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"Peer observation"

Lori R Newman, Dara Brodsky, Richard N Jones, Richard M Schwartzstein, Katharyn Meredith Atkins, David H Roberts
INTRODUCTION: Frame-of-reference (FOR) training has been used successfully to teach faculty how to produce accurate and reliable workplace-based ratings when assessing a performance. We engaged 21 Harvard Medical School faculty members in our pilot and implementation studies to determine the effectiveness of using FOR training to assess health professionals' teaching performances. METHODS: All faculty were novices at rating their peers' teaching effectiveness. Before FOR training, we asked participants to evaluate a recorded lecture using a criterion-based peer assessment of medical lecturing instrument...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Marie Langer, Graham R Braithwaite
OBJECTIVE: Based on the line operations safety audit (LOSA), two studies were conducted to develop and deploy an equivalent tool for aircraft maintenance: the maintenance operations safety survey (MOSS). BACKGROUND: Safety in aircraft maintenance is currently measured reactively, based on the number of audit findings, reportable events, incidents, or accidents. Proactive safety tools designed for monitoring routine operations, such as flight data monitoring and LOSA, have been developed predominantly for flight operations...
July 13, 2016: Human Factors
Joanna H Tai, Benedict J Canny, Terry P Haines, Elizabeth K Molloy
: Phenomenon: Peer assisted learning (PAL) is frequently employed and researched in preclinical medical education. Fewer studies have examined PAL in the clinical context: These have focused mainly on the accuracy of peer assessment and potential benefits to learner communication and teamwork skills. Research has also examined the positive and negative effects of formal, structured PAL activities in the clinical setting. Given the prevalence of PAL activities during preclinical years, and the unstructured nature of clinical placements, it is likely that nonformal PAL activities are also undertaken...
May 4, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Harish Thampy, Michael Bourke, Prasheena Naran
Peer-supported review (also called peer observation) of teaching is a commonly implemented method of ascertaining teaching quality that supplements student feedback. A large variety of scheme formats with rather differing purposes are described in the literature. They range from purely formative, developmental formats that facilitate a tutor's reflection of their own teaching to reaffirm strengths and identify potential areas for development through to faculty- or institution-driven summative quality assurance-based schemes...
September 2015: Education for Primary Care
Carla M Pugh, Fahd O Arafat, Calvin Kwan, Elaine R Cohen, Yo Kurashima, Melina C Vassiliou, Gerald M Fried
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to modify our previously developed laparoscopic ventral hernia (LVH) simulator to increase difficulty and then reassess validity and feasibility for using the simulator in a newly developed simulation-based continuing medical education course. METHODS: Participants (N = 30) were practicing surgeons who signed up for a hands-on postgraduate laparoscopic hernia course. An LVH simulator, with prior validity evidence, was modified for the course to increase difficulty...
October 2015: American Journal of Surgery
Eliot L Rees, Benjamin Davies, Michael Eastwood
With the increasing popularity and scale of peer teaching, it is imperative to develop methods that ensure the quality of teaching provided by undergraduate students. We used an established faculty development and quality assurance process in a novel context: peer observation of teaching for undergraduate peer tutors. We have developed a form to record observations and aid the facilitation of feedback. In addition, experienced peer tutors have been trained to observe peer-taught sessions and provide tutors with verbal and written feedback...
October 2015: Perspectives on Medical Education
Simon Lygo-Baker, Patricia K Kokotailo, Karen M Young
The important role of medical trainees (interns and residents) as teachers is increasingly recognized in veterinary and human medicine, but often is not supported through adult learning programs or other preparatory training methods. To develop appropriate teaching programs focused on effective clinical teaching, more understanding is needed about the support required for the trainee's teaching role. Following discussion among faculty members from education and veterinary and pediatric medicine, an experienced external observer and expert in higher education observed 28 incoming and outgoing veterinary and pediatric trainees in multiple clinical teaching settings over 10 weeks...
2015: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Daniel J Mullin, Lisa Forsberg, Judith A Savageau, Barry Saver
INTRODUCTION: Motivational interviewing (MI) skills are relevant for primary care providers (PCPs) who are responsible for caring for patients with diseases affected by behavior. There are significant challenges associated with developing PCP's MI skills. We report on an effort to document the acquisition of MI skills by PCPs using an objective measure of MI competence, the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) coding system. METHOD: Eleven PCPs volunteered to participate in 6 MI workshops over a period of 6 months and to submit work samples between each of these workshops to be assessed with the MITI coding system...
December 2015: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
David V Smith, Kamila E Sip, Mauricio R Delgado
Multiple large-scale neural networks orchestrate a wide range of cognitive processes. For example, interoceptive processes related to self-referential thinking have been linked to the default-mode network (DMN); whereas exteroceptive processes related to cognitive control have been linked to the executive-control network (ECN). Although the DMN and ECN have been postulated to exert opposing effects on cognition, it remains unclear how connectivity with these spatially overlapping networks contribute to fluctuations in behavior...
July 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Misbah Keen, Jeanne Cawse-Lucas, Jan Carline, Larry Mauksch
OBJECTIVE: The Patient Centered Observation Form (PCOF) helps trainees identify and describe specific communication skills and enhance self-awareness about skill use. We studied the effectiveness and ease of use of the Improving Communication Assessment Program (ICAP), an online module that prepares trainees to use the PCOF. METHODS: Students, residents and medical educators viewed two videos (common and better skill use) of the same interaction and rated each video using the PCOF...
June 2015: Patient Education and Counseling
Sheena M Warman
Evaluation of the quality of higher education is undertaken for the purposes of ensuring accountability, accreditation, and improvement, all of which are highly relevant to veterinary teaching institutions in the current economic climate. If evaluation is to drive change, it needs to be able to influence teaching practice. This article reviews the literature relating to evaluation of teaching quality in higher education with a particular focus on teachers' professional practice. Student evaluation and peer observation of teaching are discussed as examples of widely used evaluation processes...
2015: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Anneke D M Haddad, Freya Harrison, Thomas Norman, Jennifer Y F Lau
There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer "interactions." 40 adolescents (age 11-18) and 28 adults (age 20-38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving 'risky' or 'safe' advice from the peers...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Suk Jeong Lee, Sang Suk Kim, Young-Mi Park
AIM: This study was conducted to explore first experiences of high-fidelity simulation training in Korean nursing students, in order to develop and establish more effective guidelines for future simulation training in Korea. METHODS: Thirty-three junior nursing students participated in high-fidelity simulation training for the first time. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data were collected from reflective journals and questionnaires of simulation effectiveness after simulation training...
July 2015: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
Tracy Morrison, James Brown, Melanie Bryant, Debra Nestel
BACKGROUND: General practices vary in the provision of training and education. Some practices have training as a major focus with the presence of multi-level learners and others host single learner groups or none at all. This study investigates the educational benefits and challenges associated with 'multi-level learner' practices. METHODS: This paper comprised three case studies of rural general practices with multiple levels of learners. Qualitative data were collected from 29 interviews with learners (n = 12), staff (n = 12) and patients (n = 5)...
2014: BMC Medical Education
Ashley R Smith, Laurence Steinberg, Nicole Strang, Jason Chein
Prior research suggests that increased adolescent risk-taking in the presence of peers may be linked to the influence of peers on the valuation and processing of rewards during decision-making. The current study explores this idea by examining how peer observation impacts the processing of rewards when such processing is isolated from other facets of risky decision-making (e.g. risk-perception and preference, inhibitory processing, etc.). In an fMRI paradigm, a sample of adolescents (ages 14-19) and adults (ages 25-35) completed a modified High/Low Card Guessing Task that included rewarded and un-rewarded trials...
February 2015: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Jenny Harris, James Sa Green, Nick Sevdalis, Cath Taylor
BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) working is well established as the foundation for providing cancer services in the UK and elsewhere. A core activity is the weekly meeting (or case conference/tumor boards) where the treatment recommendations for individual patients are agreed. Evidence suggests that the quality of team working varies across cancer teams, and this may impact negatively on the decision-making process, and ultimately patient care. Feedback on performance by expert observers may improve performance, but can be resource-intensive to implement...
2014: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Eleanor B Peterson, Aaron W Calhoun, Elizabeth A Rider
OBJECTIVE: With increased recognition of the importance of sound communication skills and communication skills education, reliable assessment tools are essential. This study reports on the psychometric properties of an assessment tool based on the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Essential Elements Communication Checklist. METHODS: The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form (GKCSAF), a modified version of an existing communication skills assessment tool, the Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist-Adapted, was used to assess learners in a multidisciplinary, simulation-based communication skills educational program using multiple raters...
September 2014: Patient Education and Counseling
Martin G Tolsgaard, Maria B Rasmussen, Sebastian Bjørck, Amandus Gustafsson, Charlotte V Ringsted
Training in pairs (dyad practice) has been shown to improve efficiency of clinical skills training compared with single practice but little is known about students' perception of dyad practice. The aim of this study was to explore the reactions and attitudes of medical students who were instructed to work in pairs during clinical skills training. A follow-up pilot survey consisting of four open-ended questions was administered to 24 fourth-year medical students, who completed four hours of dyad practice in managing patient encounters...
December 2014: Perspectives on Medical Education
David H Roberts, Richard M Schwartzstein, Steven E Weinberger
Health care professionals in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine play key roles as teachers for learners of all levels in both clinical care and scientific investigation. Teaching excellence requires training in principles of adult learning and the acquisition and practice of key professional skills including assessment and feedback techniques, curriculum development, and strategies for effective teaching across venues ranging from the bedside to the lecture hall. Those interested in pursuing teaching as the focus of their academic career and basis for promotion should invest in professional development as a teacher and educator...
February 2014: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ashley R Smith, Jason Chein, Laurence Steinberg
The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the information necessary to make an informed decision is explicitly provided. We used a novel probabilistic gambling task in which participants decided whether to play or pass on a series of offers for which the reward and loss outcome probabilities were made explicit...
May 2014: Developmental Psychology
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