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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902865/small-world-properties-changes-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Yongxia Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate local and global efficiency changes characterized by small-world properties based on resting-state functional MRI, such as centrality and clustering coefficient, in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients; and to associate these findings with axonal injury as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as with post-concussive symptom (PCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (mean age 35 ± 13 years) with clinically defined MTBI and 45 age-matched healthy controls (mean age 37 ± 10 years) participated in the experiments...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902527/white-matter-alterations-in-adults-with-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder-an-mri-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#2
Jacqueline Williams, Saman R Kashuk, Peter H Wilson, Graham Thorpe, Gary F Egan
Movement skill difficulties in children [or developmental coordination disorder (DCD)] often persist into adulthood (in up to 70% of cases). The suggestion of white matter microstructure alterations in children with DCD raises the question of whether similar alterations are present in adults with probable DCD (pDCD). Twelve adults with pDCD and 11 adults without pDCD underwent diffusion tensor imaging. The results showed that the pDCD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus and lower mean diffusivity in the internal capsule and inferior longitudinal fasciculus...
November 29, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891087/a-monte-carlo-evaluation-of-weighted-community-detection-algorithms
#3
Kathleen M Gates, Teague Henry, Doug Steinley, Damien A Fair
The past decade has been marked with a proliferation of community detection algorithms that aim to organize nodes (e.g., individuals, brain regions, variables) into modular structures that indicate subgroups, clusters, or communities. Motivated by the emergence of big data across many fields of inquiry, these methodological developments have primarily focused on the detection of communities of nodes from matrices that are very large. However, it remains unknown if the algorithms can reliably detect communities in smaller graph sizes (i...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890810/interaction-of-language-auditory-and-memory-brain-networks-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#4
REVIEW
Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, Judith Ford, Daniela Hubl, Natasza D Orlov, Iris E Sommer, Flavie Waters, Paul Allen, Renaud Jardri, Peter W Woodruff, David Olivier, Christoph Mulert, Todd S Woodward, André Aleman
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these theories with experimental evidence is missing. We review 50 studies investigating functional (EEG and fMRI) and anatomic (diffusion tensor imaging) connectivity in these networks, and explore the evidence supporting abnormal connectivity in these networks associated with AVH...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886204/characterization-of-structural-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-dogs-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#5
Jennifer L Robinson, Madhura Baxi, Jeffrey S Katz, Paul Waggoner, Ronald Beyers, Edward Morrison, Nouha Salibi, Thomas S Denney, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides us an insight into the micro-architecture of white-matter tracts in the brain. This method has proved promising in understanding and investigating the neuronal tracts and structural connectivity between the brain regions in primates as well as rodents. The close evolutionary relationship between canines and humans may have spawned a unique bond in regard to social cognition rendering them useful as an animal model in translational research. In this study, we acquired diffusion data from anaesthetized dogs and created a DTI-based atlas for a canine model which could be used to investigate various white matter diseases...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879030/age-related-decline-in-task-switching-is-linked-to-both-global-and-tract-specific-changes-in-white-matter-microstructure
#6
Todd A D Jolly, Patrick S Cooper, Jaime L Rennie, Christopher R Levi, Rhoshel Lenroot, Mark W Parsons, Patricia T Michie, Frini Karayanidis
Task-switching performance relies on a broadly distributed frontoparietal network and declines in older adults. In this study, they investigated whether this age-related decline in task switching performance was mediated by variability in global or regional white matter microstructural health. Seventy cognitively intact adults (43-87 years) completed a cued-trials task switching paradigm. Microstructural white matter measures were derived using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence...
November 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878764/the-involvement-of-supratentorial-white-matter-in-multiple-system-atrophy-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-study
#7
Po-Shan Wang, Chien-Li Yeh, Chia-Feng Lu, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Bing-Wen Soong, Yu-Te Wu
It has been assumed that cognitive disorder and visual-spatial disturbance in multiple system atrophy of the predominantly cerebellar type (MSA-C) are attributable to degradation of cerebellar function. The purpose of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to determine if patients with MSA-C characterized in part by visual-spatial disorders and cognitive disorders have changes of the structural connectivity network of nerve fibers, and to further describe the structural connectivity network...
November 23, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876102/structural-functional-brain-changes-in-depressed-patients-during-and-after-electroconvulsive-therapy
#8
Antoine Yrondi, Patrice Péran, Anne Sauvaget, Laurent Schmitt, Christophe Arbus
OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a non-pharmacological treatment that is effective in treating severe and treatment-resistant depression. Although the efficacy of ECT has been demonstrated to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), the brain mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Structural-functional changes occur with the use of ECT as a treatment for depression based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this reason, we have tried to identify the changes that were identified by MRI to try to clarify some operating mechanisms of ECT...
November 23, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862605/neonatal-neural-networks-predict-children-behavioral-profiles-later-in-life
#9
Chong-Yaw Wee, Ta Anh Tuan, Birit F P Broekman, Min Yee Ong, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Lynette Shek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Anqi Qiu
This study aimed to examine heterogeneity of neonatal brain network and its prediction to child behaviors at 24 and 48 months of age. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was employed to construct brain anatomical network for 120 neonates. Clustering coefficients of individual structures were computed and used to classify neonates with similar brain anatomical networks into one group. Internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were assessed using maternal reports of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at 24 and 48 months of age...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860375/differential-impairment-of-thalamocortical-structural-connectivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Jiu-Quan Zhang, Bing Ji, Chao-Yang Zhou, Long-Chuan Li, Zhi-Hao Li, Xiao-Ping Hu, Jun Hu
AIMS: The thalamus is a major relay station that modulates input from many cortical areas and a filter for sensory input and is involved in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it still remains unclear whether all thalamocortical networks are affected or whether there is selective vulnerability. In this study, we aimed to study the selective vulnerability of different thalamocortical structural connections in ALS and to test the hypothesis of a specific impairment in motor-related thalamocortical connectivity...
November 12, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851842/estimating-the-heritability-of-structural-and-functional-brain-connectivity-in-families-affected-by-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Gustavo Sudre, Saadia Choudhuri, Eszter Szekely, Teighlor Bonner, Elanda Goduni, Wendy Sharp, Philip Shaw
Importance: Despite its high heritability, few risk genes have been identified for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain-based phenotypes could aid gene discovery. There is a myriad of structural and functional connections that support cognition. Disruption of such connectivity is a key pathophysiologic mechanism for ADHD, and identifying heritable phenotypes within these connections could provide candidates for genomic studies. Objective: To identify the structural and functional connections that are heritable and pertinent to ADHD...
November 16, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851731/reorientation-and-faulting-of-pluto-due-to-volatile-loading-within-sputnik-planitia
#12
James T Keane, Isamu Matsuyama, Shunichi Kamata, Jordan K Steckloff
Pluto is an astoundingly diverse, geologically dynamic world. The dominant feature is Sputnik Planitia-a tear-drop-shaped topographic depression approximately 1,000 kilometres in diameter possibly representing an ancient impact basin. The interior of Sputnik Planitia is characterized by a smooth, craterless plain three to four kilometres beneath the surrounding rugged uplands, and represents the surface of a massive unit of actively convecting volatile ices (N2, CH4 and CO) several kilometres thick. This large feature is very near the Pluto-Charon tidal axis...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815774/the-topological-organization-of-white-matter-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-individuals
#13
Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Lijun Qiu, Yongqiang Kang, Bo Liu, Dahua Yu, Xiaoqi Lu, Kai Yuan
White matter (WM) integrity abnormalities had been reported in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography allows identification of WM tracts, potentially providing information about the integrity and organization of relevant underlying WM fiber tracts' architectures, which has been used to investigate the connectivity of cortical and subcortical structures in several brain disorders. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the thoroughly circuit-level characterization of topological property changes of WM network with IGD...
November 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805389/commensurate-superstructure-of-the-cu-no3-h2o-htae-bpy-coordination-polymer-an-example-of-2d-hydrogen-bonding-networks-as-magnetic-exchange-pathway
#14
Roberto Fernández de Luis, Edurne S Larrea, Joseba Orive, Luis Lezama, María I Arriortua
The average and commensurate superstructures of the one-dimensional coordination polymer {Cu(NO3)(H2O)}(HTae)(Bpy) (H2Tae = 1,1,2,2-tetraacetylethane, Bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and the possible symmetry relations between the space group of the average structure and the superstructure were checked. The crystal structure consists in parallel and oblique {Cu(HTae)(Bpy)} zigzag metal-organic chains stacked along the [100] crystallographic direction. The origin of the fivefold c axis in the commensurate superstructure is ascribed to a commensurate modulation of the coordination environment of the copper atoms...
November 2, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803287/a-neuroanatomical-predictor-of-mirror-self-recognition-in-chimpanzees
#15
E E Hecht, L M Mahovetz, T M Preuss, W D Hopkins
The ability to recognize one's own reflection is shared by humans and only a few other species, including chimpanzees. However, this ability is highly variable across individual chimpanzees. In humans, self-recognition involves a distributed, right-lateralized network including frontal and parietal regions involved in the production and perception of action. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a system of white matter tracts linking these frontal and parietal regions. The current study measured mirror self-recognition (MSR) and SLF anatomy in 60 chimpanzees using diffusion tensor imaging...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798379/changes-in-structural-connectivity-following-a-cognitive-intervention-in-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#16
Weihong Yuan, Amery Treble-Barna, McKay M Sohlberg, Beth Harn, Shari L Wade
Objective Structural connectivity analysis based on graph theory and diffusion tensor imaging tractography is a novel method that quantifies the topological characteristics in the brain network. This study aimed to examine structural connectivity changes following the Attention Intervention and Management (AIM) program designed to improve attention and executive function (EF) in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Seventeen children with complicated mild to severe TBI (13.66 ± 2.68 years; >12 months postinjury) completed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurobehavioral measures at time 1, 10 of whom completed AIM and assessment at time 2...
October 25, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788473/not-only-stiffness-but-also-yield-strength-of-the-trabecular-structure-determined-by-non-linear-%C3%A2%C2%B5fe-is-best-predicted-by-bone-volume-fraction-and-fabric-tensor
#17
Sarah N Musy, Ghislain Maquer, Jarunan Panyasantisuk, Jasmin Wandel, Philippe K Zysset
The micro-architecture of cancellous bone is considered a major determinant of the fracture risk. Yet, if morphometry tells about alterations of the trabecular network, its elastic behaviour is best described by bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the fabric tensor, which gives the anisotropy of the trabecular structure. This remains to be proven for yield strength, the onset of bone failure. The microstructure of 126 samples extracted from femoral heads of two female subjects was evaluated on micro-computed tomography scans via 25 structural indices...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785756/disrupted-brain-structural-connectivity-pathological-interactions-between-genetic-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-status-and-developed-mci-condition
#18
Chao Ma, Jun Wang, Junying Zhang, Kewei Chen, Xin Li, Ni Shu, Yaojing Chen, Zhen Liu, Zhanjun Zhang
The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are both risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). One factor is genetic, and the other is a developed condition during the aging process. The current study intended to discover the interactions of these two factors, which may be useful in the construction of a sensitive biomarker for early identification and intervention. Eight hundred eighty-five Chinese Han ethnic subjects (aged 55 and older) completed neuropsychological tests and APOE genotyping...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783100/micro-structural-white-matter-abnormalities-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-dti-study-using-tbss-analysis
#19
Xin Tan, Peng Fang, Jie An, Huan Lin, Yi Liang, Wen Shen, Xi Leng, Chi Zhang, Yanting Zheng, Shijun Qiu
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have usually been found cognitive impairment associated with brain white matter (WM) abnormalities. However, findings have varied across studies, and any potential relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the whole-brain WM integrity of T2DM patients and to compare our findings with those of published AD cases. METHODS: In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-brain WM abnormalities in 48 T2DM patients and 48 healthy controls...
October 25, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779449/anatomic-insights-into-disrupted-small-world-networks-in-pediatric-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Fuqin Chen, Min Wu, Lei Li, Ling Sun, Xiaoli Wei, Hongyan Zhu, Lingjiang Li, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To use diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging and graph theory approaches to explore the brain structural connectome in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the relevant research ethics committee, and all participants' parents or guardians provided informed consent. Twenty-four pediatric patients with PTSD and 23 control subjects exposed to trauma but without PTSD were recruited after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The structural connectome was constructed by using DT imaging tractography and thresholding the mean fractional anisotropy of 90 brain regions to yield 90 × 90 partial correlation matrixes...
October 25, 2016: Radiology
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