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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930904/computations-underlying-social-hierarchy-learning-distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-updating-and-representing-self-relevant-information
#1
Dharshan Kumaran, Andrea Banino, Charles Blundell, Demis Hassabis, Peter Dayan
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930484/are-hospital-workers-healthy-a-study-of-cardiometabolic-behavioral-and-psychosocial-factors-associated-with-obesity-among-hospital-workers
#2
Shreela V Sharma, Mudita Upadhyaya, Mandar Karhade, William B Baun, William B Perkison, Lisa A Pompeii, Henry S Brown, Deanna M Hoelscher
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the cardiometabolic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with weight status among hospital employees. METHODS: A total of n = 924 employees across the six hospitals in Texas participated in this cross-sectional study, 2012 to 2013. Association between weight status and waist circumference, blood pressure, biomarkers, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial factors was assessed. RESULTS: About 78...
December 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918466/evaluating-a-website-to-teach-children-safety-with-dogs-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
David C Schwebel, Peng Li, Leslie A McClure, Joan Severson
Dog bites represent a significant threat to child health. Theory-driven interventions scalable for broad dissemination are sparse. A website was developed to teach children dog safety via increased knowledge, improved cognitive skills in relevant domains, and increased perception of vulnerability to bites. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 69 children aged 4-5 randomly assigned to use the dog safety website or a control transportation safety website for ~3 weeks. Assessment of dog safety knowledge and behavior plus skill in three relevant cognitive constructs (impulse control, noticing details, and perspective-taking) was conducted both at baseline and following website use...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918425/the-influence-of-health-behaviours-in-childhood-on-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adolescence
#4
Xiuyun Wu, Arto Ohinmaa, Paul J Veugelers
Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This study aimed to examine the association of diet quality, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in childhood with ADHD throughout adolescence. We linked data from grade five students aged primarily 10 and 11 years old who participated in a population-based lifestyle survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with their administrative health care data...
December 2, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917128/what-role-can-avatars-play-in-e-mental-health-interventions-exploring-new-models-of-client-therapist-interaction
#5
REVIEW
Imogen C Rehm, Emily Foenander, Klaire Wallace, Jo-Anne M Abbott, Michael Kyrios, Neil Thomas
In the burgeoning field of e-mental health interventions, avatars are increasingly being utilized to facilitate online communication between clients and therapists, and among peers. Avatars are digital self-representations, which enable individuals to interact with each other in computer-based virtual environments. In this narrative review, we examine the psychotherapeutic applications of avatars that have been investigated and trialed to date. Five key applications were identified (1) in the formation of online peer support communities; (2) replicating traditional modes of psychotherapy by using avatars as a vehicle to communicate within a wholly virtual environment; (3) using avatar technology to facilitate or augment face-to-face treatment; (4) as part of serious games; and (5) communication with an autonomous virtual therapist...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917105/eeg-negativity-in-fixations-used-for-gaze-based-control-toward-converting-intentions-into-actions-with-an-eye-brain-computer-interface
#6
Sergei L Shishkin, Yuri O Nuzhdin, Evgeny P Svirin, Alexander G Trofimov, Anastasia A Fedorova, Bogdan L Kozyrskiy, Boris M Velichkovsky
We usually look at an object when we are going to manipulate it. Thus, eye tracking can be used to communicate intended actions. An effective human-machine interface, however, should be able to differentiate intentional and spontaneous eye movements. We report an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker that differentiates gaze fixations used for control from spontaneous fixations involved in visual exploration. Eight healthy participants played a game with their eye movements only. Their gaze-synchronized EEG data (fixation-related potentials, FRPs) were collected during game's control-on and control-off conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914918/epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#7
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Kirk Gosik, Sujuan Xing, Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Vernon M Chinchilli, Rongling Wu
Epigenetic reprogramming is thought to play a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. How the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates embryogenesis depends on the interaction and coordination of the gametes of two sexes. While there is abundant research in exploring the epigenetic interactions of sperms and oocytes, a knowledge gap exists in the mechanistic quantitation of these interactions and their impact on embryo development. This review aims at formulating a modeling framework to address this gap through the integration and synthesis of evolutionary game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development by next-generation sequencing...
November 9, 2016: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906965/do-elite-and-amateur-soccer-players-outperform-non-athletes-on-neurocognitive-functioning-a-study-among-8-12-year-old-children
#8
Lot Verburgh, Erik J A Scherder, Paul A M Van Lange, Jaap Oosterlaan
AIM: Research suggested a positive association between physical fitness and neurocognitive functioning in children. Aim of the present study is to investigate possible dose-response relationships between diverse daily physical activities and a broad range of neurocognitive functions in preadolescent children. Furthermore, the relationship between several sedentary behaviours, including TV-watching, gaming and computer time, and neurocognitive functioning will be investigated in this group of children...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903488/information-and-communication-technologies-for-the-dissemination-of-clinical-practice-guidelines-to-health-professionals-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Gino De Angelis, Barbara Davies, Judy King, Jessica McEwan, Sabrina Cavallo, Laurianne Loew, George A Wells, Lucie Brosseau
BACKGROUND: The transfer of research knowledge into clinical practice can be a continuous challenge for researchers. Information and communication technologies, such as websites and email, have emerged as popular tools for the dissemination of evidence to health professionals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to identify research on health professionals' perceived usability and practice behavior change of information and communication technologies for the dissemination of clinical practice guidelines...
November 30, 2016: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893251/sources-of-developmental-change-in-the-efficiency-of-information-search
#10
Azzurra Ruggeri, Tania Lombrozo, Thomas L Griffiths, Fei Xu
Children are active learners: they learn not only from the information people offer and the evidence they happen to observe, but by actively seeking information. However, children's information search strategies are typically less efficient than those of adults. In two studies, we isolate potential sources of developmental change in how children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults search for information. To do so, we develop a hierarchical version of the 20-questions game, in which participants either ask questions (Study 1) or test individual objects (Study 2) to discover which category of objects within a nested structure (e...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858676/association-between-home-posture-habits-and-neck-pain-in-high-school-adolescents
#11
Ney Meziat Filho, Gulnar Azevedo E Silva, Evandro Silva Coutinho, Roberta Mendonça, Vivian Santos
BACKGROUND: Neck pain (NP) in adolescence is as frequent as in adulthood. However, the relationship between home posture habits and neck pain is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of NP and the association with home posture habits (HPH) in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with High School adolescents. Students answered questions regarding sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, HPH (illustration in the questionnaire), time (TV, computer, video-game) and the presence of NP...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857638/changes-in-muscle-spasticity-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-after-spinal-manipulation-case-series
#12
Oleh Kachmar, Taras Voloshyn, Mykhailo Hordiyevych
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case series was to report quantitative changes in wrist muscle spasticity in children with cerebral palsy after 1 spinal manipulation (SM) and a 2-week course of treatment. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients, aged 7 to 18 years, with spastic forms of cerebral palsy and without fixed contracture of the wrist, were evaluated before initiation of treatment, after 1 SM, and at the end of a 2-week course of treatment. Along with daily SM, the program included physical therapy, massage, reflexotherapy, extremity joint mobilization, mechanotherapy, and rehabilitation computer games for 3 to 4 hours' duration...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854536/pok%C3%A3-mon-go-may-increase-physical-activity-and-decrease-sedentary-behaviors
#13
Claudio R Nigg, Desiree Joi Mateo, Jiyoung An
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853384/ehealth-technologies-to-support-nutrition-and-physical-activity-behaviors-in-diabetes-self-management
#14
REVIEW
Megan E Rollo, Elroy J Aguiar, Rebecca L Williams, Katie Wynne, Michelle Kriss, Robin Callister, Clare E Collins
Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851815/melioration-learning-in-two-person-games
#15
Johannes Zschache
Melioration learning is an empirically well-grounded model of reinforcement learning. By means of computer simulations, this paper derives predictions for several repeatedly played two-person games from this model. The results indicate a likely convergence to a pure Nash equilibrium of the game. If no pure equilibrium exists, the relative frequencies of choice may approach the predictions of the mixed Nash equilibrium. Yet in some games, no stable state is reached.
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826899/-usage-patterns-of-internet-and-computer-games-results-of-an-observational-study-of-tyrolean-adolescents
#16
David Riedl, Andrea Stöckl, Charlotte Nussbaumer, Gerhard Rumpold, Kathrin Sevecke, Martin Fuchs
BACKGROUND: The use of digital media such as the Internet and Computer games has greatly increased. In the western world, almost all young people regularly use these relevant technologies. Against this background, forms of use with possible negative consequences for young people have been recognized and scientifically examined. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of pathological use of these technologies in a sample of young Tyrolean people. METHODS: 398 students (average age 15...
December 2016: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824495/the-ulam-programming-language-for-artificial-life
#17
David H Ackley, Elena S Ackley
Traditional digital computing demands perfectly reliable memory and processing, so programs can build structures once then use them forever-but such deterministic execution is becoming ever more costly in large-scale systems. By contrast, living systems, viewed as computations, naturally tolerate fallible hardware by repairing and rebuilding structures even while in use-and suggest ways to compute using massive amounts of unreliable, merely best-effort hardware. However, we currently know little about programming without deterministic execution, in architectures where traditional models of computation-and deterministic ALife models such as the Game of Life-need not apply...
2016: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822467/a-kinect-based-physiotherapy-and-assessment-platform-for-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#18
Ioannis Pachoulakis, Nikolaos Xilourgos, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Anastasia Analyti
We report on a Kinect-based, augmented reality, real-time physiotherapy platform tailored to Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The platform employs a Kinect sensor to extract real-time 3D skeletal data (joint information) from a patient facing the sensor (at 30 frames per second). In addition, a small collection of exercises practiced in traditional physiotherapy for PD patients has been implemented in the Unity 3D game engine. Each exercise employs linear or circular movement patterns and poses very light-weight processing demands on real-time computations...
2016: Journal of Medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822047/a-pilot-study-of-cognitive-training-with-and-without-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-improve-cognition-in-older-persons-with-hiv-related-cognitive-impairment
#19
Raymond L Ownby, Amarilis Acevedo
BACKGROUND: In spite of treatment advances, HIV infection is associated with cognitive deficits. This is even more important as many persons with HIV infection age and experience age-related cognitive impairments. Both computer-based cognitive training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have shown promise as interventions to improve cognitive function. In this study, we investigate the acceptability and efficacy of cognitive training with and without tDCS in older persons with HIV...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820864/parkinson-patients-initial-trust-in-avatars-theory-and-evidence
#20
Andrija Javor, Gerhard Ransmayr, Walter Struhal, René Riedl
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor system and cognitive and behavioral functions. Due to these impairments, PD patients also have problems in using the computer. However, using computers and the Internet could help these patients to overcome social isolation and enhance information search. Specifically, avatars (defined as virtual representations of humans) are increasingly used in online environments to enhance human-computer interaction by simulating face-to-face interaction...
2016: PloS One
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