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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213111/childhood-maltreatment-is-associated-with-alteration-in-global-network-fiber-tract-architecture-independent-of-history-of-depression-and-anxiety
#1
Kyoko Ohashi, Carl M Anderson, Elizabeth A Bolger, Alaptagin Khan, Cynthia E McGreenery, Martin H Teicher
Childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology. It is also associated with alterations in the network architecture of the brain, which we hypothesized may play a significant role in the development of psychopathology. In this study, we analyzed the global network architecture of physically healthy unmedicated 18-25 year old subjects (n=262) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI and tractography. Anatomical networks were constructed from fiber streams interconnecting 90 cortical or subcortical regions for subjects with no-to-low (n=122) versus moderate-to-high (n=140) exposure to maltreatment...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209179/the-social-brain-network-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#2
Amy K Olszewski, Zora Kikinis, Christie S Gonzalez, Ioana L Coman, Nikolaos Makris, Xue Gong, Yogesh Rathi, Anni Zhu, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Marek R Kubicki, Sylvain Bouix, Martha E Shenton, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with a 25-fold increase in schizophrenia. Both individuals with 22q11.2DS and those with schizophrenia present with social cognitive deficits, which are putatively subserved by a network of brain regions that are involved in the processing of social cognitive information. This study used two-tensor tractography to examine the white matter tracts believed to underlie the social brain network in a group of 57 young adults with 22q11...
February 16, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195241/brain-fingerprints-of-olfaction-a-novel-structural-method-for-assessing-olfactory-cortical-networks-in-health-and-disease
#3
A Fjaeldstad, H M Fernandes, T J Van Hartevelt, C Gleesborg, A Møller, T Ovesen, M L Kringelbach
Olfactory deficits are a common (often prodromal) symptom of neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. As such, olfaction could have great potential as an early biomarker of disease, for example using neuroimaging to investigate the breakdown of structural connectivity profile of the primary olfactory networks. We investigated the suitability for this purpose in two existing neuroimaging maps of olfactory networks. We found problems with both existing neuroimaging maps in terms of their structural connectivity to known secondary olfactory networks...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186667/thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-combining-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#4
Zhiliang Long, Qiang Xu, Huan-Huan Miao, Yang Yu, Mei-Ping Ding, Huafu Chen, Zhi-Rong Liu, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is associated with macrostructural and microstructural abnormalities in the thalamus. OBJECTIVES: To examine functional and structural connectivity of thalamocortical networks in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and to further investigate the effect of mutation of the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 on thalamocortical networks. METHODS: Patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (n = 20), subdivided into proline-rich transmembrane protein 2-mutated (n = 8) and nonmutated patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 20) underwent resting-state functional MRI and diffusion imaging scan...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180079/white-matter-tract-abnormalities-and-antisocial-behavior-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies-across-development
#5
REVIEW
Rebecca Waller, Hailey L Dotterer, Laura Murray, Andrea M Maxwell, Luke W Hyde
Antisocial behavior (AB), including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176877/structural-white-matter-and-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-patients-with-shoulder-apprehension
#6
Davide Zanchi, Gregory Cunningham, Alexandre Lädermann, Mehmet Ozturk, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Sven Haller
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings indicate that shoulder apprehension is more complex than a pure mechanical problem of the shoulder, showing a direct modification in functional brain networks associated with motor inhibition and emotional regulation. The current study extends these findings by investigating further structural alterations in patients with shoulder apprehension compared to controls. 14 aged patients with shoulder apprehension (27.3 ± 2.0 years) and 10 matched healthy controls (29...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173729/structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-children-with-adhd-a-focus-on-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#7
Chenyang Zhan, Yuhong Liu, Kai Wu, Yu Gao, Xiaobo Li
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of both, is a major public health problem. Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations of these cognitive impairments with structural and functional deficits all over the brain. Existing findings are not fully consistent due to the heterogeneity of study samples and diversity of research techniques. In the current study, we propose to utilize a multi-modal MRI approach to study the structural and functional brain networks in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) with a focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)...
February 7, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167790/quon-3d-language-for-quantum-information
#8
Zhengwei Liu, Alex Wozniakowski, Arthur M Jaffe
We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string-genus "joint relation," involving both a string and the 3D manifold...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157550/alterations-of-functional-connectivity-and-intrinsic-activity-within-the-cingulate-cortex-of-suicidal-ideators
#9
Henry W Chase, Anna Maria Segreti, Timothy A Keller, Vladimir L Cherkassky, Marcel A Just, Lisa A Pan, David A Brent
The 'default mode network' (DMN), a collection of brain regions including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), shows reliable inter-regional functional connectivity at rest. It has been implicated in rumination and other negative affective states, but its role in suicidal ideation is not well understood. We employed seed based functional connectivity methods to analyze resting state fMRI data in 34 suicidal ideators and 40 healthy control participants. Whole-brain connectivity with dorsal PCC or ventral PCC was broadly intact between the two groups, but while the control participants showed greater coupling between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and dorsal PCC, compared to the dACC and ventral PCC, this difference was reversed in the ideators...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155954/novel-features-of-the-mullins-effect-in-filled-elastomers-revealed-by-stretching-measurements-in-various-geometries
#10
Thanh-Tam Mai, Yoshihiro Morishita, Kenji Urayama
Stretching experiments with various geometries are performed using a custom-built tensile tester to reveal the intriguing features of the mechanical softening phenomena of filled elastomers in loading-unloading cycles, commonly known as the Mullins effect. The dissipated energy (D), residual strain (ε(r)), and dissipation factor (Δ; the ratio of D to input strain energy) in the loading-unloading cycles are evaluated as a function of the maximum stretch in cyclic loading (λm) using three types of extension, i...
February 3, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149963/reveal-consistent-spatial-temporal-patterns-from-dynamic-functional-connectivity-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-identification
#11
Yingying Zhu, Xiaofeng Zhu, Han Zhang, Wei Gao, Dinggang Shen, Guorong Wu
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a non-invasive way to investigate brain activity. Recently, convergent evidence shows that the correlations of spontaneous fluctuations between two distinct brain regions dynamically change even in resting state, due to the condition-dependent nature of brain activity. Thus, quantifying the patterns of functional connectivity (FC) in a short time period and changes of FC over time can potentially provide valuable insight into both individual-based diagnosis and group comparison...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138427/multivariate-characterization-of-white-matter-heterogeneity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
D C Dean, N Lange, B G Travers, M B Prigge, N Matsunami, K A Kellett, A Freeman, K L Kane, N Adluru, D P M Tromp, D J Destiche, D Samsin, B A Zielinski, P T Fletcher, J S Anderson, A L Froehlich, M F Leppert, E D Bigler, J E Lainhart, A L Alexander
The complexity and heterogeneity of neuroimaging findings in individuals with autism spectrum disorder has suggested that many of the underlying alterations are subtle and involve many brain regions and networks. The ability to account for multivariate brain features and identify neuroimaging measures that can be used to characterize individual variation have thus become increasingly important for interpreting and understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of autism. In the present study, we utilize the Mahalanobis distance, a multidimensional counterpart of the Euclidean distance, as an informative index to characterize individual brain variation and deviation in autism...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120081/functional-reconstruction-of-motor-and-language-pathways-based-on-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-dti-fiber-tracking-for-the-preoperative-planning-of-low-grade-glioma-surgery-a-new-tool-for-preservation-and-restoration-of-eloquent-networks
#13
Giovanni Raffa, Alfredo Conti, Antonino Scibilia, Carmela Sindorio, Maria Catena Quattropani, Massimiliano Visocchi, Antonino Germanò, Francesco Tomasello
BACKGROUND: Surgery of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) in eloquent areas still presents a challenge. New technologies have been introduced to enable the performance of "functional", customized preoperative planning aimed at maximal resection, while reducing the risk of postoperative deficits. We describe our experience in the surgery of LGGs in eloquent areas using preoperative planning based on navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118397/effects-of-orientation-and-anisometry-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-acquisitions-on-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-structural-connectomes
#14
Raúl Tudela, Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Xavier López-Gil, Guadalupe Soria
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) quantifies water molecule diffusion within tissues and is becoming an increasingly used technique. However, it is very challenging as correct quantification depends on many different factors, ranging from acquisition parameters to a long pipeline of image processing. In this work, we investigated the influence of voxel geometry on diffusion analysis, comparing different acquisition orientations as well as isometric and anisometric voxels. Diffusion-weighted images of one rat brain were acquired with four different voxel geometries (one isometric and three anisometric in different directions) and three different encoding orientations (coronal, axial and sagittal)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117486/microstructural-and-functional-correlates-of-glutamate-concentration-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex
#15
Jorge Arrubla, Ezequiel Farrher, Johanna Strippelmann, Desmond H Y Tse, Farida Grinberg, N Jon Shah, Irene Neuner
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers in which glutamate levels were measured in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T. The advantages of simultaneous electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-MRI) were exploited and the subjects were measured in the same session and under the same physiological conditions...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116232/changes-in-functional-organization-and-white-matter-integrity-in-the-connectome-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Sule Tinaz, Peter M Lauro, Pritha Ghosh, Codrin Lungu, Silvina G Horovitz
Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to dysfunction in multiple cortico-striatal circuits. The neurodegeneration has also been associated with impaired white matter integrity. This structural and functional "disconnection" in PD needs further characterization. We investigated the structural and functional organization of the PD whole brain connectome consisting of 200 nodes using diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI, respectively. Data from 20 non-demented PD patients on dopaminergic medication and 20 matched controls were analyzed using graph theory-based methods...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113910/robust-reachability-of-boolean-control-networks
#17
Fangfei Li, Yang Tang
Boolean networks serve a powerful tool in analysis of genetic regulatory networks since it emphasizes the fundamental principles and establishes a nature framework for capturing the dynamics of regulation of cellular states. In this paper, the robust reachability of Boolean control networks is investigated by means of semi-tensor product. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the robust reachability of Boolean control networks are provided, in which control inputs relying on disturbances or not are considered, respectively...
April 20, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108320/modulation-on-brain-gray-matter-activity-and-white-matter-integrity-by-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-risk-gene-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#18
Suping Cai, Yuanyuan Jiang, Yubo Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Junchan Ren, Min Seob Lee, Sunghoon Lee, Liyu Huang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor with the most established evidence for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated insufficiently consistent functional and structural changes among healthy APOE ε4 carriers when compared to non-carriers. Here, in a cognitively intact elderly group (a total of 110: 45 APOE ε4 carriers, 65 non-carriers), we aimed to investigate the potential role of APOE ε4 in the modulation of grey matter activity, white matter integrity, and brain morphology before the development of clinically significant symptoms and signs, by methods of: amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity analysis based on resting state fMRI, and fiber tractography approach based on diffusion tensor imaging...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079471/pre-implant-modeling-of-depth-lead-placement-in-white-matter-for-maximizing-the-extent-of-cortical-activation-during-direct-neurostimulation-therapy
#20
Leopoldo Cendejas Zaragoza, Richard W Byrne, Marvin A Rossi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work was to predict preoperatively the maximum extent to which direct stimulation therapy can propagate through an epileptic circuit for stabilizing refractory focal-onset epilepsy. A pre-surgical workflow is presented which comprises a computationally intensive process for calculating the volume of cortical activation (VOCA) surrounding cylindrical depth contacts virtually placed in white matter. The process employs an activation function (AF) derived from cable modeling of an axon...
March 2017: Neurological Research
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