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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035326/prebiotic-rna-network-formation-a-taxonomy-of-molecular-cooperation
#1
Cole Mathis, Sanjay N Ramprasad, Sara Imari Walker, Niles Lehman
Cooperation is essential for evolution of biological complexity. Recent work has shown game theoretic arguments, commonly used to model biological cooperation, can also illuminate the dynamics of chemical systems. Here we investigate the types of cooperation possible in a real RNA system based on the Azoarcus ribozyme, by constructing a taxonomy of possible cooperative groups. We construct a computational model of this system to investigate the features of the real system promoting cooperation. We find triplet interactions among genotypes are intrinsically biased towards cooperation due to the particular distribution of catalytic rate constants measured empirically in the real system...
October 16, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030293/solving-probability-reasoning-based-on-dna-strand-displacement-and-probability-modules
#2
Qiang Zhang, Xiaobiao Wang, Xiaojun Wang, Changjun Zhou
In computation biology, DNA strand displacement technology is used to simulate the computation process and has shown strong computing ability. Most researchers use it to solve logic problems, but it is only rarely used in probabilistic reasoning. To process probabilistic reasoning, a conditional probability derivation model and total probability model based on DNA strand displacement were established in this paper. The models were assessed through the game "read your mind." It has been shown to enable the application of probabilistic reasoning in genetic diagnosis...
September 28, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029695/continued-use-of-an-interactive-computer-game-based-visual-perception-learning-system-in-children-with-developmental-delay
#3
Hsien-Cheng Lin, Yu-Hsien Chiu, Yenming J Chen, Yee-Pay Wuang, Chiu-Ping Chen, Chih-Chung Wang, Chien-Ling Huang, Tang-Meng Wu, Wen-Hsien Ho
This study developed an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system for special education children with developmental delay. To investigate whether perceived interactivity affects continued use of the system, this study developed a theoretical model of the process in which learners decide whether to continue using an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system. The technology acceptance model, which considers perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness, was extended by integrating perceived interaction (i...
November 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028264/teacheng-a-teaching-engine-for-genomics
#4
Minji Kim, Yeonsung Kim, Lei Qian, Jun S Song
Motivation: Bioinformatics is a rapidly growing field that has emerged from the synergy of computer science, statistics and biology. Given the interdisciplinary nature of bioinformatics, many students from diverse fields struggle with grasping bioinformatic concepts only from classroom lectures. Interactive tools for helping students reinforce their learning would be thus desirable. Here, we present an interactive online educational tool called TeachEnG (acronym for Teaching Engine for Genomics) for reinforcing key concepts in sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree reconstruction...
October 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021913/exergaming-can-be-an-innovative-way-of-enjoyable-high-intensity-interval-training
#5
Trine Moholdt, Stian Weie, Konstantinos Chorianopoulos, Alf Inge Wang, Kristoffer Hagen
OBJECTIVES: Exergames can replace sedentary time spent on computer gaming with physical activity. Previous research has found exergaming to elicit light-to-moderate exercise intensity. Our primary aim was to examine the exercise intensity of a newly developed biking exergame. METHODS: Eight males (23.9±0.6 years) played the exergame (PLAY) and walked (WALK) on three separate occasions, with the condition counterbalanced and in random sequence within each day. They were asked to PLAY and WALK for a minimum of 15 min and then continue for as long as they wanted...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020530/doctor-should-i-use-computer-games-to-prevent-dementia
#6
Deirdre M O'Shea, Liselotte De Wit, Glenn E Smith
Commercial advertising of computerized "brain games" may result in clinicians being asked whether brain games prevent dementia. To address this question, we conducted a review of computerized cognitive training (CCT) interventions in older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Studies were identified using a PubMed and PSYCinfo search for review articles. Within 11 review articles we identified 15 unique studies. Nine of these studies used commercially available "brain games" as their primary CCT intervention...
August 23, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016200/analysis-of-movement-acceleration-of-down-s-syndrome-teenagers-playing-computer-games
#7
Daniela Carrogi-Vianna, Paulo Batista Lopes, Raquel Cymrot, Jefferson Jesus Hengles Almeida, Marcos Lomonaco Yazaki, Silvana Maria Blascovi-Assis
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate movement acceleration characteristics in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) and typical development (TD), while playing bowling and golf videogames on the Nintendo(®) Wii™. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample comprised 21 adolescents diagnosed with DS and 33 with TD of both sexes, between 10 and 14 years of age. The arm swing accelerations of the dominant upper limb were collected as measures during the bowling and the golf games...
October 10, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992899/tailored-online-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-with-or-without-therapist-support-calls-to-target-psychological-distress-in-adults-receiving-haemodialysis-a-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Joanna L Hudson, Rona Moss-Morris, Sam Norton, Federica Picariello, David Game, Amy Carroll, Jonathan Spencer, Paul McCrone, Matthew Hotopf, Lucy Yardley, Joseph Chilcot
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress is prevalent in haemodialysis (HD) patients yet access to psychotherapy remains limited. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of online cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) tailored for HD patients, with or without therapist support, for managing psychological distress. METHODS: This feasibility randomised controlled trial recruited patients from a UK HD centre. Following psychological distress screens, patients with mild-moderate psychological distress (Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9; score: 5-19 and/or Generalised Anxiety Disorder; GAD-7 score: 5-14) who met remaining inclusion criteria were approached for consent...
November 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990011/how-gamification-affects-physical-activity-large-scale-analysis-of-walking-challenges-in-a-mobile-application
#9
Ali Shameli, Tim Althoff, Amin Saberi, Jure Leskovec
Gamification represents an effective way to incentivize user behavior across a number of computing applications. However, despite the fact that physical activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle, surprisingly little is known about how gamification and in particular competitions shape human physical activity. Here we study how competitions affect physical activity. We focus on walking challenges in a mobile activity tracking application where multiple users compete over who takes the most steps over a predefined number of days...
April 2017: Proceedings of the International World-Wide Web Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989767/pedestrian-motion-modelled-by-fokker-planck-nash-games
#10
S Roy, A Borzì, A Habbal
A new approach to modelling pedestrians' avoidance dynamics based on a Fokker-Planck (FP) Nash game framework is presented. In this framework, two interacting pedestrians are considered, whose motion variability is modelled through the corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) governed by FP equations. Based on these equations, a Nash differential game is formulated where the game strategies represent controls aiming at avoidance by minimizing appropriate collision cost functionals. The existence of Nash equilibria solutions is proved and characterized as a solution to an optimal control problem that is solved numerically...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986509/why-targeting-psma-is-a-game-changer-in-the-management-of-prostate-cancer-%C3%A2-a-urologist-s-point-of-view
#11
Nicholas M Donin, Robert Reiter
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed on prostate adenocarcinomas, exhibits only limited expression in benign and extra-prostatic tissues, and thus represents an ideal target for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Since its discovery over 30 years ago, significant effort has been made to develop clinical technology targeting PSMA. The last 5 years have seen an explosion of development of new agents targeting PSMA for diagnostic and therapeutic use...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981876/human-substantia-nigra-and-ventral-tegmental-area-involvement-in-computing-social-error-signals-during-the-ultimatum-game
#12
S Hétu, Y Luo, K D'Ardenne, T Lohrenz, P R Montague
Social norms play an essential role in our societies, and since the social environment is changing constantly, our internal models of it also need to change. In humans, there is mounting evidence that neural structures such as the insula and the ventral striatum are involved in detecting norm violation and updating internal models. However, because of methodological challenges, little is known about the possible involvement of midbrain structures in detecting norm violation and updating internal models of our norms...
August 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980579/-a-comparative-clinical-study-of-the-efficacy-of-computer-cognitive-training-in-patients-with-post-stroke-cognitive-impairments
#13
S V Prokopenko, A F Bezdenezhnykh, E Yu Mozheyko, E M Zubrickaya
AIM: To assess the effectiveness of neuropsychological computer programs in comparison with entertainment computer games. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients (n=68), aged 40-65 years, were randomized into three groups: an intervention group (neuropsychological computer programs), an active control group (entertaining computer games), a passive control group (conventional treatment). RESULTS: An analysis of the coefficient of effectiveness showed significant improvements in the intervention group comparing with the passive control group (MoCA, MMSE, Schulte test) and the active control group (MoCA)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974188/-the-influence-of-media-consumption-during-early-childhood-on-media-use-and-psychological-disorders-in-adolescence
#14
Julius Grund, Wolfgang Schulz
The Influence of Media Consumption During Early Childhood on Media Use and Psychological Disorders in Adolescence There are many studies that suggest that there is a link between high media consumption and psychological, physiological and social disorders. Nevertheless, there are also inconsistent results, methodical limitations and a lack of longitudinal studies. The present study analyses habits of media consumption in children and adolescents, the influence of different early childhood risk factors on the use of the media in adolescence and the links between early childhood media consumption and disorders in adolescence...
October 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973587/promoting-mental-wellbeing-among-older-people-technology-based-interventions
#15
Anna K Forsman, Johanna Nordmyr, Tihana Matosevic, A-La Park, Kristian Wahlbeck, David McDaid
This systematic review explored the effectiveness of technology-based interventions in promoting the mental health and wellbeing of people aged 65 and over. Data were collected as part of a wider review commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England on the effectiveness of different actions to promote the mental wellbeing and independence of older people. All studies identified through this review were subject to a detailed critical appraisal of quality, looking at internal and external validity...
August 30, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971432/cognitive-enhancement-using-ict-and-its-ethical-implications
#16
Spyros Doukakis, Giannis Stamatellos, Nektaria Glinou
The utilization of digital tools aiming at the cognitive enhancement of students and adults, so that they can achieve better performance and professional or academic success, has increased in recent years. This paper focuses on ICT tools such as computer games, programming languages and educational software as means for cognitive enhancement and attempts to highlight their contributions. Issues of design and the limitations of digital tools are discussed. In the final section, the ethical implications of using educational ICT tools for cognitive enhancement from a virtue ethics perspective are presented...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961248/nutritional-interventions-for-adolescents-using-information-and-communication-technologies-icts-a-systematic-review
#17
Giselle Rhaisa do Amaral E Melo, Fernanda de Carvalho Silva Vargas, Carolina Martins Dos Santos Chagas, Natacha Toral
A cost-effective and interactive way of promoting healthy nutrition behaviors among adolescents is using information and communication technologies (ICTs). We systematically reviewed studies to identify technologies and their main characteristics used for nutritional interventions for adolescents, as well as to evaluate their quality and effectiveness. Our full protocol is available on the PROSPERO website (#CRD42016035882). A search was conducted across five databases for articles describing nutritional interventions that used ICTs designed mainly for healthy adolescents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959358/accelerating-physical-simulations-of-proteins-by-leveraging-external-knowledge
#18
Alberto Perez, Joseph A Morrone, Ken A Dill
It is challenging to compute structure-function relationships of proteins using molecular physics. The problem arises from the exponential scaling of the computational searching and sampling of large conformational spaces. This scaling challenge is not met by today's methods, such as Monte Carlo, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, or molecular dynamics (MD) or its variants such as replica exchange. Such methods of searching for optimal states on complex probabalistic landscapes are referred to more broadly as Explore-and-Exploit (EE), including in contexts such as computational learning, games, industrial planning and modeling military strategies...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Computational Molecular Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957032/the-influence-of-parental-health-literacy-status-on-reach-attendance-retention-and-outcomes-in-a-family-based-childhood-obesity-treatment-program-virginia-2013-2015
#19
Jamie M Zoellner, Jennie Hill, Wen You, Donna Brock, Madlyn Frisard, Ramine Alexander, Fabiana Silva, Bryan Price, Ruby Marshall, Paul A Estabrooks
INTRODUCTION: Few interventions have evaluated the influence of parent health literacy (HL) status on weight-related child outcomes. This study explores how parent HL affects the reach, attendance, and retention of and outcomes in a 3-month multicomponent family-based program to treat childhood obesity (iChoose). METHODS: This pre-post, quasiexperimental trial occurred in the Dan River Region, a federally designated medically underserved area. iChoose research protocol and intervention strategies were designed using an HL universal precautions approach...
September 28, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949723/contextual-fraction-as-a-measure-of-contextuality
#20
Samson Abramsky, Rui Soares Barbosa, Shane Mansfield
We consider the contextual fraction as a quantitative measure of contextuality of empirical models, i.e., tables of probabilities of measurement outcomes in an experimental scenario. It provides a general way to compare the degree of contextuality across measurement scenarios; it bears a precise relationship to violations of Bell inequalities; its value, and a witnessing inequality, can be computed using linear programing; it is monotonic with respect to the "free" operations of a resource theory for contextuality; and it measures quantifiable advantages in informatic tasks, such as games and a form of measurement-based quantum computing...
August 4, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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