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malaria microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933559/-contribution-of-nested-pcr-in-the-diagnosis-of-imported-malaria-in-southern-algeria
#1
L Bouiba, B Gassen, M Gasmi, D Hammadi, Z Harrat
The nested PCR was used to estimate its inputs in malaria diagnosis and in the performance of the microscope operators involved in the surveillance of malaria in remote areas of South Algeria. For the period 2010 to 2015, 112 patients (93 febrile and 19 asymptomatic) coming from sub-Saharan Africa were tested for malaria in the hospital of Tamanrasset. One part of the blood taken from fingertip was used for blood smears and the second part was absorbed in filter paper for molecular diagnosis. Overall, the infection was detected by nested PCR in 63 samples versus 53 by direct examination...
December 8, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931234/patterns-and-determinants-of-malaria-risk-in-urban-and-peri-urban-areas-of-blantyre-malawi
#2
Don P Mathanga, Atupele Kapito Tembo, Themba Mzilahowa, Andy Bauleni, Kondwani Mtimaukenena, Terrie E Taylor, Clarissa Valim, Edward D Walker, Mark L Wilson
BACKGROUND: Although malaria disease in urban and peri-urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a growing concern, the epidemiologic patterns and drivers of transmission in these settings remain poorly understood. Factors associated with variation in malaria risk in urban and peri-urban areas were evaluated in this study. METHODS: A health facility-based, age and location-matched, case-control study of children 6-59 months of age was conducted in four urban and two peri-urban health facilities (HF) of Blantyre city, Malawi...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929364/ipomoea-batatas-convolvulaceae-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-for-controlling-mosquito-vectors-of-aedes-albopictus-anopheles-stephensi-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae
#3
V Pavithra Bharathi, C Ragavendran, N Murugan, D Natarajan
We proposed an effective and eco-friendly control of dengue, malaria, and filariasis-causing vectors. We tested Ipomoea batatas leaves-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against first to fourth instar larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentrations. The synthesized AgNPs showed broad spectrum of larvicidal and adulticidal effects after 48 h of exposure. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was done using various spectral and microscopy analyses...
December 8, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912876/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-activity-of-an-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-seed-kernel-extract-on-early-sporogonic-development-of-plasmodium-in-comparison-with-azadirachtin-a-its-most-abundant-constituent
#4
Nisha Dahiya, Giuseppina Chianese, Solomon Mequanente Abay, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Fulvio Esposito, Giulio Lupidi, Massimo Bramucci, Luana Quassinti, George Christophides, Annette Habluetzel, Leonardo Lucantoni
BACKGROUND: NeemAzal(®) (NA) is a quantified extract from seed kernels of neem, Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae), with a wide spectrum of biological properties, classically ascribed to its limonoid content. NA contains several azadirachtins (A to L), azadirachtin A (AzaA) being its main constituent. AzaA has been shown to inhibit microgamete formation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, and NA was found to completely inhibit the transmission of Plasmodium berghei to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes when administered to gametocytemic mice at a corresponding AzaA dose of 50mg/kg before exposure to mosquitoes...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911910/molecular-markers-of-radiation-induced-attenuation-in-intrahepatic-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites
#5
Miranda S Oakley, Nitin Verma, Hong Zheng, Vivek Anantharaman, Kazuyo Takeda, Yamei Gao, Timothy G Myers, Phuong Thao Pham, Babita Mahajan, Nirbhay Kumar, Davison Sangweme, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, L Aravind, Sanjai Kumar
Experimental immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) and genetically attenuated sporozoites has proved to be a promising approach for malaria vaccine development. However, parasite biomarkers of growth attenuation and enhanced immune protection in response to radiation remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the effect of an attenuating dose of γ-irradiation (15 krad) on the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) ultrastructure by electron microscopy, growth rate of liver stage P. falciparum in liver cell cultures, and genome-wide transcriptional profile of liver stage parasites by microarray...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907215/cd8-t-cells-induce-fatal-brainstem-pathology-during-cerebral-malaria-via-luminal-antigen-specific-engagement-of-brain-vasculature
#6
Phillip A Swanson, Geoffrey T Hart, Matthew V Russo, Debasis Nayak, Takele Yazew, Mirna Peña, Shahid M Khan, Chris J Janse, Susan K Pierce, Dorian B McGavern
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that results in thousands of deaths each year, mostly in African children. The in vivo mechanisms underlying this fatal condition are not entirely understood. Using the animal model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), we sought mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CM. Fatal disease was associated with alterations in tight junction proteins, vascular breakdown in the meninges / parenchyma, edema, and ultimately neuronal cell death in the brainstem, which is consistent with cerebral herniation as a cause of death...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905280/diagnosis-and-species-discrimination-of-positive-malaria-samples-by-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#7
Esra Atalay Şahar, Muhammet Karakavuk, Hüseyin Can, Şebnem Nergiz, Kadri Gül, Aysu Değirmenci Döşkaya, Yüksel Gürüz, Mert Döşkaya
OBJECTIVE: Malaria is an important tropical disease that is detected in 198 million people and causes 367-755 thousand deaths annually. Recently, the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique has enabled quick determination of Plasmodium spp. and species identification in the same assay with a low contamination risk. In the present study, we aimed to use real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene to diagnose Plasmodium spp. and perform species identification. METHODS: DNA samples of 15 patients with malaria (14 caused by P...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894320/successful-malaria-elimination-in-the-ecuador-peru-border-region-epidemiology-and-lessons-learned
#8
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893838/performance-evaluation-of-malaria-microscopists-at-defense-health-facilities-in-addis-ababa-and-its-surrounding-areas-ethiopia
#9
Tigist Yitbarek, Desalegn Nega, Geremew Tasew, Bineyam Taye, Kassu Desta
BACKGROUND: Blood film microscopy is the gold standard approach for malaria diagnosis, and preferred method for routine patient diagnosis in health facilities. However, the inability of laboratory professionals to correctly detect and identify malaria parasites microscopically leads to an inappropriate administration of anti-malarial drugs to the patients and incorrect findings in research areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of laboratory professionals in malaria diagnosis in health facilities under the Defense Health Main Department in Addis Ababa and its surroundings, Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893347/asymptomatic-infections-in-blood-donors-harbouring-plasmodium-an-invisible-risk-detected-by-molecular-and-serological-tools
#10
Giselle F M C Lima, Maria C Arroyo Sanchez, José E Levi, Mahyumi Fujimori, Luiza Da Cruz Caramelo, Arianni Rondelli Sanchez, Eduardo M Ramos-Sanchez, Juliana Inoue, Maria De Jesus Costa-Nascimento, Alfredo Mendrone Junior, Silvia M Di Santi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted malaria due to asymptomatic Plasmodium infections is a challenge for blood banks. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infected blood donors and the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in low endemicity areas worldwide. We estimated the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium in an area in which asymptomatic infections have been reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To estimate the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium we used microscopy and molecular tools...
November 7, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890922/progress-in-imaging-methods-insights-gained-into-plasmodium-biology
#11
Mariana De Niz, Paul-Christian Burda, Gesine Kaiser, Hernando A Del Portillo, Tobias Spielmann, Freddy Frischknecht, Volker T Heussler
Over the past decade, major advances in imaging techniques have enhanced our understanding of Plasmodium spp. parasites and their interplay with mammalian hosts and mosquito vectors. Cryoelectron tomography, cryo-X-ray tomography and super-resolution microscopy have shifted paradigms of sporozoite and gametocyte structure, the process of erythrocyte invasion by merozoites, and the architecture of Maurer's clefts. Intravital time-lapse imaging has been revolutionary for our understanding of pre-erythrocytic stages of rodent Plasmodium parasites...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866611/facile-fabrication-of-eco-friendly-nano-mosquitocides-biophysical-characterization-and-effectiveness-on-neglected-tropical-mosquito-vectors
#12
Marimuthu Govindarajan, S L Hoti, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors are solely responsible for transmitting important diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. Eco-friendly control tools of Culicidae vectors are a priority. In this study, we proposed a facile fabrication process of poly-disperse and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using a cheap leaf extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Apocyanaceae). Bio-reduced Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865890/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-repeated-doses-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-malaria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Julie Gutman, Stephanie Kovacs, Grant Dorsey, Andy Stergachis, Feiko O Ter Kuile
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria is used in infants, children, adults, and pregnant women. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is an effective, well tolerated artemisinin-based combination therapy. The long half-life of piperaquine makes it attractive for IPT. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the efficacy and safety of repeated treatment with DP. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched multiple databases on Sept 1, 2016, with the terms: "human" AND "dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine" OR "DHA-PPQ"...
November 16, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865834/expression-and-characterization-of-the-plasmodium-translocon-of-the-exported-proteins-component-exp2
#14
Kazuaki Hakamada, Hirokazu Watanabe, Ryuji Kawano, Keiichi Noguchi, Masafumi Yohda
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum requires the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) to proliferate in human red blood cells. During the blood stages of malaria, several hundred parasite-encoded proteins are exported from the parasite into the cytosol of red blood cells. PTEX is the translocon for protein export and comprises 5 proteins: EXP2, PTEX150, PTEX88, Hsp101 and TRX2. Among them, EXP2 is thought to constitute the transmembrane pore, whereas the other components seem to play a role in unfolding the luggage proteins or providing a driving force...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864679/prescription-of-antimalarial-drugs-in-the-pediatric-ward-of-the-national-hospital-of-lamord%C3%A3-in-niamey
#15
A Soumana, M Kamaye, B Issofou, H Dima, B Daouda, O N'Diaye, G Sall
In Niger, malaria is a major public health problem, due to the high number of deaths that are attributable to it and because of its heavy weight and socioeconomic status. The objective of this study was to contribute to the inventory of medical practices to rationalize the use of medicines and minimize the resistance phenomenon. This is a prospective study, which took place from May 1 to July 31, 2009, in the pediatric ward of the National Hospital of Lamordé. It concerned children aged from 0 to 14 years hospitalized and having received one or more antimalarial drugs during at least 24 h...
November 18, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864517/an-extensive-burden-of-giardiasis-associated-with-intestinal-schistosomiasis-and-anaemia-in-school-children-on-the-shoreline-of-lake-albert-uganda
#16
Hajri Al-Shehri, Michelle C Stanton, James E LaCourse, Aaron Atuhaire, Moses Arinaitwe, Aida Wamboko, Moses Adriko, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
BACKGROUND: Water-borne parasitic diseases associated with poverty still blight the lives of African school children. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is still common along the shoreline of Lake Albert, despite ongoing control, and co-infection with giardiasis and malaria is poorly described. To shed light on putative interactions between diseases, a prospective cross-sectional parasitological survey was undertaken in five primary schools. METHODS: Stool samples from 254 school children, aged 5-10 years, were examined by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), with additional real-time PCR assays for detection of Giardia DNA...
November 17, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861509/parasitological-clearance-rates-and-drug-concentrations-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-of-azithromycin-chloroquine-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-with-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitemia-an-open-label-non-comparative-study-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Kamija Phiri, Joshua Kimani, George A Mtove, Qinying Zhao, Ricardo Rojo, Jeffery Robbins, Stephan Duparc, Ayman Ayoub, Pol Vandenbroucke
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their newborn babies in sub-Saharan Africa. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the burden of disease and improve maternal and neonatal survival and general health. Due to the growing resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the current WHO-recommended drug for IPTp, identification of new and effective drugs is an urgent priority...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847373/a-multicenter-pivotal-clinical-trial-of-a-urine-malaria-test-umt-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#18
Wellington A Oyibo, Nnenna Ezeigwe, Godwin Ntadom, Oladipo O Oladosu, Kaitlin Rainwater, Wendy O'Meara, Evaezi Okpokoro, William Brieger
BACKGROUND: The need to expand malaria diagnosis alongside policy requirements for mandatory testing before treatment motivates exploration of non-invasive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). We report the outcome of the first cross-sectional, single-blind clinical performance evaluation of a Urine Malaria Test (UMT) for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria diagnosis in febrile patients. METHODS: Matched urine and fingerprick blood from participants ≥2 years with fever (axillary temperature ≥37...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846879/plasmodium-malariae-and-plasmodium-ovale-infections-in-the-china-myanmar-border-area
#19
Peipei Li, Zhenjun Zhao, Hua Xing, Wenli Li, Xiaotong Zhu, Yaming Cao, Zhaoqing Yang, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Guiyun Yan, Qi Fan, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: The Greater Mekong Subregion is aiming to achieve regional malaria elimination by 2030. Though a shift in malaria parasite species predominance by Plasmodium vivax has been recently documented, the transmission of the two minor Plasmodium species, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp., is poorly characterized in the region. This study aims to determine the prevalence of these minor species in the China-Myanmar border area and their genetic diversity. METHODS: Epidemiology study was conducted during passive case detection in hospitals and clinics in Myanmar and four counties in China along the China-Myanmar border...
November 15, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842555/low-prevalence-of-laboratory-confirmed-malaria-in-clinically-diagnosed-adult-women-from-the-wakiso-district-of-uganda
#20
Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M Galiwango, Aloysious Ssemaganda, Moses Muwanga, Irene Wesonga, George Miiro, David A Drajole, Kevin C Kain, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S Bagaya, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: The malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has fallen substantially. Nevertheless, malaria remains a serious health concern, and Uganda ranks third in SSA in total malaria burden. Epidemiological studies of adult malaria in Uganda are scarce and little is known about rates of malaria in non-pregnant adult women. This pilot study assessed malaria prevalence among adult women from Wakiso district, historically a highly malaria endemic region. METHODS: Adult women using public health services were screened for malaria, HIV and pregnancy...
November 14, 2016: Malaria Journal
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