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malaria microscopy

Beatriz Galatas, Helena Martí-Soler, Lidia Nhamussua, Pau Cisteró, Pedro Aide, Francisco Saute, Clara Menéndez, N Regina Rabinovich, Pedro L Alonso, Quique Bassat, Alfredo Mayor
Background: Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum infections usually remain undetected and untreated in the community and could potentially contribute to sustaining local malaria transmission in areas aiming for malaria elimination. Methods: Thirty-two men with afebrile P. falciparum infections detected with rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) were followed for 28 days. Kaplan-Meier estimates were computed to estimate probability of parasite positivity and of reducing parasitaemia by half of its initial level by day 28...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mamadou Alpha Diallo, Khadim Diongue, Mame Cheikh Seck, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Ibrahima Diallo, Younouss Diedhiou, Tolla Ndiaye, Yaye Die Ndiaye, Aida Sadikh Badiane, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malaria diagnosis relies on microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In Senegal, national malaria control program (NMCP) regularly conducts supervisory visits in health services where malaria microscopy is performed. In this study, expert microscopists assessed the performance of laboratory technicians in malaria microscopy. METHODS: The present external quality assessment (EQA) was conducted in three different areas of malaria transmission...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Ebenezer K Aidoo, Yaw A Afrane, Maxwell Gesuge Machani, Winnie Chebore, Bernard Walter Lawson, Harrysone Atieli, Simon Kariuki, Ming-Chieh Lee, Cristian Koepfli, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic reservoirs of malaria parasites using index cases as entry points into the community is potentially a cost-effective way towards achieving malaria elimination. METHODS: Within 1 year, 1430 confirmed malaria cases were identified in Marani hospital, western Kenya. Fifty cases were followed up, and 108 index case household members and 612 neighbours within a 100 m radius were screened. As controls, samples were collected from 510 individuals matched with index cases and located at a distance of ≥ 500 m from them...
March 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Paulo Arnaldo, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Jerónimo S Langa, Crizolgo Salvador, Pieter Guetens, Driss Chiheb, Bernardete Xavier, Luc Kestens, Sónia M Enosse, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy leads to serious adverse effects on the mother and the child and accounts for 75,000-200,000 infant deaths every year. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at each scheduled antenatal care (ANC) visit. This study aimed to assess IPTp-SP coverage in mothers delivering in health facilities and at the community. In addition, factors associated with low IPTp-SP uptake and malaria adverse outcomes in pregnancy were investigated...
March 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Patrick Mbah Okwen, Bedes Ngem, Olivette Ndum Chia, Raphael Cheabum, Sandeep Moola
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this evidence implementation project is to promote evidence-based practice in artemisinin-based combination therapy for managing uncomplicated malaria in children under five, thereby improving patient outcomes and resource utilization in the Bali Health District, Cameroon. INTRODUCTION: The burden of disease attributable to malaria has significantly improved in the last three years, however morbidity and mortality risks are still present, especially for children under five...
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
L T Sigle, J F Hillyer
Haemocytes respond to infection by phagocytosing pathogens, producing the enzymes that drive the phenoloxidase-based melanization cascade, secreting lytic factors, and producing other humoral proteins. A subset of haemocytes, called periostial haemocytes, aggregate on the surface of the heart of mosquitoes and kill pathogens in areas of high haemolymph flow. Periostial haemocytes are always present, but an infection induces the recruitment of additional haemocytes to these regions. Here, we tested whether members of the Nimrod gene family are involved in the periostial immune response of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae...
March 9, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
C Yuan-Yuan, Z Guo-Ding, G U Ya-Ping, X U Xiang-Zhen, J Xiao-Lin, Z Hua-Yun, W Jie, L You-Sheng, Y Kun, C Jun
Objective To understand the integrated ability of parasitic disease prevention and control of professional personnel of Jiangsu Province through the contest. Methods Totally 56 players from the whole province were selected, and all the players participated in the contest. The theory knowledge and skill scores were collected and the statistical analyses were conducted. Results The average theoretical score of the participants was 88.86±15.56 and the passing rate was 91.1%. The average skill operating score was 69...
March 21, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Robert G E Krause, J P Dean Goldring
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is recognised as the main cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia. The disease is often misdiagnosed as P. falciparum or P. malariae infections by microscopy, and the disease is difficult to eliminate due to its presence in both humans and monkeys. P. knowlesi infections can rapidly cause severe disease and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. No protein biomarker exists for the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) detection of P. knowlesi infections. Plasmodium knowlesi infections can be diagnosed by PCR...
2018: PloS One
Maria Andreadaki, Eric Hanssen, Elena Deligianni, Cyrille Claudet, Kai Wengelnik, Vanessa Mollard, Geoffrey I McFadden, Manouk Abkarian, Catherine Braun-Breton, Inga Siden-Kiamos
Malaria parasites alternate between intracellular and extracellular stages and successful egress from the host cell is crucial for continuation of the life cycle. We investigated egress of Plasmodium berghei gametocytes, an essential process taking place within a few minutes after uptake of a blood meal by the mosquito. Egress entails the rupture of two membranes surrounding the parasite: the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), and the red blood cell membrane (RBCM). High-speed video microscopy of 56 events revealed that egress in both genders comprises four well-defined phases, although each event is slightly different...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan Nunez-Iglesias, Adam J Blanch, Oliver Looker, Matthew W Dixon, Leann Tilley
We present Skan (Skeleton analysis), a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the "analyse skeletons" plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API) allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python...
2018: PeerJ
Jingwei Huang, Kang Xiong, Houshuang Zhang, Yanzhen Zhao, Jie Cao, Yongzhi Zhou, Haiyan Gong, Jinlin Zhou
The intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan Babesia microti is the predominant pathogen that causes human babesiosis, an infectious disease that occurs worldwide. B. microti relies on the antioxidant including thioredoxin system to maintain the redox balance during the erythrocytic stage. In the present study, the full-length B. microti thioredoxin 3 (BmTrx3) gene was cloned, expressed in vitro, and its response to antiprotozoal drugs were tested. The full-length BmTrx3 was 663 bp and contained an intact open reading frame of 567 bp...
February 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ewurama D A Owusu, Samson K Djonor, Charles A Brown, Martin P Grobusch, Petra F Mens
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum, the most dominant species in sub-Saharan Africa, causes the most severe clinical malaria manifestations. In resource-limited Ghana, where malaria and HIV geographically overlap, histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is a faster, easier and cheaper alternative to clinical gold standard light microscopy. However, mutations in parasite hrp2 gene may result in missed infections, which have severe implications for malaria control...
February 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
Zhang Juan-Sheng, Zhang Di-Qiang, Wang Wei, Wei Xiao-Guang, Wang Zeng-Guo
This paper reviews the computer vision and image analysis studies aiming at automated diagnosis or screening of malaria in microscope images of thin blood film smears. On the basis of introducing the background and significance of automatic detection technology, the existing detection technologies are summarized and divided into several steps, including image acquisition, pre-processing, morphological analysis, segmentation, count, and pattern classification components. Then, the principles and implementation methods of each step are given in detail...
May 5, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Wang Zhen-Yu, Jiang Li, Zhang Yao-Guang, Zhu Min, Zhang Xiao-Ping, Ma Xiao-Jiang, Zhu Qian, He Yan-Yan, Jiang Shou-Fu, Cai Li
OBJECTIVE: To compare the application effects of three methods, namely microscopic examination, antigen detection (RDT) and nucleic acid test (PCR) in malaria detection between municipal and districts/counties centers for disease control and prevention in Shanghai, and analyze the malaria detection ability of the laboratories in Shanghai. METHODS: The blood smears, whole blood samples, case review confirmation records and case data of malaria cases and suspected cases in Shanghai from 2012 to 2015 were collected by Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and the detection results were analyzed and compared...
February 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
S Buoro, B Manenti, M Seghezzi, V Moioli, M Bagorria, A Callegaro, C Ottomano, G Lippi
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease, which has been for long confined to specific endemic areas. Nevertheless, the recent increase in immigration flows from endemic regions and imported cases has reemphasized many diagnostic challenges in Western countries, thus paving the way to introduce rapid and accurate strategies for screening subjects with suspected Malaria infection. Therefore, the aim of this article was to describe our recent experience with Sysmex XN-module for rapid screening of subjects with suspected Malaria...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Muhammad Ismail, Longbing Ling, Yawei Du, Chen Yao, Xinsong Li
Artemisinin and its derivatives are highly effective drugs in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria. However, their clinical applications face challenges because of short half-life, poor bioavailability and growing drug resistance. In this article, novel dimeric artesunate phospholipid (Di-ART-GPC) based liposomes were developed by combination of dimerization and self-assembly to address these shortcomings. Firstly, Di-ART-GPC conjugate was synthesized by a facile esterification of artesunate (ART) and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) and confirmed by MS,1 H NMR and13 C NMR...
May 2018: Biomaterials
Solomon Kinde Getawen, Temesgen Ashine, Fekadu Massebo, Daniel Woldeyes, Bernt Lindtjørn
House is the major site for malaria infection where most human-vector contact takes place. Hence, improving housing might reduce the risk of malaria infection by limiting house entry of vectors. This study aimed to explore the impact of screening doors and windows with wire meshes on density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of malaria vector, and malaria incidence, and assess the acceptability, durability, and cost of the intervention. The susceptibility status of malaria vector was also assessed. A two-arm randomized trial was done in Arba Minch Town, southwest Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
D Mnkandhla, J van Marwijk, H Hoppe, B S Wilhelmi, C G Whiteley
There is increasing requirement for the development of new drug protocols against malaria, a fatal disease caused by the lethal parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Leucine aminopeptidase (Pf LAP) of Plasmodium falciparum, is being pursued as a promising target for the discovery of novel antimalarials. The effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against P. falciparum leucine amino-peptidase (Pf LAP) and the human homolog (HsLAP) were compared. Pf LAP and HsLAP were expressed in Escherichia coli, and AgNPs (3-10 nm) characterized by ultra-violet spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Vitomir Djokic, Lavoisier Akoolo, Nikhat Parveen
Babesia microti is a malaria-like parasite, which infects ∼2000 people annually, such that babesiosis is now a notifiable disease in the United States. Immunocompetent individuals often remain asymptomatic and are tested only after they feel ill. Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show several human-like disease manifestations and are ideal to study pathogenesis of Babesia species. In this study, we examined parasitemia of B. microti at different time points and assessed its impact on hemoglobin levels in blood, on spleen pathology and overall immune response in C3H/HeJ mice...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luzia Veletzky, Mirjam Groger, Heimo Lagler, Julia Walochnik, Herbert Auer, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Michael Ramharter
BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale spp. has been neglected by and large from research and has received only little scientific attention during the past decades. Ovale malaria is considered to feature relapses by liver hypnozoites although scientific evidence for this paradigm is scarce. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, the case of a 16-year-old male, who presented with fevers to the outpatient department in Vienna, Austria, after travelling to Uganda and Papua New Guinea is described...
February 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
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