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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456496/how-do-acquired-political-identities-influence-our-neural-processing-toward-others-within-the-context-of-a-trust-game
#1
Chien-Te Wu, Yang-Teng Fan, Ye-Rong Du, Tien-Tun Yang, Ho-Ling Liu, Nai-Shing Yen, Shu-Heng Chen, Ray-May Hsung
Trust is essential for mutually beneficial human interactions in economic exchange and politics and people's social identities notably have dramatic effects on trust behaviors toward others. Previous literature concerning social identities generally suggests that people tend to show in-group favoritism toward members who share the same identity. However, how our brains process signals of identity while facing uncertain situations in interpersonal interactions remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed an fMRI experiment with 54 healthy adults who belonged to two identity groups of opposing political orientations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451586/virtual-reality-exposure-therapy-for-fear-of-driving-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-physiological-response-and-sense-of-presence
#2
Rafael T da Costa, Marcele R de Carvalho, Pedro Ribeiro, Antonio E Nardi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reactions of women with driving phobia to a therapeutic program of scheduled virtual reality exposure treatment (VRET) sessions. METHODS: The study intervention consisted of a computer game with car-driving scenarios that included several traffic situations. We investigated the participants' sense of presence, subjective distress, and physiological responses during eight virtual-reality exposures. We also evaluated clinical characteristics, driving cognitions, and quality of life in the participants...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447153/a-model-of-risk-and-mental-state-shifts-during-social-interaction
#3
Andreas Hula, Iris Vilares, Terry Lohrenz, Peter Dayan, P Read Montague
Cooperation and competition between human players in repeated microeconomic games offer a window onto social phenomena such as the establishment, breakdown and repair of trust. However, although a suitable starting point for the quantitative analysis of such games exists, namely the Interactive Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (I-POMDP), computational considerations and structural limitations have limited its application, and left unmodelled critical features of behavior in a canonical trust task...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439784/influence-of-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-diet-quality-in-childhood-on-the-incidence-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-disorders-during-adolescence-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
XiuYun Wu, Kerry Bastian, Arto Ohinmaa, Paul Veugelers
PURPOSE: Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. METHODS: We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011...
February 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435822/do-simulated-gambling-activities-predict-gambling-with-real-money-during-adolescence-empirical-findings-from-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Tobias Hayer, Jens Kalke, Gerhard Meyer, Tim Brosowski
As technology has developed, the international gambling market has changed markedly in recent years. The supply of internet-based gambling opportunities has become ever more significant. At the same time, the introduction of new gambling opportunities always brings a demand for evidence-based scientific evaluation, with regard to the associated risks of addiction. Simulated internet gambling, which is the focus of this study, represents a relatively new product group located at the interface between gambling and computer gaming...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426814/exploring-the-specific-needs-of-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-for-mhealth-solutions-for-physical-activity-mixed-methods-study
#6
Guido Giunti, Jan Kool, Octavio Rivera Romero, Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world's most common neurologic disorders, with symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive problems, and issues with mobility. Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) helps people with MS reduce fatigue and improve quality of life. The use of mobile technologies for health has grown in recent years with little involvement from relevant stakeholders. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy with the goal of creating solutions specific to the needs and tasks of the intended users...
February 9, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397410/behavioral-and-electrophysiological-responses-to-fairness-norm-violations-in-antisocial-offenders
#7
Sarah Verena Mayer, Karsten Rauss, Gilles Pourtois, Aiste Jusyte, Michael Schönenberg
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a stable, lifelong pattern of disregard for and violation of others' rights. Disruptions in the representation of fairness norms may represent a key mechanism in the development and maintenance of this disorder. Here, we investigated fairness norm considerations and reactions to their violations. To examine electrophysiological correlates, we assessed the medial frontal negativity (MFN), an event-related potential previously linked to violations of social expectancy and norms...
February 3, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395652/sigmoid-weighted-linear-units-for-neural-network-function-approximation-in-reinforcement-learning
#8
Stefan Elfwing, Eiji Uchibe, Kenji Doya
In recent years, neural networks have enjoyed a renaissance as function approximators in reinforcement learning. Two decades after Tesauro's TD-Gammon achieved near top-level human performance in backgammon, the deep reinforcement learning algorithm DQN achieved human-level performance in many Atari 2600 games. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, we propose two activation functions for neural network function approximation in reinforcement learning: the sigmoid-weighted linear unit (SiLU) and its derivative function (dSiLU)...
January 11, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394108/participant-outcomes-from-methods-of-recruitment-for-videogame-research
#9
Courtney Ryan, Hafza Dadabhoy, Tom Baranowski
OBJECTIVE: The most productive methods of recruitment for a videogame for health (G4H) trial are not known. Success or failure of recruitment methods has been reported for a variety of clinical trials, but few specifically for G4H trials. This study's goal was to recruit 444 overweight or obese (body mass index percentile between the 84.5th-99.4th percentiles) children between the ages of 10-12 years. The article reports the results of different methods of participant recruitment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants had to agree to three fasting blood samples (baseline, immediately after, and 2 months later); be willing to wear an accelerometer for 7 days at each assessment; read and speak English fluently (because the games were in English); have no history of any condition that would affect what he/she could eat or how much physical activity he/she could get; and have an eligible home computer purchased in the last 5 years with high-speed internet...
February 2018: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376694/mean-potential-law-in-evolutionary-games
#10
Paweł Nałęcz-Jawecki, Jacek Miękisz
The Letter presents a novel way to connect random walks, stochastic differential equations, and evolutionary game theory. We introduce a new concept of a potential function for discrete-space stochastic systems. It is based on a correspondence between one-dimensional stochastic differential equations and random walks, which may be exact not only in the continuous limit but also in finite-state spaces. Our method is useful for computation of fixation probabilities in discrete stochastic dynamical systems with two absorbing states...
January 12, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376116/conflicts-of-interest-improve-collective-computation-of-adaptive-social-structures
#11
Eleanor R Brush, David C Krakauer, Jessica C Flack
In many biological systems, the functional behavior of a group is collectively computed by the system's individual components. An example is the brain's ability to make decisions via the activity of billions of neurons. A long-standing puzzle is how the components' decisions combine to produce beneficial group-level outputs, despite conflicts of interest and imperfect information. We derive a theoretical model of collective computation from mechanistic first principles, using results from previous work on the computation of power structure in a primate model system...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371618/decentralized-dynamic-understanding-of-hidden-relations-in-complex-networks
#12
Decebal Constantin Mocanu, Georgios Exarchakos, Antonio Liotta
Almost all the natural or human made systems can be understood and controlled using complex networks. This is a difficult problem due to the very large number of elements in such networks, on the order of billions and higher, which makes it impossible to use conventional network analysis methods. Herein, we employ artificial intelligence (specifically swarm computing), to compute centrality metrics in a completely decentralized fashion. More exactly, we show that by overlaying a homogeneous artificial system (inspired by swarm intelligence) over a complex network (which is a heterogeneous system), and playing a game in the fused system, the changes in the homogeneous system will reflect perfectly the complex network properties...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370275/what-does-media-use-reveal-about-personality-and-mental-health-an-exploratory-investigation-among-german-students
#13
Julia Brailovskaia, Jürgen Margraf
The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related to these personality and mental health variables...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369952/running-performance-in-brazilian-professional-football-players-during-a-congested-match-schedule
#14
Luiz H Palucci Vieira, Rodrigo Aquino, Carlos Lago-Peñas, Guilherme H Munhoz Martins, Enrico F Puggina, Fabio A Barbieri
Palucci Vieira, LH, Aquino, R, Lago-Peñas, C, Munhoz Martins, GH, Puggina, EF, and Barbieri, FA. Running performance in Brazilian professional football players during a congested match schedule. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 313-325, 2018-The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of playing congested fixtures (2 matches a week) on running performance of Brazilian professional football players, pooled (all performance files regardless players' rotation between games) or individualized data treatment (including only files of athletes' who played pair(s) of noncongested-congested matches which occurred on the same week)...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361504/the-development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-repurposing-of-a-peripheral-gaming-device-for-the-acquisition-of-forces-applied-to-a-hydraulic-treatment-plinth
#15
Darren Cooper, Joe Bevins, Mark Corbett
This technical note details the stages taken to create an instrumented hydraulic treatment plinth for the measurement of applied forces in the vertical axis. The modification used a widely available low-cost peripheral gaming device and required only basic construction and computer skills. The instrumented treatment plinth was validated against a laboratory grade force platform across a range of applied masses from 0.5-15 kg, mock Gr I-IV vertebral mobilisations and a dynamic response test. Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated poor reliability (0...
January 13, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355884/developing-a-serious-game-for-nurse-education
#16
Hege Mari Johnsen, Mariann Fossum, Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt, Ann Fruhling, Åshild Slettebø
Future nursing education is challenged to develop innovative and effective programs that align with current changes in health care and to educate nurses with a high level of clinical reasoning skills, evidence-based knowledge, and professional autonomy. Serious games (SGs) are computer-based simulations that combine knowledge and skills development with video game-playing aspects to enable active, experiential, situated, and problem-based learning. In a PhD project, a video-based SG was developed to teach nursing students nursing care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in home health care and hospital settings...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352823/neurocognitive-and-self-efficacy-benefits-of-cognitive-remediation-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Shayden D Bryce, Susan L Rossell, Stuart J Lee, Richard J Lawrence, Eric J Tan, Sean P Carruthers, Jennie L Ponsford
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of computer-assisted "drill-and-strategy" cognitive remediation (CR) for community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia on cognition, everyday self-efficacy, and independent living skills. METHODS: Fifty-six people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized into CR or computer game (CG) playing (control), and offered twenty 1-hr individual sessions in a group setting over 10 weeks...
January 21, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351500/differential-learning-as-a-key-training-approach-to-improve-creative-and-tactical-behavior-in-soccer
#18
Sara Santos, Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Wolfgang Schöllhorn, Jaime Sampaio, Nuno Leite
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a differential-learning program, embedded in small-sided games, on the creative and tactical behavior of youth soccer players. Forty players from under-13 (U13) and under-15 (U15) were allocated into control and experimental groups and were tested using a randomized pretest to posttest design using small-sided games situations. METHOD: The experimental group participated in a 5-month differential-learning program embodied in small-sided games situations, while the control group participated in a typical small-sided games training program...
January 19, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342218/cross-lagged-structural-equation-models-for-the-relationship-between-health-related-state-and-behaviours-and-body-bullying-in-adolescence-findings-from-longitudinal-study-elana
#19
Viviane S Straatmann, Ylva B Almquist, Aldair J Oliveira, Mikael Rostila, Claudia S Lopes
We investigated the stability and the directionality of being body bullied and a set of four variables- 1) Body Mass Index (BMI), 2) moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 3) television time (TV) and 4) video game/computer time (VG)-, termed in the present study as 'health-related state and behaviours (HRSB)'-across adolescence. The Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) is a cohort study conducted among middle school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342171/health-behavior-associated-with-liver-enzymes-among-obese-korean-adolescents-2009-2014
#20
Eun-Young Lee, Hwa Young Choi, Hyunsoon Cho, Bo Hyun Kim, Moran Ki
AIMS: Obesity is major risk factor for liver health. This study aimed to clarify whether specific health behaviors were associated with liver function in obese adolescents in Korea. METHODS: Based on national school health examination data from 2009 to 2014, 25,142 obese or overweight students were examined for aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, and health behaviors. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for liver enzyme elevation...
2018: PloS One
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