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malaria microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346490/effect-of-hiv-and-malaria-parasites-co-infection-on-immune-hematological-profiles-among-patients-attending-anti-retroviral-treatment-art-clinic-in-infectious-disease-hospital-kano-nigeria
#1
Feyisayo Ebenezer Jegede, Tinuade Ibijoke Oyeyi, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Henry Akwen Mbah, Titilope Badru, Chinedu Agbakwuru, Oluwasanmi Adedokun
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344153/plant-hormone-cytokinins-control-cell-cycle-progression-and-plastid-replication-in-apicomplexan-parasites
#2
Syed Bilal Ahmad Andrabi, Michiru Tahara, Ryuma Matsubara, Tomoko Toyama, Hiroka Aonuma, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Makoto Suematsu, Kazuyuki Tanabe, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Kisaburo Nagamune
Cytokinins are plant hormones that are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell and plastid development. Here, we show that the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei, an opportunistic human pathogen and a rodent malaria agent, respectively, produce cytokinins via a biosynthetic pathway similar to that in plants. Cytokinins regulate the growth and cell cycle progression of T. gondii by mediating expression of the cyclin gene TgCYC4. A natural form of cytokinin, trans-zeatin (t-zeatin), upregulated expression of this cyclin, while a synthetic cytokinin, thidiazuron, downregulated its expression...
March 23, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340585/analytical-sensitivity-of-current-best-in-class-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests
#3
Alfons Jimenez, Roxanne R Rees-Channer, Rushini Perera, Dionicia Gamboa, Peter L Chiodini, Iveth J González, Alfredo Mayor, Xavier C Ding
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are today the most widely used method for malaria diagnosis and are recommended, alongside microscopy, for the confirmation of suspected cases before the administration of anti-malarial treatment. The diagnostic performance of RDTs, as compared to microscopy or PCR is well described but the actual analytical sensitivity of current best-in-class tests is poorly documented. This value is however a key performance indicator and a benchmark value needed to developed new RDTs of improved sensitivity...
March 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329034/use-of-pfhrp2-only-rdts-rapidly-select-for-pfhrp2-negative-parasites-with-serious-implications-for-malaria-case-management-and-control
#4
Michelle L Gatton, Jessica Dunn, Alisha Chaudhry, Sadmir Ciketic, Jane Cunningham, Qin Cheng
Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are an important tool for malaria diagnosis, with most utilising antibodies against histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). Reports of Plasmodium falciparum lacking this protein are increasing, creating a problem for diagnosis of falciparum malaria in locations without quality microscopy. Methods: An agent-based stochastic simulation model of P.falciparum transmission was used to investigate the selective pressure exerted on parasite populations by use of RDTs for diagnosis of symptomatic cases...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327271/novel-anti-staphylococcal-and-anti-biofilm-properties-of-two-anti-malarial-compounds-mmv665953-1-3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl-3-3-4-dichlorophenyl-urea-and-mmv665807-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-n-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl-benzamide
#5
Marta Zapotoczna, Nabila Boksmati, Sinead Donohue, Baizurina Bahtiar, Ahmad Boland, Hamzah Al Somali, Alysia Cox, Hilary Humphreys, James P O'Gara, Marian Brennan, Eoghan O'Neill
PURPOSE: The treatment of device-related infections is challenging and current anti-microbial compounds have poor anti-biofilm activity. We aimed to identify and characterize novel compounds effective in the eradication of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. METHODOLOGY: Two novel compounds, MMV665953 {1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea} and MMV665807{5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide}, effective in killing S. aureus biofilms, were identified by screening of the open access 'malaria box' chemical library...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327145/diagnostic-challenges-and-case-management-of-the-first-imported-case-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-in-sri-lanka
#6
A Dewanee Ranaweera, Manjula N Danansuriya, Kusumawathie Pahalagedera, W M Kumudunayana T de A W Gunasekera, Priyani Dharmawardena, Keng Wai Mak, Pei-Sze Jeslyn Wong, Mei-Zhi Irene Li, Cheong Huat Tan, Hapuarachchige C Hapuarachchi, Hema D B Herath, Deepika Fernando
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has achieved 'malaria-free' status and is now in the phase of prevention of re-introduction of malaria. Imported malaria remains a challenge to resurgence of the disease. The diagnostic challenges encountered and the rapid response initiated to manage a Plasmodium infection, which was later confirmed as Plasmodium knowlesi, the first reported case from Sri Lanka, is discussed. CASE PRESENTATION: An army officer who returned from Malaysia in October 2016 was found to be positive for Plasmodium both by microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) by the Anti Malaria Campaign Sri Lanka (AMC) during his third visit to a health care provider...
March 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323886/contribution-of-urinary-tract-infection-to-the-burden-of-febrile-illnesses-in-young-children-in-rural-kenya
#7
Wechuli Geoffrey Masika, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Thomas L Holland, Janice Armstrong
INTRODUCTION: The clinical features of UTI in young children may not localize to the urinary tract and closely resemble other febrile illnesses. In malaria endemic areas, a child presenting with fever is often treated presumptively for malaria without investigation for UTI. Delayed or inadequate treatment of UTI increases the risk of bacteremia and renal scarring in young children and subsequently complications as hypertension and end stage renal disease in adulthood. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a hospital in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322694/plasmodium-malariae-prevalence-and-csp-gene-diversity-kenya-2014-and-2015
#8
Eugenia Lo, Kristie Nguyen, Jennifer Nguyen, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Jiaobao Xu, Harrisone Etemesi, Andrew Githeko, Guiyun Yan
In Africa, control programs that target primarily Plasmodium falciparum are inadequate for eliminating malaria. To learn more about prevalence and genetic variability of P. malariae in Africa, we examined blood samples from 663 asymptomatic and 245 symptomatic persons from western Kenya during June-August of 2014 and 2015. P. malariae accounted for 5.3% (35/663) of asymptomatic infections and 3.3% (8/245) of clinical cases. Among asymptomatic persons, 71% (32/45) of P. malariae infections detected by PCR were undetected by microscopy...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321277/clinical-outcomes-among-febrile-children-aged-2-to-59-months-with-negative-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-results-in-mchinji-district-malawi
#9
Dyson Mwandama, Chawanangwa Mwale, Andrew Bauleni, Themba Phiri, Joseph Chisaka, Humphreys Nsona, Don P Mathanga
BACKGROUND: Malawi malaria treatment guidelines recommend a definitive diagnosis, using a malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT), for all patients with fever or history of fever. Improving the management and outcomes of febrile children with negative mRDT results should be a priority. METHODS: Through a prospective cohort study designed to investigate clinical outcomes of children treated at the community level, we followed, for 7 days, children aged 2 to 59 months, who had negative mRDT results and were treated with antipyretic medication...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320390/false-negative-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-in-rwanda-impact-of-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-lacking-hrp2-and-declining-malaria-transmission
#10
Christina T Kozycki, Noella Umulisa, Stephen Rulisa, Emil I Mwikarago, Jean Pierre Musabyimana, Jean Pierre Habimana, Corine Karema, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) are often used to determine whether persons with fever should be treated with anti-malarials. However, Plasmodium falciparum parasites with a deletion of the hrp2 gene yield false-negative RDTs and there are concerns the sensitivity of HRP2-based RDTs may fall when the intensity of transmission decreases. METHODS: This observational study enrolled 9226 patients at three health centres in Rwanda from April 2014 to April 2015...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320389/age-and-geographic-patterns-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-infection-in-a-representative-sample-of-children-living-in-burkitt-lymphoma-endemic-areas-of-northern-uganda
#11
Marlena Maziarz, Tobias Kinyera, Isaac Otim, Paul Kagwa, Hadijah Nabalende, Ismail D Legason, Martin D Ogwang, Samuel Kirimunda, Benjamin Emmanuel, Steven J Reynolds, Patrick Kerchan, Moses M Joloba, Andrew W Bergen, Kishor Bhatia, Ambrose O Talisuna, Robert J Biggar, James J Goedert, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Sam M Mbulaiteye
BACKGROUND: Falciparum malaria is an important risk factor for African Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but few studies have evaluated malaria patterns in healthy BL-age children in populations where both diseases are endemic. To obtain accurate current data, patterns of asymptomatic malaria were investigated in northern Uganda, where BL is endemic. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2015, 1150 apparently healthy children under 15 years old were sampled from 100 villages in northern Uganda using a stratified, multi-stage, cluster survey design...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288098/mefloquine-targets-the-plasmodium-falciparum-80s-ribosome-to-inhibit-protein-synthesis
#12
Wilson Wong, Xiao-Chen Bai, Brad E Sleebs, Tony Triglia, Alan Brown, Jennifer K Thompson, Katherine E Jackson, Eric Hanssen, Danushka S Marapana, Israel S Fernandez, Stuart A Ralph, Alan F Cowman, Sjors H W Scheres, Jake Baum
Malaria control is heavily dependent on chemotherapeutic agents for disease prevention and drug treatment. Defining the mechanism of action for licensed drugs, for which no target is characterized, is critical to the development of their second-generation derivatives to improve drug potency towards inhibition of their molecular targets. Mefloquine is a widely used antimalarial without a known mode of action. Here, we demonstrate that mefloquine is a protein synthesis inhibitor. We solved a 3.2 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome with the (+)-mefloquine enantiomer bound to the ribosome GTPase-associated centre...
March 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279619/led-fluorescence-microscopy-novel-method-for-malaria-diagnosis-compared-with-routine-methods
#13
Riddhi Hathiwala, Preeti R Mehta, Gita Nataraj, Siddhi Hathiwala
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the need of hour for effective management and controlling drug resistance. The conventional and gold-standard method, Light microscopy (LM), is time-consuming, requires trained staff and well-maintained equipments. The newly developed, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are fast and reliable, but give only qualitative results, are expensive and have short shelf life. Light Emission Diode fluorescence microscopy (LED FM) may provide a reliable alternative which can be used for routine diagnosis...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275077/improving-the-specificity-of-p-falciparum-malaria-diagnosis-in-high-transmission-settings-with-a-two-step-rdt-and-microscopy-algorithm
#14
Moses Murungi, Travis Fulton, Raquel Reyes, Michael Matte, Moses Ntaro, Edgar Mulogo, Dan Nyehangane, Jonathan J Juliano, Mark J Siedner, Yap Boum, Ross M Boyce
Poor specificity may negatively impact rapid diagnostic test (RDT) based diagnostic strategies for malaria. We performed real time polymerase chain reaction on a subset of subjects who had undergone diagnostic testing with a multiple antigen (HRP2/pLDH) RDT and microscopy. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT in comparison to PCR for the detection of P. falciparum malaria. We developed and evaluated a two-step algorithm utilizing the multiple-antigen RDT to screen patients followed by confirmatory microscopy for those individuals with HRP2+/pLDH- results...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274262/burden-of-malaria-in-mobile-populations-in-the-greater-accra-region-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Nouhoum Diallo, Patricia Akweongo, Ernest Maya, Moses Aikins, Bismark Sarfo
BACKGROUND: The burden of malaria in mobile populations remains poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the prevalence of malaria among hawkers and long-distance truck drivers in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional design using consecutive sampling method between June and July 2016 in Accra and Tema in Ghana was used in this study. The study population was hawkers who roam and sleep in the Market Streets, and long-distance truck drivers...
March 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274003/comparative-study-on-antenatal-and-perinatal-outcome-of-vivax-and-falciparum-malaria-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-kolkata-india
#16
Mousumi Datta, Jhuma Biswas, Shyamal Dasgupta, Kaushik Banerjee, Subhendu Choudhury, Sandip Kumar Sengupta, Prakash Das
INTRODUCTION: Malaria occurring in pregnancy is associated with considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity. In India, the problem is compounded by dual parasitological aetiology of Plasmodiumvivax (P.vivax) and Plasmodium falciparum (P.falciparum). AIM: To compare the outcome of infections by P. vivax and P.falciparum species among pregnant women in a hospital setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant women who tested positive for malaria either by microscopy of peripheral blood smear or ELISA test for double antigen were enrolled in the study...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269157/image-classification-of-unlabeled-malaria-parasites-in-red-blood-cells
#17
Zheng Zhang, L L Sharon Ong, Kong Fang, Athul Matthew, Justin Dauwels, Ming Dao, Harry Asada
This paper presents a method to detect unlabeled malaria parasites in red blood cells. The current "gold standard" for malaria diagnosis is microscopic examination of thick blood smear, a time consuming process requiring extensive training. Our goal is to develop an automate process to identify malaria infected red blood cells. Major issues in automated analysis of microscopy images of unstained blood smears include overlapping cells and oddly shaped cells. Our approach creates robust templates to detect infected and uninfected red cells...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264689/rapid-diagnostic-tests-failing-to-detect-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-eritrea-an-investigation-of-reported-false-negative-rdt-results
#18
Araia Berhane, Mulugeta Russom, Iyassu Bahta, Filmon Hagos, Michael Ghirmai, Selam Uqubay
BACKGROUND: Relatively large number of false-negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results for microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum cases were reported from five of the six administrative regions of Eritrea in 2015. This activated the Ministry of Health to conduct an initial exploratory investigation. The main objective of the investigation was to confirm the sensitivity of the RDTs in the field in microscopically confirmed malaria cases, identify the possible causes of the failure and recommend further actions to be taken...
March 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263883/asymptomatic-plasmodium-malariae-infections-in-children-from-suburban-areas-of-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#19
Dongang Nana Rodrigue Roman, Ngono Ngane Annie Rosalie, Amit Kumar, Koanga Mogtomo Martin Luther, Vineeta Singh, Mouelle Sone Albert
The gold standard for malaria diagnosis is the microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears though microscopy mostly may not detect the presence of Plasmodium species infections in asymptomatic samples. In the reported study, we used two diagnostic methods viz. the conventional microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to analyse the asymptomatic malaria samples. PCR assay amplifying 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Plasmodium in 122 samples confirmed 68% of isolates as asymptomatic P...
March 2, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256794/laser-capture-microdissection-enables-transcriptomic-analysis-of-dividing-and-quiescent-liver-stages-of-plasmodium-relapsing-species
#20
Roger Cubi, Shruthi S Vembar, Anne Biton, Jean-Francois Franetich, Mallaury Bordessoulles, Daniel Sossau, Gigliola Zhanghi, Henriette Bosson-Vanga, Magalie Benard, Alicia Moreno, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Roger Le Grand, Artur Scherf, Dominique Mazier
Dormant liver stage forms (hypnozoites) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax present major hurdles to control and eradicate infection. Despite major research efforts, the molecular composition of hypnozoites remains ill defined. Here, we applied a combination of state-of-the-art technologies to generate the first transcriptome of hypnozoites. We developed a robust laser dissection microscopy protocol to isolate individual P. cynomolgi hypnozoites and schizonts from infected monkey hepatocytes and optimized RNA-seq analysis to obtain the first transcriptomes of these stages...
March 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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