem cell populations can be distinguished, such as dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human deciduous teeth, stem cells from the apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells...
2016: Stem Cells International
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