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malaria microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153070/-the-importance-of-the-contribution-of-rapid-test-serological-and-molecular-methods-in-the-diagnosis-of-two-imported-malaria-cases-with-atypical-microscopy
#1
Orçun Zorbozan, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Esra Atalay Şahar, Muhammet Karakavuk, Hüseyin Can, Varol Tunali, Mert Döşkaya, Nevin Turgay, Seray Töz, Ahmet Özbilgin
Malaria is a widespread and life-threatening disease in tropical and subtropical regions. In patients with typical clinical symptoms, malaria is considered as a preliminary diagnosis if there is a travel history to malaria-endemic areas. The basis of the laboratory diagnosis of malaria is the microscopic examination of Giemsa stained smears. On the other hand, the diagnosis and differentiation of Plasmodium species with microscopic examination may have some difficulties. In the first case, adifferent appearance from the classical Plasmodium vivax erythrocytic forms in infected erythrocytes were detected in 1% of all erythrocytes in thin smear blood preparations of a 26-year-old male with complaints of fever and chills and a story of travel to Nigeria...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149898/detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-male-and-female-gametocytes-and-determination-of-parasite-sex-ratio-in-human-endemic-populations-by-novel-cheap-and-robust-rtqpcr-assays
#2
Federica Santolamazza, Pamela Avellino, Giulia Siciliano, Franck Adama Yao, Fabrizio Lombardo, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, David Modiano, Pietro Alano, Valentina Dianora Mangano
BACKGROUND: The presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in peripheral blood is essential for human to mosquito parasite transmission. The detection of submicroscopic infections with gametocytes and the estimation of the gametocyte sex ratio are crucial to assess the human host potential ability to infect mosquitoes and transmit malaria parasites. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to develop sensitive and cheap Real Time qPCR assays for large-scale epidemiological surveys, based on detection and amplification of gametocyte sex specific transcripts selected from the literature: the female-specific pfs25 and pf glycerol kinase (pfGK) and the male-specific pfs230p and pf13 transcripts...
November 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147042/insecticide-treated-nets-and-malaria-prevalence-papua-new-guinea-2008-2014
#3
Manuel W Hetzel, Justin Pulford, Yangta Ura, Sharon Jamea-Maiasa, Anthony Tandrapah, Nandao Tarongka, Lina Lorry, Leanne J Robinson, Ken Lilley, Leo Makita, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller
Objective: To investigate changes in malaria prevalence in Papua New Guinea after the distribution of long-lasting Insecticide-treated nets, starting in 2004, and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2011. Methods: Two malaria surveys were conducted in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. They included 77 and 92 randomly selected villages, respectively. In each village, all members of 30 randomly selected households gave blood samples and were assessed for malaria infection by light microscopy...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145842/age-specific-plasmodium-parasite-profile-in-pre-and-post-itn-intervention-period-at-a-highland-site-in-western-kenya
#4
Ednah N Ototo, Guofa Zhou, Lucy Kamau, Jenard P Mbugi, Christine L Wanjala, Maxwell Machani, Harrysone Atieli, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Monitoring and evaluation of entomological, parasitological and clinical data is an important component of malaria control as it is a measure of the success of the interventions. In many studies, clinical data has been used to monitor trends in malaria morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to demonstrate age dependent prevalence of malaria in the pre- and post-interventions period. METHODS: A series of cross-sectional malaria parasitological surveys were conducted in Iguhu, western Kenya...
November 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141762/efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-cruzeiro-do-sul-brazil-2016
#5
Megumi Itoh, Suiane Negreiros do Valle, Sâmela Farias, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Naomi Lucchi, Stella Chenet, Paola Marchesini, Marinete Póvoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) fixed-dose combination to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Between December 2015 and May 2016, we enrolled 79 patients, 5-79 years old with fever or history of fever in the previous 48 hours and P. falciparum monoinfection confirmed by microscopy. Attempts were made to provide direct observation or phone reminders for all six doses of AL, and patients were followed-up for 28 days...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141719/chloroquine-primaquine-versus-chloroquine-alone-to-treat-vivax-malaria-in-afghanistan-an-open-randomized-superiority-trial
#6
Ghulam Rahim Awab, Mallika Imwong, Germana Bancone, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Charles J Woodrow
Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138641/naturally-acquired-antibody-responses-to-a-synthetic-malaria-antigen-as202-11
#7
Rebeka Nazareth, Pius Horumpende, Tolbert Sonda, Arnold Ndaro, Edson Mollel, Eliakim Paul, Emmanuel Athanase, Jaffu Chilongola
Background: A major challenge to malaria vaccine development is identification of protective epitopes and respective protective immune responses. Objective: To characterize naturally acquired Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to the synthetic peptide AS202.11, a malaria vaccine candidate. Methodology: This community based cross-sectional study enrolled 320 participants aged 1 year and above. Demographic information was recorded through interviews...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138320/structural-basis-for-antibody-recognition-of-the-nanp-repeats-in-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein
#8
David Oyen, Jonathan L Torres, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Christian F Ockenhouse, Daniel Emerling, Jacob Glanville, Wayne Volkmuth, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Fidel Zavala, Andrew B Ward, C Richter King, Ian A Wilson
Acquired resistance against antimalarial drugs has further increased the need for an effective malaria vaccine. The current leading candidate, RTS,S, is a recombinant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum that contains 19 NANP repeats followed by a thrombospondin repeat domain. Although RTS,S has undergone extensive clinical testing and has progressed through phase III clinical trials, continued efforts are underway to enhance its efficacy and duration of protection. Here, we determined that two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 311 and 317), isolated from a recent controlled human malaria infection trial exploring a delayed fractional dose, inhibit parasite development in vivo by at least 97%...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127650/-plasmodium-ovale-wallikeri-and-plasmodium-ovale-curtisi-malaria-in-senegal-in-2016
#9
M A Diallo, K Diongue, G Diagne, M C Seck, M Ndiaye, B Dièye, Y D Ndiaye, A S Badiane, D Ndiaye
Recently in Senegal, a case of Plasmodium ovale malaria had led to a diagnostic difficulty due to the ignorance of this parasite and the neglect of it. The objective of this study was to actively investigate cases of P. ovale malaria that would be misdiagnosed in the health centre structures of Senegal. The study was conducted in three areas that reflect different epidemiological strata of malaria. Microscopy was performed by microscopy experts on suspected malaria patients. The results were validated by Rougemont real-time PCR...
November 10, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122736/enhanced-antimalalarial-activity-of-a-prolonged-release-in-situ-gel-of-arteether-lumefantrine-in-a-murine-model
#10
Shilpa Dawre, Sulabha Pathak, Shobhona Sharma, Padma V Devarajan
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment of falciparum malaria. Arteether (ART), an artemisinin derivative, is effective against Plasmodium falciparum, but it is available only as painful oily intramuscular (i.m.) injections. We formulated lyotropic liquid crystalline preconcentrates of ART and Lumefantrine (LUM) ACT with and without biodegradable polymer for antimalarial therapy. Following i.m. injection, both formed intact gels in situ due to rapid transition into liquid crystalline phase (LCP) which was confirmed by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), polarization optical microscopy (POM) and rheological changes...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115991/evaluation-of-the-deki-reader%C3%A2-an-automated-rdt-reader-and-data-management-device-in-a-household-survey-setting-in-low-malaria-endemic-southwestern-uganda
#11
Caesar Oyet, Michelle E Roh, Gertrude N Kiwanuka, Patrick Orikiriza, Martina Wade, Sunil Parikh, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of suspected malaria cases with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) has been shown to be an effective malaria control tool used in many resource-constrained settings. However, poor quality control and quality assurance hinder the accurate reporting of malaria diagnoses. Recent use of a portable, battery operated RDT reader (Deki Reader™, Fio Corporation) has shown to have high agreement with visual inspection across diverse health centre settings, however evidence of its feasibility and usability during cross sectional surveys are limited...
November 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115966/malaria-surveys-using-rapid-diagnostic-tests-and-validation-of-results-using-post-hoc-quantification-of-plasmodium-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein-2
#12
Mateusz Plucinski, Rafael Dimbu, Baltazar Candrinho, James Colborn, Aida Badiane, Daouda Ndiaye, Kimberly Mace, Michelle Chang, Jean F Lemoine, Eric S Halsey, John W Barnwell, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Michael Aidoo, Eric Rogier
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) positivity is supplanting microscopy as the standard measure of malaria burden at the population level. However, there is currently no standard for externally validating RDT results from field surveys. METHODS: Individuals' blood concentration of the Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) protein were compared to results of HRP2-detecting RDTs in participants from field surveys in Angola, Mozambique, Haiti, and Senegal...
November 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115957/towards-a-needle-free-diagnosis-of-malaria-in-vivo-identification-and-classification-of-red-and-white-blood-cells-containing-haemozoin
#13
Jennifer L Burnett, Jennifer L Carns, Rebecca Richards-Kortum
BACKGROUND: Optical detection of circulating haemozoin has been suggested as a needle free method to diagnose malaria using in vivo microscopy. Haemozoin is generated within infected red blood cells by the malaria parasite, serving as a highly specific, endogenous biomarker of malaria. However, phagocytosis of haemozoin by white blood cells which persist after the infection is resolved presents the potential for false positive diagnosis; therefore, the focus of this work is to identify a feature of the haemozoin signal to discriminate between infected red blood cells and haemozoin-containing white blood cells...
November 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110722/molecular-markers-for-artemisinin-and-partner-drug-resistance-in-natural-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-following-increased-insecticide-treated-net-coverage-along-the-slope-of-mount-cameroon-cross-sectional-study
#14
Tobias O Apinjoh, Regina N Mugri, Olivo Miotto, Hanesh F Chi, Rolland B Tata, Judith K Anchang-Kimbi, Eleanor M Fon, Delphine A Tangoh, Robert V Nyingchu, Christopher Jacob, Roberto Amato, Abdoulaye Djimde, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Eric A Achidi, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance is one of the greatest challenges of malaria control programmes, with the monitoring of parasite resistance to artemisinins or to Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) partner drugs critical to elimination efforts. Markers of resistance to a wide panel of antimalarials were assessed in natural parasite populations from southwestern Cameroon. METHODS: Individuals with asymptomatic parasitaemia or uncomplicated malaria were enrolled through cross-sectional surveys from May 2013 to March 2014 along the slope of mount Cameroon...
November 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100506/long-term-in-vitro-culture-of-plasmodium-vivax-isolates-from-madagascar-maintained-in-saimiri-boliviensis-blood
#15
Rajeev K Mehlotra, D'Arbra Blankenship, Rosalind E Howes, Tovonahary A Rakotomanga, Brune Ramiranirina, Stephanie Ramboarina, Thierry Franchard, Marlin H Linger, Melinda Zikursh-Blood, Arsène C Ratsimbasoa, Peter A Zimmerman, Brian T Grimberg
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent human malaria parasite and is likely to increase proportionally as malaria control efforts more rapidly impact the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum. Despite the prominence of P. vivax as a major human pathogen, vivax malaria qualifies as a neglected and under-studied tropical disease. Significant challenges bringing P. vivax into the laboratory, particularly the capacity for long-term propagation of well-characterized strains, have limited the study of this parasite's red blood cell (RBC) invasion mechanism, blood-stage development, gene expression, and genetic manipulation...
November 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096671/community-led-responses-for-elimination-core-a-study-protocol-for-a-community-randomized-controlled-trial-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-community-level-reactive-focal-drug-administration-for-reducing-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-prevalence-and-incidence
#16
Daniel J Bridges, John M Miller, Victor Chalwe, Hawela Moonga, Busiku Hamainza, Rick Steketee, Kafula Silumbe, Jenala Nyangu, David A Larsen
BACKGROUND: Zambia is pushing for, and has made great strides towards, the elimination of malaria transmission in Southern Province. Reactive focal test and treat (RFTAT) using rapid diagnostic tests and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) has been key in making this progress. Reactive focal drug administration (RFDA) using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP), may be superior in accelerating clearance of the parasite reservoir in humans due to the provision of enhanced chemoprophylactic protection of at-risk populations against new infections...
November 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078786/detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-dna-in-saliva-samples-stored-at-room-temperature-potential-for-a-non-invasive-saliva-based-diagnostic-test-for-malaria
#17
Kenji O Mfuh, Samuel Tassi Yunga, Livo F Esemu, Obase Ngemani Bekindaka, Jessica Yonga, Jean Claude Djontu, Calixt D Mbakop, Diane W Taylor, Vivek R Nerurkar, Rose G F Leke
BACKGROUND: Current malaria diagnostic methods require blood collection, that may be associated with pain and the risk of transmitting blood-borne pathogens, and often create poor compliance when repeated sampling is needed. On the other hand, the collection of saliva is minimally invasive; but saliva has not been widely used for the diagnosis of malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of saliva collected and stored at room temperature using the OMNIgene(®)•ORAL kit for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum malaria...
October 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078773/longitudinal-estimation-of-plasmodium-falciparum-prevalence-in-relation-to-malaria-prevention-measures-in-six-sub-saharan-african-countries
#18
Chris Drakeley, Salim Abdulla, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, José Francisco Fernandes, Peter Kremsner, Bertrand Lell, Ludovic Mewono, Bache Emmanuel Bache, Michael Gabriel Mihayo, Omar Juma, Marcel Tanner, Marc Christian Tahita, Halidou Tinto, Salou Diallo, Palpouguini Lompo, Umberto D'Alessandro, Bernhards Ogutu, Lucas Otieno, Solomon Otieno, Walter Otieno, Janet Oyieko, Kwaku Poku Asante, Dominic Bon-Ereme Dery, George Adjei, Elisha Adeniji, Dorcas Atibilla, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Brian Greenwood, Samwel Gesase, John Lusingu, Coline Mahende, Robert Mongi, Method Segeja, Samuel Adjei, Tsiri Agbenyega, Alex Agyekum, Daniel Ansong, John Tanko Bawa, Harry Owusu Boateng, Léonard Dandalo, Veronica Escamilla, Irving Hoffman, Peter Maenje, Francis Martinson, Terrell Carter, Didier Leboulleux, David C Kaslow, Effua Usuf, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Edith Roset Bahmanyar
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum prevalence (PfPR) is a widely used metric for assessing malaria transmission intensity. This study was carried out concurrently with the RTS,S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine Phase III trial and estimated PfPR over ≤ 4 standardized cross-sectional surveys. METHODS: This epidemiology study (NCT01190202) was conducted in 8 sites from 6 countries (Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania), between March 2011 and December 2013...
October 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078270/synergistic-malaria-vaccine-combinations-identified-by-systematic-antigen-screening
#19
Leyla Y Bustamante, Gareth T Powell, Yen-Chun Lin, Michael D Macklin, Nadia Cross, Alison Kemp, Paula Cawkill, Theo Sanderson, Cecile Crosnier, Nicole Muller-Sienerth, Ogobara K Doumbo, Boubacar Traore, Peter D Crompton, Pietro Cicuta, Tuan M Tran, Gavin J Wright, Julian C Rayner
A highly effective vaccine would be a valuable weapon in the drive toward malaria elimination. No such vaccine currently exists, and only a handful of the hundreds of potential candidates in the parasite genome have been evaluated. In this study, we systematically evaluated 29 antigens likely to be involved in erythrocyte invasion, an essential developmental stage during which the malaria parasite is vulnerable to antibody-mediated inhibition. Testing antigens alone and in combination identified several strain-transcending targets that had synergistic combinatorial effects in vitro, while studies in an endemic population revealed that combinations of the same antigens were associated with protection from febrile malaria...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074975/lensless-tomographic-imaging-of-near-surface-structures-of-frozen-hydrated-malaria-infected-human-erythrocytes-by-coherent-x-ray-diffraction-microscopy
#20
Viktoria Frank, Yuriy Chushkin, Benjamin Fröhlich, Wasim Abuillan, Harden Rieger, Alexandra S Becker, Akihisa Yamamoto, Fernanda F Rossetti, Stefan Kaufmann, Michael Lanzer, Federico Zontone, Motomu Tanaka
Lensless, coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy has been drawing considerable attentions for tomographic imaging of whole human cells. In this study, we performed cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of human erythrocytes with and without malaria infection. To shed light on structural features near the surface, "ghost cells" were prepared by the removal of cytoplasm. From two-dimensional images, we found that the surface of erythrocytes after 32 h of infection became much rougher compared to that of healthy, uninfected erythrocytes...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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