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topological phases

Fei Xue, A H MacDonald
We study the phase diagram of a model quantum spin Hall system as a function of band inversion and band-coupling strength, demonstrating that when band hybridization is weak, an interaction-induced nematic insulator state emerges over a wide range of band inversion. This property is a consequence of the long-range Coulomb interaction, which favors interband phase coherence that is weakly dependent on momentum and therefore frustrated by the single-particle Hamiltonian at the band inversion point. For weak band hybridization, interactions convert the continuous gap closing topological phase transition at inversion into a pair of continuous phase transitions bounding a state with broken time-reversal and rotational symmetries...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Shanna Zhu, Dechao Meng, Genhao Liang, Gang Shi, Peng Zhao, Peng Cheng, Yongqing Li, Xiaofang Zhai, Yalin Lu, Lan Chen, Kehui Wu
Inducing magnetism in a topological insulator (TI) by exchange coupling with a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) will break the time-reversal symmetry of topological surface states, offering possibilities to realize several predicted novel magneto-electric effects. Seeking suitable FMI materials is crucial for the coupling of heterojunctions, and yet is challenging as well and only a few kinds have been explored. In this report, we introduce epitaxial LaCoO3 thin films on a SrTiO3 substrate, which is an insulating ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of TC ∼ 85 K, to be combined with TIs for proximity coupling...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Robin J P Broos, Bart Zijlstra, Ivo A W Filot, Emiel J M Hensen
The first step in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is the production of C1 monomers by the dissociation of the C-O bond. Although Fe is the active metal, it is well known that under typical reaction conditions, it changes into various carbide phases. The Hägg carbide (χ-Fe5 C2 ) phase is usually considered as the catalytically active phase. We carried out a comprehensive DFT study of CO dissociation on various surface terminations of the Hägg carbide, selected on their specific site topology and the presence of stepped sites...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Tobias Andermann, Alexandre M Fernandes, Urban Olsson, Mats Töpel, Bernard Pfeil, Bengt Oxelman, Alexandre Aleixo, Brant C Faircloth, Alexandre Antonelli
Advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques now allow relatively easy and affordable sequencing of large portions of the genome, even for non-model organisms. Many phylogenetic studies reduce costs by focusing their sequencing efforts on a selected set of targeted loci, commonly enriched using sequence capture. The advantage of this approach is that it recovers a consistent set of loci, each with high sequencing depth, which leads to more confidence in the assembly of target sequences. High sequencing depth can also be used to identify phylogenetically informative allelic variation within sequenced individuals, but allele sequences are infrequently assembled in phylogenetic studies...
May 15, 2018: Systematic Biology
Ryota Akiyama, Kazuki Sumida, Satoru Ichinokura, Ryosuke Nakanishi, Akio Kimura, Konstantin A Kokh, Oleg Tereshchenko, Shuji Hasegawa
We show Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in topological insulator (Bi<sub>x</sub>Sb<sub>1-x</sub>)<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>3</sub> flakes whose carrier types are <i>p</i>-type (<i>x</i> = 0.29, 0.34) and <i>n</i>-type (<i>x</i> = 0.42). The physical properties such as the Berry phase, carrier mobility, and scattering time significantly changed by tuning the Fermi-level position with the concentration <i>x</i>...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Christopher Reeg, Daniel Loss, Jelena Klinovaja
There have recently been several experiments studying induced superconductivity in semiconducting two-dimensional electron gases that are strongly coupled to thin superconducting layers, as well as probing possible topological phases supporting Majorana bound states in such setups. We show that a large band shift is induced in the semiconductor by the superconductor in this geometry, thus making it challenging to realize a topological phase. Additionally, we show that while increasing the thickness of the superconducting layer reduces the magnitude of the band shift, it also leads to a more significant renormalization of the semiconducting material parameters and does not reduce the challenge of tuning into a topological phase...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Daniel Hey, Enbang Li
Photons are weak particles that do not directly couple to magnetic fields. However, it is possible to generate a photonic gauge field by breaking reciprocity such that the phase of light depends on its direction of propagation. This non-reciprocal phase indicates the presence of an effective magnetic field for the light itself. By suitable tailoring of this phase, it is possible to demonstrate quantum effects typically associated with electrons, and, as has been recently shown, non-trivial topological properties of light...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Gary F Walsh, Luciano De Sio, David E Roberts, Nelson Tabiryan, Francisco J Aranda, Brian R Kimball
Parallel sorting of orbital and spin angular momentum components of structured optical beams is demonstrated. Both spin channels are multiplexed within the novel orbital angular momentum (OAM) sorter, reducing the size, weight, and number of elements. The sorted states are linearly spaced over 70 topological charge values. We experimentally and theoretically evaluate the operational range and crosstalk between neighboring channels and find that 30 orbital angular momentum states are available per spin channel for quantum communication or cryptography...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Juan D Bernal, Jesús M Seoane, Miguel A F Sanjuán
Chaotic scattering is an important topic in nonlinear dynamics and chaos with applications in several fields in physics and engineering. The study of this phenomenon in relativistic systems has received little attention as compared to the Newtonian case. Here we focus our work on the study of some relevant characteristics of the exit basin topology in the relativistic Hénon-Heiles system: the uncertainty dimension, the Wada property, and the basin entropy. Our main findings for the uncertainty dimension show two different behaviors insofar as we change the relativistic parameter β, in which a crossover behavior is uncovered...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Silke Henkes, M Cristina Marchetti, Rastko Sknepnek
Using simulations of self-propelled agents with short-range repulsion and nematic alignment, we explore the dynamical phases of a dense active nematic confined to the surface of a sphere. We map the nonequilibrium phase diagram as a function of curvature, alignment strength, and activity. Our model reproduces several phases seen in recent experiments on active microtubule bundles confined the surfaces of vesicles. At low driving, we recover the equilibrium nematic ground state with four +1/2 defects. As the driving is increased, geodesic forces drive the transition to a polar band wrapping around an equator, with large empty spherical caps corresponding to two +1 defects at the poles...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Marco Antonio Amaral, Marco Alberto Javarone
Innovation and evolution are two processes of paramount relevance for social and biological systems. In general, the former allows the introduction of elements of novelty, while the latter is responsible for the motion of a system in its phase space. Often, these processes are strongly related, since an innovation can trigger the evolution, and the latter can provide the optimal conditions for the emergence of innovations. Both processes can be studied by using the framework of evolutionary game theory, where evolution constitutes an intrinsic mechanism...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Hamid Reza Masoodi, Sotoodeh Bagheri, Zahra Ghaderi
In the present work, the influence of Cu+ binding to N3- and N7-positions of hypoxanthine on energetic, geometrical and topological properties of hypoxanthine-guanine, hypoxanthine-adenine, hypoxanthine-cytosine, hypoxanthine-thymine and hypoxanthine-hypoxanthine mismatches is theoretically investigated. The calculations, in gas phase, are performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. Unlike the other mispairs, Cu+ binding to N3-position of hypoxanthine causes the proton transfer process from enol form of hypoxanthine to imino forms of adenine and cytosine...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Michael H Kolodrubetz, Frederik Nathan, Snir Gazit, Takahiro Morimoto, Joel E Moore
We explore adiabatic pumping in the presence of a periodic drive, finding a new phase in which the topologically quantized pumped quantity is energy rather than charge. The topological invariant is given by the winding number of the micromotion with respect to time within each cycle, momentum, and adiabatic tuning parameter. We show numerically that this pump is highly robust against both disorder and interactions, breaking down at large values of either in a manner identical to the Thouless charge pump. Finally, we suggest experimental protocols for measuring this phenomenon...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Z F Wang, Zhao Liu, Jinlong Yang, Feng Liu
Coupling a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state with a superconducting state offers an attractive approach to detect the signature alluding to a topological superconducting state [Q. L. He et al., Science 357, 294 (2017)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aag2792], but its explanation could be clouded by disorder effects in magnetic doped QAH materials. On the other hand, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is identified in the well-known high-temperature 2D superconductor of monolayer FeSe [Z...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Rui-Xing Zhang, Chao-Xing Liu
One of the cornerstones for topological quantum computations is the Majorana zero mode, which has been intensively searched in fractional quantum Hall systems and topological superconductors. Several recent works suggest that such an exotic mode can also exist in a one-dimensional (1D) interacting double-wire setup even without long-range superconductivity. A notable instability in these proposals comes from interchannel single-particle tunneling that spoils the topological ground state degeneracy. Here we show that a 1D Dirac semimetal (DSM) nanowire is an ideal number-conserving platform to realize such Majorana physics...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kun Jiang, Sen Zhou, Xi Dai, Ziqiang Wang
We investigate a new class of topological antiferromagnetic (AF) Chern insulators driven by electronic interactions in two-dimensional systems without inversion symmetry. Despite the absence of a net magnetization, AF Chern insulators (AFCI) possess a nonzero Chern number C and exhibit the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE). Their existence is guaranteed by the bifurcation of the boundary line of Weyl points between a quantum spin Hall insulator and a topologically trivial phase with the emergence of AF long-range order...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kirill Plekhanov, Ivana Vasić, Alexandru Petrescu, Rajbir Nirwan, Guillaume Roux, Walter Hofstetter, Karyn Le Hur
Recently, the frustrated XY model for spins 1/2 on the honeycomb lattice has attracted a lot of attention in relation with the possibility to realize a chiral spin liquid state. This model is relevant to the physics of some quantum magnets. Using the flexibility of ultracold atom setups, we propose an alternative way to realize this model through the Mott regime of the bosonic Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The phase diagram of this model is derived using bosonic dynamical mean-field theory. Focusing on the Mott phase, we investigate its magnetic properties as a function of frustration...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Nick Bultinck, Robijn Vanhove, Jutho Haegeman, Frank Verstraete
Edge theories of symmetry-protected topological phases are well known to possess global symmetry anomalies. In this Letter we focus on two-dimensional bosonic phases protected by an on-site symmetry and analyze the corresponding edge anomalies in more detail. Physical interpretations of the anomaly in terms of an obstruction to orbifolding and constructing symmetry-preserving boundaries are connected to the cohomology classification of symmetry-protected phases in two dimensions. Using the tensor network and matrix product state formalism we numerically illustrate our arguments and discuss computational detection schemes to identify symmetry-protected order in a ground state wave function...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tobias Frank, Petra Högl, Martin Gmitra, Denis Kochan, Jaroslav Fabian
We investigate topological properties of models that describe graphene on realistic substrates which induce proximity spin-orbit coupling in graphene. A Z_{2} phase diagram is calculated for the parameter space of (generally different) intrinsic spin-orbit coupling on the two graphene sublattices, in the presence of Rashba coupling. The most fascinating case is that of staggered intrinsic spin-orbit coupling which, despite being topologically trivial, Z_{2}=0, does exhibit edge states protected by time-reversal symmetry for zigzag ribbons as wide as micrometers...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ki Hoon Lee, Changhee Lee, Hongki Min, Suk Bum Chung
For the quantum well in an optical microcavity, the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and the electron-photon (e-ph) coupling can lead to the hybridizations of the exciton and the cavity photon known as polaritons, which can form the Bose-Einstein condensate above a threshold density. Additional physics due to the nontrivial Berry phase comes into play when the quantum well consists of the gapped two-dimensional Dirac material such as the transition metal dichalcogenide MoS_{2} or WSe_{2}. Specifically, in forming the polariton, the e-ph coupling from the optical selection rule due to the Berry phase can compete against the Coulomb electron-electron (e-e) interaction...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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