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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231176/tensorcalculator-exploring-the-evolution-of-mechanical-stress-in-the-ccmv-capsid
#1
Olga Kononova, Farkhad Maksudov, Kenneth A Marx, Valeri Barsegov
A new computational methodology for accurate numerical calculation of the Cauchy stress tensor, stress invariants, principal stress components, von Mises and Tresca tensors is developed. The methodology is based on the atomic stress approach which permits the calculation of stress tensors, widely used in continuum mechanics modeling of materials properties, using the output from the MD simulations of discrete atomic and Cα-based coarse-grained structural models of biological particles. The methodology mapped into software package TensorCalculator was successfully applied to the empty Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle virus (CCMV) shell to explore the evolution of mechanical stress in this mechanically-tested specific example of a soft virus capsid...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230170/the-dancing-brain-structural-and-functional-signatures-of-expert-dance-training
#2
Agnieszka Z Burzynska, Karolina Finc, Brittany K Taylor, Anya M Knecht, Arthur F Kramer
Dance - as a ritual, therapy, and leisure activity - has been known for thousands of years. Today, dance is increasingly used as therapy for cognitive and neurological disorders such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, the effects of dance training on the healthy young brain are not well understood despite the necessity of such information for planning successful clinical interventions. Therefore, this study examined actively performing, expert-level trained college students as a model of long-term exposure to dance training...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229299/diffusion-mri-of-white-matter-microstructure-development-in-childhood-and-adolescence-methods-challenges-and-progress
#3
REVIEW
Christian K Tamnes, David R Roalf, Anne-Lise Goddings, Catherine Lebel
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) continues to grow in popularity as a useful neuroimaging method to study brain development, and longitudinal studies that track the same individuals over time are emerging. Over the last decade, seminal work using dMRI has provided new insights into the development of brain white matter (WM) microstructure, connections and networks throughout childhood and adolescence. This review provides an introduction to dMRI, both diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and other dMRI models, as well as common acquisition and analysis approaches...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228195/structural-connectivity-of-right-frontal-hyperactive-areas-scales-with-stuttering-severity
#4
Nicole E Neef, Alfred Anwander, Christoph Bütfering, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228180/longitudinal-structural-and-molecular-neuroimaging-in-agrammatic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#5
Katerina A Tetzloff, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Robert I Reid, Anthony J Spychalla, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia affects normal grammatical language production, often occurs with apraxia of speech, and is associated with left frontal abnormalities on cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. We aimed to perform a detailed assessment of longitudinal change on structural and molecular neuroimaging to provide a complete picture of neurodegeneration in these patients, and to determine how patterns of progression compare to patients with isolated apraxia of speech (primary progressive apraxia of speech)...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227798/histological-and-mri-markers-of-white-matter-damage-in-focal-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Deleo, Maria Thom, Luis Concha, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi
Growing evidence highlights the importance of white matter in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy. Ex vivo and post-mortem studies show pathological changes in epileptic patients in white matter myelination, axonal integrity, and cellular composition. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its analytical extensions, particularly diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been the most widely used technique to image the white matter in vivo for the last two decades, and have shown microstructural alterations in multiple tracts both in the vicinity and at distance from the epileptogenic focus...
November 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221383/self-adaptive-tensor-network-states-with-multi-site-correlators
#7
Arseny Kovyrshin, Markus Reiher
We introduce the concept of self-adaptive tensor network states (SATNSs) based on multi-site correlators. The SATNS ansatz gradually extends its variational space incorporating the most important next-order correlators into the ansatz for the wave function. The selection of these correlators is guided by entanglement-entropy measures from quantum information theory. By sequentially introducing variational parameters and adjusting them to the system under study, the SATNS ansatz achieves keeping their number significantly smaller than the total number of full-configuration interaction parameters...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220866/neural-correlates-of-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-neurophysiological-and-neuroimaging-approach-r1
#8
M Russo, A Calamuneri, A Cacciola, L Bonanno, A Naro, V Dattola, E Sessa, M Buccafusca, D Milardi, P Bramanti, R S Calabrò, A Quartarone
The present study is aimed at further exploring structural and functional correlates of fatigue in Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients by using a combined approach by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and a Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The physiopathology of fatigue in MS is still poorly understood, although a variety of pathogenic mechanisms has been proposed. Our working hypothesis is that diffuse microstructural white matter damage may subtend the cortico-subcortical functional disconnection described in patients with MS and fatigue...
September 30, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219445/fast-quantum-state-transfer-and-entanglement-renormalization-using-long-range-interactions
#9
Zachary Eldredge, Zhe-Xuan Gong, Jeremy T Young, Ali Hamed Moosavian, Michael Foss-Feig, Alexey V Gorshkov
In short-range interacting systems, the speed at which entanglement can be established between two separated points is limited by a constant Lieb-Robinson velocity. Long-range interacting systems are capable of faster entanglement generation, but the degree of the speedup possible is an open question. In this Letter, we present a protocol capable of transferring a quantum state across a distance L in d dimensions using long-range interactions with a strength bounded by 1/r^{α}. If α<d, the state transfer time is asymptotically independent of L; if α=d, the time scales logarithmically with the distance L; if d<α<d+1, the transfer occurs in a time proportional to L^{α-d}; and if α≥d+1, it occurs in a time proportional to L...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209266/current-opportunities-for-clinical-monitoring-of-axonal-pathology-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
REVIEW
Parmenion P Tsitsopoulos, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multidimensional and highly complex disease commonly resulting in widespread injury to axons, due to rapid inertial acceleration/deceleration forces transmitted to the brain during impact. Axonal injury leads to brain network dysfunction, significantly contributing to cognitive and functional impairments frequently observed in TBI survivors. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a clinical entity suggested by impaired level of consciousness and coma on clinical examination and characterized by widespread injury to the hemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum and the brain stem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209263/changes-in-white-matter-connectivity-in-late-second-language-learners-evidence-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#11
Eleonora Rossi, Hu Cheng, Judith F Kroll, Michele T Diaz, Sharlene D Newman
Morphological brain changes as a consequence of new learning have been widely established. Learning a second language (L2) is one such experience that can lead to rapid structural neural changes. However, still relatively little is known about how levels of proficiency in the L2 and the age at which the L2 is learned influence brain neuroplasticity. The goal of this study is to provide novel evidence for the effect of bilingualism on white matter structure in relatively proficient but late L2 learners who acquired the second language after early childhood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209197/asymmetry-of-hemispheric-network-topology-reveals-dissociable-processes-between-functional-and-structural-brain-connectome-in-community-living-elders
#12
Yu Sun, Junhua Li, John Suckling, Lei Feng
Human brain is structurally and functionally asymmetrical and the asymmetries of brain phenotypes have been shown to change in normal aging. Recent advances in graph theoretical analysis have showed topological lateralization between hemispheric networks in the human brain throughout the lifespan. Nevertheless, apparent discrepancies of hemispheric asymmetry were reported between the structural and functional brain networks, indicating the potentially complex asymmetry patterns between structural and functional networks in aging population...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186356/altered-caudate-connectivity-is-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Sara De Simoni, Peter O Jenkins, Niall J Bourke, Jessica J Fleminger, Peter J Hellyer, Amy E Jolly, Maneesh C Patel, James H Cole, Robert Leech, David J Sharp
Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated...
November 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184534/pronounced-structural-and-functional-damage-in-early-adult-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis-with-no-or-minimal-clinical-disability
#14
Antonio Giorgio, Jian Zhang, Maria Laura Stromillo, Francesca Rossi, Marco Battaglini, Lucia Nichelli, Marzia Mortilla, Emilio Portaccio, Bahia Hakiki, Maria Pia Amato, Nicola De Stefano
Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) may represent a model of vulnerability to damage occurring during a period of active maturation of the human brain. Whereas adaptive mechanisms seem to take place in the POMS brain in the short-medium term, natural history studies have shown that these patients reach irreversible disability, despite slower progression, at a significantly younger age than adult-onset MS (AOMS) patients. We tested for the first time whether significant brain alterations already occurred in POMS patients in their early adulthood and with no or minimal disability (n = 15) in comparison with age- and disability-matched AOMS patients (n = 14) and to normal controls (NC, n = 20)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179739/subjective-cognitive-impairment-and-brain-structural-networks-in-chinese-gynaecological-cancer-survivors-compared-with-age-matched-controls-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Yingchun Zeng, Andy S K Cheng, Ting Song, Xiujie Sheng, Yang Zhang, Xiangyu Liu, Chetwyn C H Chan
BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive impairment can be a significant and prevalent problem for gynaecological cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to assess subjective cognitive functioning in gynaecological cancer survivors after primary cancer treatment, and to investigate the impact of cancer treatment on brain structural networks and its association with subjective cognitive impairment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-reported questionnaire by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) to assess subjective cognitive functioning, and applying DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) and graph theoretical analyses to investigate brain structural networks after primary cancer treatment...
November 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170625/connectopathy-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review-of-evidence-from-visual-evoked-potentials-and-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
REVIEW
Takao Yamasaki, Toshihiko Maekawa, Takako Fujita, Shozo Tobimatsu
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show superior performance in processing fine details; however, they often exhibit impairments of gestalt face, global motion perception, and visual attention as well as core social deficits. Increasing evidence has suggested that social deficits in ASD arise from abnormal functional and structural connectivities between and within distributed cortical networks that are recruited during social information processing. Because the human visual system is characterized by a set of parallel, hierarchical, multistage network systems, we hypothesized that the altered connectivity of visual networks contributes to social cognition impairment in ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165048/psychoradiologic-utility-of-mr-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-radiomics-analysis
#17
Huaiqiang Sun, Ying Chen, Qiang Huang, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, Yan Shi, Xin Xu, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To identify cerebral radiomic features related to diagnosis and subtyping of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to build and evaluate classification models for ADHD diagnosis and subtyping on the basis of the identified features. Materials and Methods A consecutive cohort of 83 age- and sex-matched children with newly diagnosed and never-treated ADHD (mean age 10.83 years ± 2.30; range, 7-14 years; 71 boys, 40 with ADHD-inattentive [ADHD-I] and 43 with ADHD-combined [ADHD-C, or inattentive and hyperactive]) and 87 healthy control subjects (mean age, 11...
November 22, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159052/subcortical-grey-matter-changes-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#18
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Bin Kim, Sang-Il Suh, Dong Wook Kim
Recent neuroimaging studies have provided converging evidence of structural and functional abnormalities of the thalamus in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). There has also been limited evidence indicating involvement of the subcortical grey matter structures other than thalamus in JME, but with inconsistent findings across the studies. In the present study, we combined volumetric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging analyses to investigate macrostructural and microstructural alterations of the subcortical grey matter in 64 JME patients compared to 58 matched control subjects...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132048/brain-white-matter-structure-and-language-ability-in-preschool-aged-children
#19
Matthew Walton, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum...
November 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130824/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-differences-between-proportional-and-poor-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#20
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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