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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938906/international-survey-to-identify-diagnostic-needs-to-support-malaria-elimination-guiding-the-development-of-combination-highly-sensitive-rapid-diagnostic-tests
#1
Ana Campillo, Jennifer Daily, Iveth J González
BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, the very low levels of transmission now being attained present challenges that demand new strategies to identify and treat low-density infections in both symptomatic and asymptomatic populations. Accordingly, passive case detection activities need to be supplemented by active case detection (ACD) strategies with more sensitive diagnostic tools. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have provided low- and middle-income countries with unprecedented access to malaria diagnostics...
September 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934170/mobile-based-analysis-of-malaria-infected-thin-blood-smears-automated-species-and-life-cycle-stage-determination
#2
Luís Rosado, José M Correia da Costa, Dirk Elias, Jaime S Cardoso
Microscopy examination has been the pillar of malaria diagnosis, being the recommended procedure when its quality can be maintained. However, the need for trained personnel and adequate equipment limits its availability and accessibility in malaria-endemic areas. Rapid, accurate, accessible diagnostic tools are increasingly required, as malaria control programs extend parasite-based diagnosis and the prevalence decreases. This paper presents an image processing and analysis methodology using supervised classification to assess the presence of malaria parasites and determine the species and life cycle stage in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears...
September 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930498/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-a-brazilian-lineage-of-plasmodium-novyella-unalis-in-turdus-spp-passeriformes-of-the-atlantic-forest-with-remarks-on-new-hosts-and-high-genetic-variation
#3
Raquel Tostes, Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias, Luísa de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Xavier Senra, Carlos Luiz Massard, Marta D'Agosto
Plasmodium spp. are haemosporidian protozoans that alternate their live cycles between bloodsucking Culicidae dipterans and vertebrate hosts (mammals, reptiles and birds). In birds, these parasites are the causative agents of the so called avian malaria, a disease associated with considerable declines and extinctions in the avifauna in different geographical regions. In this work, we applied a multidisciplinary approach, light microscopy and cytochrome oxidase b (cyt b) gene sequence analysis for characterization of Plasmodium found in association with wild birds of the genus Turdus, collected in Atlantic forest fragments of southeastern Brazil...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927422/proximity-to-vector-breeding-site-and-risk-of-plasmodium-vivax-infection-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-rural-ethiopia
#4
Alexander Nissen, Jackie Cook, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: Despite falling incidence and mortality since the turn of the century, malaria remains an important global health challenge. In the future fight against malaria, greater emphasis will have to be placed on understanding and addressing malaria caused by the Plasmodium vivax parasite. Unfortunately, due to years of neglect and underfunding, there are currently many gaps in knowledge of P. vivax malaria. The aims of the present study were to explore the association between distance to vector breeding site and P...
September 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925968/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-diagnostic-tests-for-malaria
#5
REVIEW
Francis D Krampa, Yaw Aniweh, Gordon A Awandare, Prosper Kanyong
The impact of malaria on global health has continually prompted the need to develop effective diagnostic strategies. In malaria endemic regions, routine diagnosis is hampered by technical and infrastructural challenges to laboratories. These laboratories lack standard facilities, expertise or diagnostic supplies; thus, therapy is administered based on clinical or self-diagnosis. There is the need for accurate diagnosis of malaria due to the continuous increase in the cost of medication, and the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains...
September 19, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924741/spectrum-of-infectious-diseases-among-newly-arrived-eritrean-refugees-in-switzerland-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Afona Chernet, Andreas Neumayr, Christoph Hatz, Kerstin Kling, Véronique Sydow, Katharina Rentsch, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Hanspeter Marti, Beatrice Nickel, Niklaus D Labhardt
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at determining the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among recently arrived Eritrean refugees in Switzerland. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, asymptomatic Eritrean migrants aged ≥16 years who arrived <24 months ago were recruited at refugee centres in Switzerland. Infectious disease screening included serology for HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis and schistosomiasis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for malaria, stool microscopy for helminths and intestinal protozoa and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) testing in urine for schistosomiasis...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923058/a-model-of-plasmodium-vivax-concealment-based-on-plasmodium-cynomolgi-infections-in-macaca-mulatta
#7
Luis L Fonseca, Chester J Joyner, Mary R Galinski, Eberhard O Voit
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax can cause severe malaria. The total parasite biomass during infections is correlated with the severity of disease but not necessarily quantified accurately by microscopy. This finding has raised the question whether there could be sub-populations of parasites that are not observed in peripheral blood smears but continue to contribute to the increase in parasite numbers that drive pathogenesis. Non-human primate infection models utilizing the closely related simian malaria parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi hold the potential for quantifying the magnitude of possibly unobserved infected red blood cell (iRBC) populations and determining how the presence of this hidden reservoir correlates with disease severity...
September 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923054/a-novel-method-for-extracting-nucleic-acids-from-dried-blood-spots-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-low-density%C3%A2-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax%C3%A2-infections
#8
Kayvan Zainabadi, Matthew Adams, Zay Yar Han, Hnin Wai Lwin, Kay Thwe Han, Amed Ouattara, Si Thura, Christopher V Plowe, Myaing M Nyunt
BACKGROUND: Greater Mekong Subregion countries are committed to eliminating Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Current elimination interventions target infections at parasite densities that can be detected by standard microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). More sensitive detection methods have been developed to detect lower density "asymptomatic" infections that may represent an important transmission reservoir. These ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (usPCR) tests have been used to identify target populations for mass drug administration (MDA)...
September 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918067/corrigendum-to-malaria-surveillance-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-comparison-of-microscopy-pcr-and-rapid-diagnostic-test-diagn-microbiol-infect-dis-2016-may-85-1-16-8-doi-10-1016-j-diagmicrobio-2016-01-004-epub-2016-jan-9
#9
Stephanie M Doctor, Yunhao Liu, Amy Whitesell, Kyaw L Thwai, Steve M Taylor, Mark Janko, Michael Emch, Melchior Kashamuka, Jérémie Muwonga, Antoinette Tshefu, Steven R Meshnick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910810/concurrent-infection-with-plasmodium-vivax-and-the-dengue-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-a-paediatric-patient-from-new-delhi-india-in-2016
#10
Ayesha Tazeen, Mohd Abdullah, Malik Hisamuddin, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Hirday N Verma, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Dengue and chikungunya fevers are transmitted by the common mosquito vector Aedes and malaria by Anopheles. Concurrent infections are reported due to co-circulation of these pathogens, especially in endemic regions. We report a rare case of triple infection with 3 arthropod-borne pathogens (Plasmodium vivax and the dengue and chikungunya viruses) in a 3-year-old child from New Delhi, India, in August 2016. The viruses were identified by RT-PCR and the parasite by microscopy and antigen detection. The dengue virus serotype 3 sequence was clustered in the genotype III by the phylogenetic analysis...
September 15, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903758/factors-associated-with-malaria-microscopy-diagnostic-performance-following-a-pilot-quality-assurance-programme-in-health-facilities-in-malaria-low-transmission-areas-of-kenya-2014
#11
Fredrick Odhiambo, Ann M Buff, Collins Moranga, Caroline M Moseti, Jesca Okwara Wesongah, Sara A Lowther, Wences Arvelo, Tura Galgalo, Thomas O Achia, Zeinab G Roka, Waqo Boru, Lily Chepkurui, Bernhards Ogutu, Elizabeth Wanja
BACKGROUND: Malaria accounts for ~21% of outpatient visits annually in Kenya; prompt and accurate malaria diagnosis is critical to ensure proper treatment. In 2013, formal malaria microscopy refresher training for microscopists and a pilot quality-assurance (QA) programme for malaria diagnostics were independently implemented to improve malaria microscopy diagnosis in malaria low-transmission areas of Kenya. A study was conducted to identify factors associated with malaria microscopy performance in the same areas...
September 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903755/prevalence-of-k13-mutation-and-day-3-positive-parasitaemia-in-artemisinin-resistant-malaria-endemic-area-of-cambodia-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Soy Ty Kheang, Siv Sovannaroth, Sovann Ek, Say Chy, Phally Chhun, Sokkieng Mao, Sokomar Nguon, Dy Soley Lek, Didier Menard, Neeraj Kak
BACKGROUND: The presence of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites was confirmed in western Cambodia in 2009. In 2013, mutations in the propeller domain of the kelch protein K13 was found to be associated with artemisinin resistance. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Day-3 parasitaemia, estimate the frequency of k13 molecular marker and assess their relationship in the context of operational research. METHODS: Blood smears and filter paper blood spots were collected from febrile patients in Kravanh District, Pursat Province...
September 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902879/chronic-plasmodium-brasilianum-infections-in-wild-peruvian-tamarins
#13
Gideon A Erkenswick, Mrinalini Watsa, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante, Patricia G Parker
There is an increased interest in potential zoonotic malarias. To date, Plasmodium malariae that infects humans remains indistinguishable from Plasmodium brasilianum, which is widespread among New World primates. Distributed throughout tropical Central and South America, the Callitrichidae are small arboreal primates in which detection of natural Plasmodium infection has been extremely rare. Most prior screening efforts have been limited to small samples, the use of low-probability detection methods, or both...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895080/population-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-artemisinin-resistance-in-southeast-asia
#14
Jesmin Lohy Das, Arjen M Dondorp, Francois Nosten, Aung Pyae Phyo, Warunee Hanpithakpong, Pascal Ringwald, Pharath Lim, Nicholas J White, Mats O Karlsson, Martin Bergstrand, Joel Tarning
Orally administered artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line treatment against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria worldwide. However, the increasing prevalence of artemisinin resistance is threatening efforts to treat and eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the exposure-response relationship of artesunate in patients with artemisinin sensitive and resistant malaria infections. Patients were recruited in Pailin, Cambodia (n = 39), and Wang Pha, Thailand (n = 40), and received either 2 mg/kg/day of artesunate mono-therapy for 7 consecutive days or 4 mg/kg/day of artesunate monotherapy for 3 consecutive days followed by mefloquine 15 and 10 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days...
September 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879175/computer-vision-malaria-diagnostic-systems-progress-and-prospects
#15
REVIEW
Joseph Joel Pollak, Arnon Houri-Yafin, Seth J Salpeter
Accurate malaria diagnosis is critical to prevent malaria fatalities, curb overuse of antimalarial drugs, and promote appropriate management of other causes of fever. While several diagnostic tests exist, the need for a rapid and highly accurate malaria assay remains. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the main diagnostic modalities available, yet they can demonstrate poor performance and accuracy. Automated microscopy platforms have the potential to significantly improve and standardize malaria diagnosis...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877707/semi-high-throughput-detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-oocysts-in-mosquitoes-using-bead-beating-followed-by-circumsporozoite-elisa-and-quantitative-pcr
#16
Wouter Graumans, Fitsum G Tadesse, Chiara Andolina, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Karina Teelen, Kjerstin Lanke, Endalamaw Gadisa, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Isaïe Reuling, Robert Sauerwein, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: The malaria infection status of mosquitoes is commonly determined by microscopic detection of oocysts on the dissected mosquito midgut. This method is labour-intensive, does not allow processing of large numbers of mosquitoes and can be challenging in terms of objective classification of oocysts. Here, a semi-high-throughput bead-beating ELISA method is proposed for detection of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) followed by confirmation by quantitative PCR (qPCR). METHODS: Cultured Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes were offered to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and examined by microscopy...
September 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867401/outbreak-of-human-malaria-caused-by-plasmodium-simium-in-the-atlantic-forest-in-rio-de-janeiro-a-molecular-epidemiological-investigation
#17
Patrícia Brasil, Mariano Gustavo Zalis, Anielle de Pina-Costa, Andre Machado Siqueira, Cesare Bianco Júnior, Sidnei Silva, André Luiz Lisboa Areas, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado, Denise Anete Madureira de Alvarenga, Ana Carolina Faria da Silva Santelli, Hermano Gomes Albuquerque, Pedro Cravo, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Cassio Leonel Peterka, Graziela Maria Zanini, Martha Cecilia Suárez Mutis, Alcides Pissinatti, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Richard Culleton, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Malaria was eliminated from southern and southeastern Brazil over 50 years ago. However, an increasing number of autochthonous episodes attributed to Plasmodium vivax have recently been reported from the Atlantic Forest region of Rio de Janeiro state. As the P vivax-like non-human primate malaria parasite species Plasmodium simium is locally enzootic, we performed a molecular epidemiological investigation to determine whether zoonotic malaria transmission is occurring. METHODS: We examined blood samples from patients presenting with signs or symptoms suggestive of malaria as well as from local howler monkeys by microscopy and PCR...
August 31, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851358/treatment-seeking-patterns-for-malaria-in-pharmacies-in-five-sub-saharan-african-countries
#18
Joël Ladner, Ben Davis, Etienne Audureau, Joseph Saba
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended as the first-line anti-malarial treatment strategy in sub-Saharan African countries. WHO policy recommends parasitological confirmation by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in all cases of suspected malaria prior to treatment. Gaps remain in understanding the factors that influence patient treatment-seeking behaviour and anti-malarial drug purchase decisions in the private sector. The objective of this study was to identify patient treatment-seeking behaviour in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda...
August 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851256/preparation-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-anti-plasmodial-properties-of-artemisinin-loaded-pcl-peg-pcl-nanoparticles
#19
Ali Ramazani, Mojtaba Keramati, Hojat Malvandi, Hossein Danafar, Hamidreza Kheiri Manjili
PURPOSE: Artemisinin (ART) has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, and anti-malarial effects, but its application is limited due to its low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability. In this study, the bioavailability, water solubility and anti-plasmodial property of ART were improved by PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymers. METHODS: The structure of the copolymers was characterized by (1)HNMR, FT-IR, DSC and GPC techniques. ART was encapsulated within micelles by a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to the formation of ART-loaded PCL-PEG-PCL micelles...
August 30, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836792/galactose-anchored-gelatin-nanoparticles-for-primaquine-delivery-and-improved-pharmacokinetics-a-biodegradable-and-safe-approach-for-effective-anti-plasmodial-activity-against-p-falciparum-3d7-and-in-vivo-hepatocytes-targeting
#20
Hitesh Kumar, Avinash Gothwal, Iliyas Khan, Kartik T Nakhate, Amit Alexander, Ajazuddin Khan, Vineeta Singh, Umesh Gupta
Primaquine phosphate (PQ) is mainly used as radical cure therapy to eradicate relapse of malaria at the liver stage, which is particularly caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax. In the present study, PQ loaded galactosylated gelatin nanoparticles (Gel-LA-PQ-NPs) were formulated using one step desolvation technique. The mean particle size of Gel-LA-PQ-NPs was found to be 93.48±6.36 nm with a zeta potential of 4.80±0.20 mV having 69.90±1.53% encapsulation efficiency. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the NPs were spherical in shape and uniformly distributed without any cluster formation...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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