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malaria microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103883/performance-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-for-the-diagnosis-of-malaria-among-malaria-suspected-pregnant-women-in-northwest-ethiopia
#1
Banchamlak Tegegne, Sisay Getie, Wossenseged Lemma, Abu Naser Mohon, Dylan R Pillai
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem and an important cause of maternal and infant morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Early and accurate diagnosis of malaria with effective treatment is the best strategy for prevention and control of complications during pregnancy and infant morbidity and mortality. However, laboratory diagnosis has relied on the identification of malaria parasites and parasite antigens in peripheral blood using Giemsa-stained microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which lack analytical and clinical sensitivity...
January 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065415/two-sympatric-types-of-plasmodium-ovale-and-discrimination-by-molecular-methods
#2
REVIEW
Myo Thura Zaw, Zaw Lin
Plasmodium ovale is widely distributed in tropical countries, whereas it has not been reported in the Americas. It is not a problem globally because it is rarely detected by microscopy owing to low parasite density, which is a feature of clinical ovale malaria. P.o. curtisi and P.o. wallikeri are widespread in both Africa and Asia, and were known to be sympatric in many African countries and in southeast Asian countries. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) gene, cytochrome b (cytb) gene, and merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) gene were initially studied for molecular discrimination of P...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061871/lamp-kit-for-diagnosis-of-non-falciparum-malaria-in-plasmodium-ovale-infected-patients
#3
Juan Cuadros, Alexandra Martin Ramírez, Iveth J González, Xavier C Ding, Ramon Perez Tanoira, Gerardo Rojo-Marcos, Peña Gómez-Herruz, Jose Miguel Rubio
BACKGROUND: Microscopy and rapid diagnosis tests have a limited sensitivity in diagnosis of malaria by Plasmodium ovale. The LAMP kit (LoopAMP®) can be used in the field without special equipment and could have an important role in malaria control programmes in endemic areas and for malaria diagnosis in returned travellers. The performance of the Pan primer of the kit in detecting malaria by P. ovale was compared with the results of standard nPCR in samples of patients returning from P...
January 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057071/parasitic-infections-and-maternal-anaemia-among-expectant-mothers-in-the-dangme-east-district-of-ghana
#4
Samuel Crowther Kofi Tay, Emmanuel Agbeko Nani, Williams Walana
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are of public health concern globally, particular among at risk groups such as pregnant women in developing countries. The presence of these parasites during pregnancy potentiate adverse effects to both the mother and the unborn baby. This study sought to establish the prevalence of some parasitic agents among antenatal attendees in the Dangme East District of Ghana. A cross-sectional prospective study was conduct between April and July, 2012. Venous blood specimens were collected from each participant for haemoglobin estimation and malaria microscopy...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049481/expanding-access-to-parasite-based-malaria-diagnosis-through-retail-drug-shops-in-tanzania-evidence-from-a-randomized-trial-and-implications-for-treatment
#5
Kathleen Maloney, Abigail Ward, Bonnie Krenz, Nora Petty, Lindsay Bryson, Caitlin Dolkart, Theodoor Visser, Arnaud Le Menach, Valerie K Scott, Justin M Cohen, Esther Mtumbuka, Sigsbert Mkude
BACKGROUND: Tanzania has seen a reduction in the fraction of fevers caused by malaria, likely due in part to scale-up of control measures. While national guidelines require parasite-based diagnosis prior to treatment, it is estimated that more than half of suspected malaria treatment-seeking in Tanzania initiates in the private retail sector, where diagnosis by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy is illegal. This pilot study investigated whether the introduction of RDTs into Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) under realistic market conditions would improve case management practices...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035638/-evaluation-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-optimal-it%C3%A2-pldh-along-the-plasmodium-falciparum-distribution-limit-in-mauritania
#6
H Ba, A D Ahouidi, C W Duffy, Y B Deh, C Diedhiou, A Tandia, M Y Diallo, S Assefa, B B Lô, M B Elkory, D J Conway
Performance of the malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) OptiMal-IT® was evaluated in Mauritania where malaria is low and dependent on a short transmission season. Slide microscopy was considered as the reference method of diagnosis. Febrile patients with suspected malaria were recruited from six health facilities, 3 urban and 3 rural, during two periods (December 2011 to February 2012, and August 2012 to March 2013). Overall, 780 patients were sampled, with RDT and thick blood film microscopy results being obtained for 759 of them...
December 29, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030753/expression-dynamics-physiologically-relevant-functional-study-of-stevor-in-asexual-stages-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#7
Himanshu Singh, Kripa Madnani, Ying Bena Lim, Jianshu Cao, Peter R Preiser, Chwee Teck Lim
The extensive modification of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes by Variant Surface Antigens (VSA) plays a major role in immune evasion and malaria induced pathology. Here, using high resolution microscopy we visualize the spatio-temporal expression dynamics of STEVOR, an important VSA family, in a stage dependent manner. We demonstrate that it is exported to the cell surface where protein molecules cluster and preferentially localize in proximity to knobs. Quantitative evidence from our force measurements and microfluidic assays reveal that STEVOR can effectively mediate the formation of stable, robust rosettes under static and physiologically relevant flow conditions...
December 28, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978709/a-malaria-transmission-blocking-usnic-acid-derivative-prevents-plasmodium-zygote-to-ookinete-maturation-in-the-mosquito-midgut
#8
Rebecca Pastrana-Mena, Derrick K Mathias, Michael Delves, Krithika Rajaram, Jonas G King, Rebecca Yee, Beatrice Trucchi, Luisella Verotta, Rhoel R Dinglasan
The evolution of drug resistance is a recurrent problem that has plagued efforts to treat and control malaria. Recent emergence of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia underscores the need to develop novel antimalarials and identify new targetable pathways in Plasmodium parasites. Transmission-blocking approaches, which typically target gametocytes in the host bloodstream or parasite stages in the mosquito gut, are recognized collectively as a strategy that when used in combination with antimalarials that target erythrocytic stages will not only cure malaria but will also prevent subsequent transmission...
December 16, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974542/evaluation-of-the-parasight-platform-for-malaria-diagnosis
#9
Yochay Eshel, Arnon Houri-Yafin, Hagai Benkuzari, Natalie Lezmy, Mamta Soni, Malini Charles, Jayanthi Swaminathan, Hilda Solomon, Pavithra Sampathkumar, Zul Premji, Caroline Mbithi, Zaitun Nneka, Simon Onsongo, Daniel Maina, Sarah Levy-Schreier, Caitlin Lee Cohen, Dan Gluck, Joseph Joel Pollak, Seth J Salpeter
The WHO estimates that nearly 500 million malaria tests are performed annually. While microscopy and RDTs are the main diagnostic approaches, no single solution is inexpensive, rapid and highly accurate. Two recent studies from our group have demonstrated a prototype computer vision platform that meets these needs. Here we present the results from two clinical studies on the commercially available version of this technology, the SightDx Parasight platform which provides malaria diagnosis, species identification and parasite quantification...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966198/contribution-of-real-time-pcr-to-plasmodium-species-identification-and-to-clinical-decisions-a-nationwide-study-in-a-non-endemic-setting
#10
T Grossman, E Schwartz, J Vainer, V Agmon, Y Glazer, D Goldmann, E Marva
Treatment choice for patients with malaria in Israeli hospitals is based on microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Here, we demonstrate the cumulative value of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in optimizing the treatment of malaria. Between January 2009 and December 2015, 451 samples from 357 patients were tested in our laboratory using a real-time PCR assay. Hospital laboratory results (without real-time PCR) were compared to those obtained in our laboratory. A total of 307 patients had a malaria-positive laboratory finding in the hospital...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941968/reactive-case-detection-for-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-elimination-in-rural-amazonia
#11
Pablo S Fontoura, Bruna F Finco, Nathália F Lima, Jaques F de Carvalho, Joseph M Vinetz, Márcia C Castro, Marcelo U Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Malaria burden in Brazil has reached its lowest levels in 35 years and Plasmodium vivax now accounts for 84% of cases countrywide. Targeting residual malaria transmission entrenched in the Amazon is the next major challenge for ongoing elimination efforts. Better strategies are urgently needed to address the vast reservoir of asymptomatic P. vivax carriers in this and other areas approaching malaria elimination. METHODS: We evaluated a reactive case detection (RCD) strategy tailored for P...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941107/malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-and-malaria-microscopy-for-guiding-malaria-treatment-of-uncomplicated-fevers-in-nigeria-and-prereferral-cases-in-3-african-countries
#12
Catherine O Falade, IkeOluwapo O Ajayi, Jesca Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Mohamadou Siribié, Amidou Diarra, Luc Sermé, Chinenye Afonne, Oyindamola B Yusuf, Zakaria Gansane, Ayodele S Jegede, Jan Singlovic, Melba Gomes
BACKGROUND:  The World Health Organization recommends that malaria treatment be based on demonstration of the infecting Plasmodium parasite specie. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are recommended at community points of care because they are accurate and rapid. We report on parasitological results in a malaria study in selected rural communities in 3 African countries. METHODS:  In Nigeria, community health workers (CHWs) performed RDTs (SD-Bioline) and thick blood smears on all children suspected to have malaria...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941106/compliance-with-referral-advice-after-treatment-with-prereferral-rectal-artesunate-a-study-in-3-sub-saharan-african-countries
#13
Mohamadou Siribié, IkeOluwapo O Ajayi, Jesca Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Armande K Sanou, Ayodele S Jegede, Chinenye Afonne, Catherine O Falade, Melba Gomes
BACKGROUND:  Children aged <5 years were enrolled in a large study in 3 countries of sub-Saharan Africa because they had danger signs preventing them from being able to take oral medications. We examined compliance and factors associated with compliance with referral advice for those who were treated with rectal artesunate. METHODS:  Patient demographic data, speed of accessing treatment after danger signs were recognized, clinical symptoms, malaria microscopy, treatment-seeking behavior, and compliance with referral advice were obtained from case record forms of 179 children treated with prereferral rectal artesunate in a multicountry study...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938356/plasmodium-falciparum-genotype-and-gametocyte-prevalence-in-children-with-uncomplicated-malaria-in-coastal-ghana
#14
Ruth Ayanful-Torgby, Akua Oppong, Joana Abankwa, Festus Acquah, Kimberly C Williamson, Linda Eva Amoah
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes are vital to sustaining malaria transmission. Parasite densities, multiplicity of infection as well as asexual genotype are features that have been found to influence gametocyte production. Measurements of the prevalence of Plasmodium sp. gametocytes may serve as a tool to monitor the success of malaria eradication efforts. METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 112 children aged between 6 months and 13 years with uncomplicated P...
December 9, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936233/malaria-in-hiv-infected-children-receiving-hiv-protease-inhibitor-compared-with-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-therapy-impaact-p1068s-substudy-to-p1060
#15
Charlotte V Hobbs, Erin E Gabriel, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Jean Tauzie, Elizabeth Petzold, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Benjamin H Chi, Yonghua Li, Tiina Ilmet, Brian Kirmse, Jillian Neal, Sunil Parikh, Nagamah Deygoo, Patrick Jean Philippe, Lynne Mofenson, William Prescott, Jingyang Chen, Philippa Musoke, Paul Palumbo, Patrick E Duffy, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed. METHODS: Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4-62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). We compared malaria parasite carriage by blood smear microscopy (BS) and confirmed clinical malaria incidence (CCM, or positive BS with malaria symptoms) in children initiated on HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine (NVP), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv), a protease inhibitor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933559/-contribution-of-nested-pcr-in-the-diagnosis-of-imported-malaria-in-southern-algeria
#16
L Bouiba, B Gassen, M Gasmi, D Hammadi, Z Harrat
The nested PCR was used to estimate its inputs in malaria diagnosis and in the performance of the microscope operators involved in the surveillance of malaria in remote areas of South Algeria. For the period 2010 to 2015, 112 patients (93 febrile and 19 asymptomatic) coming from sub-Saharan Africa were tested for malaria in the hospital of Tamanrasset. One part of the blood taken from fingertip was used for blood smears and the second part was absorbed in filter paper for molecular diagnosis. Overall, the infection was detected by nested PCR in 63 samples versus 53 by direct examination...
December 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931234/patterns-and-determinants-of-malaria-risk-in-urban-and-peri-urban-areas-of-blantyre-malawi
#17
Don P Mathanga, Atupele Kapito Tembo, Themba Mzilahowa, Andy Bauleni, Kondwani Mtimaukenena, Terrie E Taylor, Clarissa Valim, Edward D Walker, Mark L Wilson
BACKGROUND: Although malaria disease in urban and peri-urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a growing concern, the epidemiologic patterns and drivers of transmission in these settings remain poorly understood. Factors associated with variation in malaria risk in urban and peri-urban areas were evaluated in this study. METHODS: A health facility-based, age and location-matched, case-control study of children 6-59 months of age was conducted in four urban and two peri-urban health facilities (HF) of Blantyre city, Malawi...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929364/ipomoea-batatas-convolvulaceae-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-for-controlling-mosquito-vectors-of-aedes-albopictus-anopheles-stephensi-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae
#18
V Pavithra Bharathi, C Ragavendran, N Murugan, D Natarajan
We proposed an effective and eco-friendly control of dengue, malaria, and filariasis-causing vectors. We tested Ipomoea batatas leaves-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against first to fourth instar larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentrations. The synthesized AgNPs showed broad spectrum of larvicidal and adulticidal effects after 48 h of exposure. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was done using various spectral and microscopy analyses...
December 8, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912876/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-activity-of-an-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-seed-kernel-extract-on-early-sporogonic-development-of-plasmodium-in-comparison-with-azadirachtin-a-its-most-abundant-constituent
#19
Nisha Dahiya, Giuseppina Chianese, Solomon Mequanente Abay, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Fulvio Esposito, Giulio Lupidi, Massimo Bramucci, Luana Quassinti, George Christophides, Annette Habluetzel, Leonardo Lucantoni
BACKGROUND: NeemAzal(®) (NA) is a quantified extract from seed kernels of neem, Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae), with a wide spectrum of biological properties, classically ascribed to its limonoid content. NA contains several azadirachtins (A to L), azadirachtin A (AzaA) being its main constituent. AzaA has been shown to inhibit microgamete formation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, and NA was found to completely inhibit the transmission of Plasmodium berghei to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes when administered to gametocytemic mice at a corresponding AzaA dose of 50mg/kg before exposure to mosquitoes...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911910/molecular-markers-of-radiation-induced-attenuation-in-intrahepatic-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites
#20
Miranda S Oakley, Nitin Verma, Hong Zheng, Vivek Anantharaman, Kazuyo Takeda, Yamei Gao, Timothy G Myers, Phuong Thao Pham, Babita Mahajan, Nirbhay Kumar, Davison Sangweme, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, L Aravind, Sanjai Kumar
Experimental immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) and genetically attenuated sporozoites has proved to be a promising approach for malaria vaccine development. However, parasite biomarkers of growth attenuation and enhanced immune protection in response to radiation remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the effect of an attenuating dose of γ-irradiation (15 krad) on the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) ultrastructure by electron microscopy, growth rate of liver stage P. falciparum in liver cell cultures, and genome-wide transcriptional profile of liver stage parasites by microarray...
2016: PloS One
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