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malaria microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430778/a-no-film-slot-blot-for-the-detection-of-developing-p-falciparum-oocysts-in-mosquitoes
#1
Bryan Grabias, Nitin Verma, Hong Zheng, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, Merribeth J Morin, Emily Locke, Sanjai Kumar
Non-microscopy-based assays for sensitive and rapid detection of Plasmodium infection in mosquitoes are needed to allow rapid and high throughput measurement of transmission intensity and malaria control program effectiveness. Here, we report on a modified enhanced chemiluminescence-based slot blot assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozite protein (PfCSP) expressed on parasite oocysts developing inside the mosquito midgut. This modified assay has several novel features that include eliminating the need for exposure to autoradiography (AR) film, as well as utilizing a novel high affinity anti-CSP antibody, and optimizing assay procedures resulting in significant reduction in the time required to perform the assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427455/comparison-of-methods-for-detecting-asymptomatic-malaria-infections-in-the-china-myanmar-border-area
#2
Yonghong Zhao, Yan Zhao, Yanmin Lv, Fei Liu, Qinghui Wang, Peipei Li, Zhenjun Zhao, Yingjie Liu, Liwang Cui, Qi Fan, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Sensitive methods for detecting asymptomatic malaria infections are essential for identifying potential transmission reservoirs and obtaining an accurate assessment of malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas aiming to eliminate malaria. PCR techniques to detect parasite nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are among the most commonly used molecular methods. However, most of these methods are of low throughput and cannot be used for large-scale molecular epidemiological studies...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427428/quality-issues-with-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-accessories-and-buffer-packaging-findings-from-a-5-country-private-sector-project-in-africa
#3
Steven A Harvey, Sandra Incardona, Nina Martin, Cristina Lussiana, Elizabeth Streat, Stephanie Dolan, Nora Champouillon, Daniel J Kyabayinze, Robert Mugerwa, Grace Nakanwagi, Nancy Njoki, Ratsimandisa Rova, Jane Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Use of antigen-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has increased exponentially over the last decade. WHO's Global Malaria Programme, FIND, and other collaborators have established a quality assurance scheme to guide product selection, lot verification, transport, storage, and training procedures. Recent concerns over the quality of buffer packaging and test accessories suggest a need to include these items in product assessments. This paper describes quality problems with buffer and accessories encountered in a project promoting private sector RDT use in five African countries and suggests steps to avoid or more rapidly identify and resolve such problems...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415906/effect-of-piplartine-and-cinnamides-on-leishmania-amazonensis-plasmodium-falciparum-and-on-peritoneal-cells-of-swiss-mice
#4
Keline Medeiros de Araújo-Vilges, Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Shirley Claudino Pereira Couto, Harold Hilarion Fokoue, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Massuo Jorge Kato, Luiz Antonio Soares Romeiro, José Roberto Souza Almeida Leite, Selma Aparecida Souza Kuckelhaus
CONTEXT: Plants of the Piperaceae family produce piplartine that was used to synthesize the cinnamides. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of piplartine (1) and cinnamides (2-5) against the protozoa responsible for malaria and leishmaniasis, and peritoneal cells of Swiss mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cultures of Leishmania amazonensis, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, and peritoneal cells were incubated, in triplicate, with different concentrations of the compounds (0 to 256 μg/mL)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404504/burden-of-asymptomatic-malaria-among-a-tribal-population-in-a-forested-village-of-central-india-a%C3%A2-hidden-challenge-for-malaria-control-in-india
#5
M K Chourasia, K Raghavendra, R M Bhatt, D K Swain, N Valecha, I Kleinschmidt
OBJECTIVE: Chhattisgarh in India is a malaria-endemic state with seven southern districts that contributes approximately 50-60% of the reported malaria cases in the state every year. The problem is further complicated due to asymptomatic malaria cases which are largely responsible for persistent transmission. This study was undertaken in one of the forested villages of the Keshkal subdistrict in Kondagaon district to ascertain the proportion of the population harbouring subclinical malarial infections...
March 21, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400621/biochemistry-of-malaria-parasite-infected-red-blood-cells-by-x-ray-microscopy
#6
S Kapishnikov, L Leiserowitz, Y Yang, P Cloetens, E Pereiro, F Awamu Ndonglack, K Matuschewski, J Als-Nielsen
Red blood cells infected by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are correlatively imaged by tomography using soft X-rays as well as by scanning hard nano-X-ray beam to obtain fluorescence maps of various elements such as S and Fe. In this way one can deduce the amount of Fe bound either in hemoglobin or in hemozoin crystals in the digestive vacuole of the malaria parasite as well as determine the hemoglobin concentrations in the cytosols of the red blood cell and of the parasite. Fluorescence map of K shows that in the parasite's schizont stage the K concentration in the red blood cell cytosol is diminished by a factor of seven relative to a pristine red blood cell but the total amount of K in the infected red blood cell is the same as in the pristine red blood cell...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399686/prevalence-of-congenital-malaria-in-newborns-of-mothers-co-infected-with-hiv-and-malaria-in-benin-city
#7
Fidelis Ewenitie Eki-Udoko, Ayebo E Sadoh, Michael O Ibadin, Augustine I Omoigberale
BACKGROUND: HIV and Plasmodium falciparum malaria co-infection annually complicates about one million pregnancies in sub-Saharan Africa. Congenital malaria (CM) has deleterious effects on newborns. Little is known about the effect of co-infections on the prevalence of CM in infants born by these women. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of CM in newborns of mothers co-infected with HIV and malaria compared to HIV-negative mothers with malaria in Benin-City. METHODS: Subjects were 162 newborns of mothers co-infected with HIV and malaria...
April 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377572/salivary-gland-maturation-and-duct-formation-in-the-african-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#8
Michael B Wells, Jordan Villamor, Deborah J Andrew
Mosquito-borne diseases cause one million deaths and hundreds of millions of human infections yearly. With all such diseases, the pathogen must traverse the mosquito salivary gland (SG) for transmission to a new host, making the SGs ideal targets for genetic strategies to block transmission. Prior studies have elucidated details of SG structure by light and electron microscopy and have deeply explored the salivary transcriptome and proteome. Very little is known, however, about how the unique functional architecture of mosquito SGs is achieved...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377170/antiplasmodial-activity-of-targeted-zinc-ii-dipicolylamine-complexes
#9
Douglas R Rice, María de Lourdes Betancourt Mendiola, Claribel Murillo-Solano, Lisa A Checkley, Michael T Ferdig, Juan C Pizarro, Bradley D Smith
This study measured the antiplasmodial activity of nine zinc-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) complexes against three strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative parasite of malaria. Growth inhibition assays showed significant activity against all tested strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations between 5 and 600nM and almost no toxic effect against host cells including healthy red blood cells. Fluorescence microscopy studies with a green-fluorescent ZnDPA probe showed selective targeting of infected red blood cells...
May 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376883/asymptomatic-and-sub-microscopic-malaria-infection-in-kayah-state-eastern-myanmar
#10
Myo Thiha Zaw, Myo Thant, Tin Maung Hlaing, Naing Zin Aung, Min Thu, Kanit Phumchuea, Kanokwan Phusri, Teerawat Saeseu, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Wang Nguitragool, Ingrid Felger, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Liwang Cui, Jetsumon Sattabongkot
BACKGROUND: Myanmar has the heaviest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections are common in this region and may represent an important reservoir of transmission that must be targeted for malaria elimination. METHODS: A mass blood survey was conducted among 485 individuals from six villages in Kayah State, an area of endemic but low transmission malaria in eastern Myanmar. Malaria infection was screened by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), light microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and its association with demographic factors was explored...
April 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376874/genetic-polymorphisms-in-plasmodium-falciparum-chloroquine-resistance-genes-pfcrt-and-pfmdr1-in-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#11
Patrick Reteng, Visia Vrisca, Inka Sukarno, Ilham Habib Djarkoni, Jane Angela Kalangi, George Eduardo Jacobs, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Yuki Eshita, Ryuichiro Maeda, Yutaka Suzuki, Arthur Elia Mongan, Sarah Maria Warouw, Junya Yamagishi, Josef Tuda
BACKGROUND: Malaria still poses one of the major threats to human health. Development of effective antimalarial drugs has decreased this threat; however, the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, a cause of Malaria, is disconcerting. The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been effectively used, but resistant parasites have spread worldwide. Interestingly, the withdrawal of the drug reportedly leads to an increased population of susceptible parasites in some cases. We examined the prevalence of genomic polymorphisms in a malaria parasite P...
April 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372996/parathelohania-iranica-sp-nov-microsporidia-amblyosporidae-infecting-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-superpictus-diptera-culicidae-ultrastructure-and-molecular-characterization
#12
Seyed-Mohammad Omrani, Seyedeh-Fatemeh Moosavi, Effat Farrokhi
Microsporidia are common pathogens of insects and sometimes are considered as a candidate in the biological control of mosquitoes. Recently a microsporidium infection was discovered in Anopheles superpictus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, in Iran. The responsible agent belonged to the genus Parathelohania (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae). This study has been carried out to identify its identity at the species level. Fresh infected larvae were collected from the type locality, Kiar district, in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province, at the central western of Iran...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372588/prolonged-parasite-clearance-in-a-chinese-splenectomized-patient-with-falciparum-malaria-imported-from-nigeria
#13
Hong-Wei Zhang, San-Jin Li, Tao Hu, Yong-Min Yu, Cheng-Yun Yang, Rui-Min Zhou, Ying Liu, Jing Tang, Jing-Jing Wang, Xiu-Yun Wang, Yong-Xiang Sun, Zhan-Chun Feng, Bian-Li Xu
BACKGROUND: The spleen plays a pivotal role in the rapid clearance of parasitized red blood cells in patients with falciparum malaria after artemisinin treatment. Prolonged parasite clearance can be found in patients who have had a splenectomy, or those with hemoglobin abnormalities and/or reduced immunity, which are all distinguishable from artemisinin resistance. This paper reports on a case of prolonged parasite clearance in a Chinese splenectomized patient with falciparum malaria imported from Nigeria...
April 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372570/malaria-over-diagnosis-in-cameroon-diagnostic-accuracy-of-fluorescence-and-staining-technologies-fast-malaria-stain-and-led-microscopy-versus-giemsa-and-bright-field-microscopy-validated-by-polymerase-chain-reaction
#14
Sean M Parsel, Steven A Gustafson, Edward Friedlander, Alexander A Shnyra, Aderosoye J Adegbulu, Ying Liu, Nicole M Parrish, Syed A Jamal, Eve Lofthus, Leo Ayuk, Charles Awasom, Carolyn J Henry, Carole P McArthur
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major world health issue and its continued burden is due, in part, to difficulties in the diagnosis of the illness. The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory testing using microscopy-based techniques or rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for all cases of suspected malaria. In regions where Plasmodium species are indigenous, there are multiple etiologies of fever leading to misdiagnoses, especially in populations where HIV is prevalent and children. To determine the frequency of malaria infection in febrile patients over an 8-month period at the Regional Hospital in Bamenda, Cameroon, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of the Flourescence and Staining Technology (FAST) Malaria stain and ParaLens Advance(TM) microscopy system (FM) and compared it with conventional bright field microscopy and Giemsa stain (GS)...
April 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369085/defining-the-next-generation-of-plasmodium-vivax-diagnostic-tests-for-control-and-elimination-target-product-profiles
#15
Xavier C Ding, Maria Paz Ade, J Kevin Baird, Qin Cheng, Jane Cunningham, Mehul Dhorda, Chris Drakeley, Ingrid Felger, Dionicia Gamboa, Matthias Harbers, Socrates Herrera, Naomi Lucchi, Alfredo Mayor, Ivo Mueller, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Arsène Ratsimbason, Jack Richards, Marcel Tanner, Iveth J González
The global prevalence of malaria has decreased over the past fifteen years, but similar gains have not been realized against Plasmodium vivax because this species is less responsive to conventional malaria control interventions aimed principally at P. falciparum. Approximately half of all malaria cases outside of Africa are caused by P. vivax. This species places dormant forms in human liver that cause repeated clinical attacks without involving another mosquito bite. The diagnosis of acute patent P. vivax malaria relies primarily on light microscopy...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367735/severe-vivax-malaria-a-prospective-exploration-at-a-tertiary-healthcare-centre-in-southwestern-india
#16
Rishikesh Kumar, Kavitha Saravu
Plasmodium vivax is recognized to cause severe malaria and mortality. We aimed to determine the proportion of disease severity, the spectrum of complications, underlying non-infectious comorbidities and predictors of severity in monoinfection P. vivax malaria among adults at a tertiary healthcare centre in Southwestern India. A prospective cohort study was conducted among microscopically confirmed monoinfection P. vivax acute malaria patients aged, ≥18 years. Cases with pregnancy and concomitant febrile illnesses including mixed malaria were excluded...
April 3, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363637/dsm265-for-plasmodium-falciparum-chemoprophylaxis-a-randomised-double-blinded-phase-1-trial-with-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#17
Mihály Sulyok, Thomas Rückle, Alexandra Roth, Raymund E Mürbeth, Stephan Chalon, Nicola Kerr, Sonia Schnieper Samec, Nathalie Gobeau, Carlos Lamsfus Calle, Javier Ibáñez, Zita Sulyok, Jana Held, Tamirat Gebru, Patricia Granados, Sina Brückner, Christian Nguetse, Juliana Mengue, Albert Lalremruata, Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Jörg J Möhrle, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller
BACKGROUND: A drug for causal (ie, pre-erythrocytic) prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with prolonged activity would substantially advance malaria control. DSM265 is an experimental antimalarial that selectively inhibits the parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. DSM265 shows in vitro activity against liver and blood stages of P falciparum. We assessed the prophylactic activity of DSM265 against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). METHODS: At the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Eberhard Karls University (Tübingen, Germany), healthy, malaria-naive adults were allocated to receive 400 mg DSM265 or placebo either 1 day (cohort 1A) or 7 days (cohort 2) before CHMI by direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3200 aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge; Sanaria Inc, Rockville, MD, USA)...
March 28, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359609/pregnant-women-an-overlooked-asset-to-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-elimination-campaigns
#18
REVIEW
Bronner P Gonçalves, Patrick G Walker, Matthew Cairns, Alfred B Tiono, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Community chemotherapy campaigns to reduce malaria transmission often exclude pregnant women due to safety concerns related to the drugs. However, pregnant women might represent an important source of human-to-mosquito infection due to frequent parasite carriage with higher densities of parasites (often detectable by microscopy), attractiveness to mosquitoes, and modified sleeping behaviour. Accumulating evidence of the safety of artemisinin-based combination therapies for the treatment of malaria during gestation suggests that malaria elimination programmes should reconsider this exclusion...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359340/world-malaria-report-time-to-acknowledge-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria
#19
Bridget E Barber, Giri S Rajahram, Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. MAIN TEXT: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia...
March 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357581/malaria-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Srikanta Basu, Puneet Kaur Sahi
India is endemic for malaria with unstable transmission inhibiting the development of immunity and predisposing all age groups to the disease. Children under five are the greatest sufferers with maximum mortality. P. falciparum and P. vivax cause majority of cases. Fever is the cardinal symptom, though no set of signs and symptoms reliably distinguishes malaria from other causes of fever. In all suspected cases parasitological diagnosis should be confirmed before starting the treatment. Microscopy of blood smears is the gold standard for diagnosis...
March 30, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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