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malaria microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202065/alternative-transmission-routes-in-the-malaria-elimination-era-an-overview-of-transfusion-transmitted-malaria-in-the-americas
#1
Regina M Alho, Kim Vinícius Amaral Machado, Fernando F A Val, Nelson A Fraiji, Marcia A A Alexandre, Gisely C Melo, Judith Recht, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted (TT) malaria is an alternative infection route that has gained little attention from authorities, despite representing a life-threatening condition. There has been no systematic review of this health problem in American countries. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of TT malaria in the Americas and identify factors associated with lethality based on the studies published in the literature. METHODS: Potentially relevant papers in all languages were retrieved from MEDLINE and LILACS...
February 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187764/new-potential-plasmodium-brasilianum-hosts-tamarin-and-marmoset-monkeys-family-callitrichidae
#2
Denise A M Alvarenga, Anielle Pina-Costa, Cesare Bianco, Silvia B Moreira, Patricia Brasil, Alcides Pissinatti, Claudio T Daniel-Ribeiro, Cristiana F A Brito
BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHPs) as a source for Plasmodium infections in humans are a challenge for malaria elimination. In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting NHPs, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. Both species are infective to man. Plasmodium brasilianum resembles morphologically, genetically and immunologically the human quartan Plasmodium malariae. Plasmodium brasilianum naturally infects species of non-human primates from all New World monkey families from a large geographic area...
February 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179695/a-pcr-method-based-on-18s-rrna-gene-for-detection-of-malaria-parasite-in-balochistan
#3
Zubeda Shahwani, Abdul Aleem, Nazeer Ahmed, Muhammad Mushtaq, Sarwat Afridi
OBJECTIVE: To establish a polymerase chain reaction method based on 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene for the detection of plasmodium deoxyribonucleic acid in patients suffering from malaria symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to October 2014 in district Quetta of Pakistan's Balochistan province. Blood samples were collected from patients suffering from general symptoms of malaria. A polymerase chain reaction-based technique was applied for the diagnosis of malaria and detection of responsible species in the patients who were suspected to carry the parasite...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168042/coinfection-with-schistosoma-haematobium-and-plasmodium-falciparum-and-anaemia-severity-among-pregnant-women-in-munyenge-mount-cameroon-area-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Judith K Anchang-Kimbi, Dillys Mansoh Elad, Gemain Taiwe Sotoing, Eric Akum Achidi
Background. Malaria and urogenital schistosomiasis are coendemic in Mount Cameroon Area. This study investigated the prevalence of S. haematobium, P. falciparum, and coinfections and their effect on anaemia in pregnancy. Methods. Pregnant women reporting for antenatal care (ANC) clinic visit in Munyenge were enrolled. S. haematobium and P. falciparum infections were determined by urine filtration and microscopy, respectively. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured using haemoglobinometer. Of 250 women, 46.8%, 39...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167855/caregivers-vector-control-methods-and-their-impact-on-malaria-outcome-in-under-five-presenting-in-tertiary-health-institution-in-nigeria
#5
D U Nwaneri, O A Oladipo, A E Sadoh, M O Ibadin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Integrated vector control especially use of insecticide-treated bed nets have been reported as effective malaria preventive strategies. This study aimed at documenting factors that influence regular use of insecticide-treated nets in under-fives and impact of vector control methods on malaria outcome (severe malaria prevalence and mortality) in under-fives presenting in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out from June 2012 and July 2013...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166794/an-epidemiological-study-to-assess-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-prevalence-and-malaria-control-measures-in-burkina-faso-and-senegal
#6
Aldiouma Diallo, Ali Sié, Sodiomon Sirima, Khadime Sylla, Mahmadou Ndiaye, Mamadou Bountogo, Espérance Ouedraogo, Roger Tine, Assane Ndiaye, Boubacar Coulibaly, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Babacar Faye, El Hadji Ba, Guillaume Compaore, Alfred Tiono, Cheikh Sokhna, Maurice Yé, Amidou Diarra, Edith Roset Bahmanyar, Melanie De Boer, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Effua Abigail Usuf
BACKGROUND: Malariometric information is needed to decide how to introduce malaria vaccines and evaluate their impact in sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study (NCT01954264) was conducted between October and November, 2013, corresponding to the high malaria transmission season, in four sites with Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (DSS) [two sites with moderate-to-high malaria endemicity in Burkina Faso (Nouna and Saponé) and two sites with low malaria endemicity in Senegal (Keur Socé and Niakhar)]...
February 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163958/a-prospective-comparative-field-study-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-a-traditional-plant-based-malaria-prophylaxis
#7
Prakash Bangalore Nagendrappa, Pradeep Annamalai, Muruli Naik, Vinay Mahajan, Ashwini Mathur, Ghosh Susanta, Frederick Gay, Padma Venkatasubramanian
BACKGROUND: An unceasing threat of resistance of malarial parasites to available antimalarial drugs makes the development of new drugs imperative. Natural plant-based products are an alternative source for discovering new antimalarial drugs. AIM: To determine the prophylactic efficacy of a traditionally used plant-based drug on prevention of malaria in endemic villages of Odisha, India. METHODS: A total of 267 healthy human volunteers of both sexes, aged 18-60 years were enrolled in Odisha, India, to receive either minimum 20 doses of aqueous extract of Traditional Plant-based Malaria Prophylactic drug 74, twice a week (experimental group), or no drug (control group) for 14 weeks...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161569/the-spread-of-artemisinin-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-a-molecular-epidemiology-observational-study
#8
Mallika Imwong, Kanokon Suwannasin, Chanon Kunasol, Kreepol Sutawong, Mayfong Mayxay, Huy Rekol, Frank M Smithuis, Tin Maung Hlaing, Kyaw M Tun, Rob W van der Pluijm, Rupam Tripura, Olivo Miotto, Didier Menard, Mehul Dhorda, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the PfKelch13 mutations that confer artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria have multiple independent origins across the Greater Mekong subregion, which has motivated a regional malaria elimination agenda. We aimed to use molecular genotyping to assess antimalarial drug resistance selection and spread in the Greater Mekong subregion. METHODS: In this observational study, we tested Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Myanmar, northeastern Thailand, southern Laos, and western Cambodia for PfKelch13 mutations and for Pfplasmepsin2 gene amplification (indicating piperaquine resistance)...
February 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143518/submicroscopic-plasmodium-prevalence-in-relation-to-malaria-incidence-in-20-villages-in-western-cambodia
#9
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Christianne C Veugen, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Nicola James, Mehul Dhorda, Richard J Maude, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Cambodia has seen a marked reduction in the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum over the past decade without a corresponding decline in Plasmodium vivax incidence. It is unknown to what extent local transmission is sustained by a chain of clinical and sub-clinical infections or by continued re-introduction via migration. Using an ultrasensitive molecular technique, 20 villages in western Cambodia were surveyed to detect the low season prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax and local treatment records were reviewed...
January 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138056/outbreak-investigation-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-a-region-of-guatemala-targeted-for-malaria-elimination
#10
Robert Cohen, Joel Sarceño Cardona, Eliana Solares Navarro, Norma Padilla, Lisette Reyes, Rodrigo Javier Pinto Villar, Penny Masuoka, Chris Bernart, Leonard F Peruski, Joe P Bryan
The Department of Santa Rosa, Guatemala, is targeted for malaria elimination. However, compared with 2011, a 13-fold increase in cases was reported in 2012. To describe the epidemiology of malaria in Santa Rosa in the setting of the apparent outbreak, demographic and microscopic data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. In April 2012, a new surveillance strategy, funded by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, was introduced involving more active case detection, centralized microscopy, increased community engagement, and expanded vector control...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127357/simplified-pan-species-real-time-pcr-based-detection-of-plasmodium-spp-in-blood-smear
#11
Gholamreza Hassanpour, Hossein Mirhendi, Mehdi Mohebali, Ahmad Raeisi, Hojjat Zeraati, Hossein Keshavarz
BACKGROUND: We aimed to quicken and simplify the detection of Plasmodium in blood samples by developing and testing a pan-Plasmodium real-time PCR for accurate screening of individuals suspected of malaria. METHODS: A single primer/probe set for pan-species Plasmodium-specific real time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA was designed and evaluated for rapid diagnosis and screening of malaria infections using dried blood smears...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121670/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-malaria-incidence-in-hiv-infected-ugandan-adults
#12
Ronnie P Kasirye, Heiner Grosskurth, Paula Munderi, Jonathan Levin, Zacchaeus Anywaine, Andrew Nunn, Anatoli Kamali, Kathy Baisley
INTRODUCTION: Using the data of a trial on cotrimoxazole (CTX) cessation, we investigated the effect of different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens on the incidence of clinical malaria. METHODS: During the cotrimoxazole cessation trial (ISRCTN44723643), HIV-infected Ugandan adults with CD4 at least 250 cells/μl were randomized to receive either CTX prophylaxis or placebo and were followed for a median of 2.5 years. Blood slides for malaria microscopy were examined at scheduled visits and at unscheduled visits when the participant felt unwell...
February 20, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117441/plasmodium-malariae-and-p-ovale-genomes-provide-insights-into-malaria-parasite-evolution
#13
Gavin G Rutledge, Ulrike Böhme, Mandy Sanders, Adam J Reid, James A Cotton, Oumou Maiga-Ascofare, Abdoulaye A Djimdé, Tobias O Apinjoh, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Magnus Manske, John W Barnwell, François Renaud, Benjamin Ollomo, Franck Prugnolle, Nicholas M Anstey, Sarah Auburn, Ric N Price, James S McCarthy, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Chris I Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Thomas D Otto
Elucidation of the evolutionary history and interrelatedness of Plasmodium species that infect humans has been hampered by a lack of genetic information for three human-infective species: P. malariae and two P. ovale species (P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri). These species are prevalent across most regions in which malaria is endemic and are often undetectable by light microscopy, rendering their study in human populations difficult. The exact evolutionary relationship of these species to the other human-infective species has been contested...
January 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103883/performance-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-for-the-diagnosis-of-malaria-among-malaria-suspected-pregnant-women-in-northwest-ethiopia
#14
Banchamlak Tegegne, Sisay Getie, Wossenseged Lemma, Abu Naser Mohon, Dylan R Pillai
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem and an important cause of maternal and infant morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Early and accurate diagnosis of malaria with effective treatment is the best strategy for prevention and control of complications during pregnancy and infant morbidity and mortality. However, laboratory diagnosis has relied on the identification of malaria parasites and parasite antigens in peripheral blood using Giemsa-stained microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which lack analytical and clinical sensitivity...
January 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065415/two-sympatric-types-of-plasmodium-ovale-and-discrimination-by-molecular-methods
#15
REVIEW
Myo Thura Zaw, Zaw Lin
Plasmodium ovale is widely distributed in tropical countries, whereas it has not been reported in the Americas. It is not a problem globally because it is rarely detected by microscopy owing to low parasite density, which is a feature of clinical ovale malaria. P.o. curtisi and P.o. wallikeri are widespread in both Africa and Asia, and were known to be sympatric in many African countries and in southeast Asian countries. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) gene, cytochrome b (cytb) gene, and merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) gene were initially studied for molecular discrimination of P...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061871/lamp-kit-for-diagnosis-of-non-falciparum-malaria-in-plasmodium-ovale-infected-patients
#16
Juan Cuadros, Alexandra Martin Ramírez, Iveth J González, Xavier C Ding, Ramon Perez Tanoira, Gerardo Rojo-Marcos, Peña Gómez-Herruz, Jose Miguel Rubio
BACKGROUND: Microscopy and rapid diagnosis tests have a limited sensitivity in diagnosis of malaria by Plasmodium ovale. The LAMP kit (LoopAMP®) can be used in the field without special equipment and could have an important role in malaria control programmes in endemic areas and for malaria diagnosis in returned travellers. The performance of the Pan primer of the kit in detecting malaria by P. ovale was compared with the results of standard nPCR in samples of patients returning from P...
January 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057071/parasitic-infections-and-maternal-anaemia-among-expectant-mothers-in-the-dangme-east-district-of-ghana
#17
Samuel Crowther Kofi Tay, Emmanuel Agbeko Nani, Williams Walana
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are of public health concern globally, particular among at risk groups such as pregnant women in developing countries. The presence of these parasites during pregnancy potentiate adverse effects to both the mother and the unborn baby. This study sought to establish the prevalence of some parasitic agents among antenatal attendees in the Dangme East District of Ghana. A cross-sectional prospective study was conduct between April and July, 2012. Venous blood specimens were collected from each participant for haemoglobin estimation and malaria microscopy...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049481/expanding-access-to-parasite-based-malaria-diagnosis-through-retail-drug-shops-in-tanzania-evidence-from-a-randomized-trial-and-implications-for-treatment
#18
Kathleen Maloney, Abigail Ward, Bonnie Krenz, Nora Petty, Lindsay Bryson, Caitlin Dolkart, Theodoor Visser, Arnaud Le Menach, Valerie K Scott, Justin M Cohen, Esther Mtumbuka, Sigsbert Mkude
BACKGROUND: Tanzania has seen a reduction in the fraction of fevers caused by malaria, likely due in part to scale-up of control measures. While national guidelines require parasite-based diagnosis prior to treatment, it is estimated that more than half of suspected malaria treatment-seeking in Tanzania initiates in the private retail sector, where diagnosis by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy is illegal. This pilot study investigated whether the introduction of RDTs into Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) under realistic market conditions would improve case management practices...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035638/-evaluation-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-optimal-it%C3%A2-pldh-along-the-plasmodium-falciparum-distribution-limit-in-mauritania
#19
H Ba, A D Ahouidi, C W Duffy, Y B Deh, C Diedhiou, A Tandia, M Y Diallo, S Assefa, B B Lô, M B Elkory, D J Conway
Performance of the malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) OptiMal-IT® was evaluated in Mauritania where malaria is low and dependent on a short transmission season. Slide microscopy was considered as the reference method of diagnosis. Febrile patients with suspected malaria were recruited from six health facilities, 3 urban and 3 rural, during two periods (December 2011 to February 2012, and August 2012 to March 2013). Overall, 780 patients were sampled, with RDT and thick blood film microscopy results being obtained for 759 of them...
December 29, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030753/expression-dynamics-physiologically-relevant-functional-study-of-stevor-in-asexual-stages-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#20
Himanshu Singh, Kripa Madnani, Ying Bena Lim, Jianshu Cao, Peter R Preiser, Chwee Teck Lim
The extensive modification of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes by Variant Surface Antigens (VSA) plays a major role in immune evasion and malaria induced pathology. Here, using high resolution microscopy we visualize the spatio-temporal expression dynamics of STEVOR, an important VSA family, in a stage dependent manner. We demonstrate that it is exported to the cell surface where protein molecules cluster and preferentially localize in proximity to knobs. Quantitative evidence from our force measurements and microfluidic assays reveal that STEVOR can effectively mediate the formation of stable, robust rosettes under static and physiologically relevant flow conditions...
December 28, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
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