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malaria microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814579/hepatosplenic-schistosomiasis-playing-hide-and-seek-with-an-elusive-parasite
#1
Martin Baekby, Henning Glerup, Katrine Stribolt, Britta Tarp
A 27-year-old man of Eritrean origin presented with persistent left-sided abdominal pain. Initial investigation showed signs of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and splenomegaly. A diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis was suspected on grounds of elevated total IgE, grey area antischistosomiasis antibodies and the high endemic status of his native country. However, repeated microscopy of faecal and urine samples, as well as rectal biopsies, failed to demonstrate schistosomal eggs. Finally, the diagnosis of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis was established through demonstration of a Schistosoma mansoni egg in a liver biopsy taken in an attempt to clarify the cause of the above findings...
August 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808240/micro-epidemiology-and-spatial-heterogeneity-of-p-vivax-parasitaemia-in-riverine-communities-of-the-peruvian-amazon-a-multilevel-analysis
#2
Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Dionicia Gamboa, Marcia C Castro, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Hugo Rodriguez, Juan Contreras-Mancilla, Freddy Alava, Niko Speybroeck, Andres G Lescano, Joseph M Vinetz, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas
Malaria has steadily increased in the Peruvian Amazon over the last five years. This study aimed to determine the parasite prevalence and micro-geographical heterogeneity of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia in communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Four cross-sectional active case detection surveys were conducted between May and July 2015 in four riverine communities in Mazan district. Analysis of 2785 samples of 820 individuals nested within 154 households for Plasmodium parasitaemia was carried out using light microscopy and qPCR...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806784/structural-analysis-of-p-falciparum-kahrp-and-pfemp1-complexes-with-host-erythrocyte-spectrin-suggests-a-model-for-cytoadherent-knob-protrusions
#3
Erin E Cutts, Niklas Laasch, Dirk M Reiter, Raphael Trenker, Leanne M Slater, Phillip J Stansfeld, Ioannis Vakonakis
Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) and Knob-associated Histidine-rich Protein (KAHRP) are directly linked to malaria pathology. PfEMP1 and KAHRP cluster on protrusions (knobs) on the P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte surface and enable pathogenic cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes to the host microvasculature, leading to restricted blood flow, oxygen deprivation and damage of tissues. Here we characterize the interactions of PfEMP1 and KAHRP with host erythrocyte spectrin using biophysical, structural and computational approaches...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804661/imported-asymptomatic-bancroftian-filariasis-discovered-from-a-plasmodium-vivax-infected-patient-a-case-report-from-singapore
#4
Jean-Marc Chavatte, Roland Jureen
Human lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne disease mainly caused by the parasitic nematode Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted worldwide within the tropical and subtropical regions. Singapore was once endemic for bancroftian filariasis but recent reports are scarce and the disease is nearly forgotten. The case report presented here reports the incidental hospital laboratory finding of an asymptomatic microfilaremia in a relapsing Plasmodium vivax imported case during a malaria treatment follow-up appointment...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800735/life-span-of-in-vitro-differentiated-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes
#5
Tamirat Gebru, Albert Lalremruata, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Jana Held
BACKGROUND: The sexual stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium falciparum do not directly contribute to the pathology of malaria but are essential for transmission of the parasite from the human host to the mosquito. Mature gametocytes circulate in infected human blood for several days and their circulation time has been modelled mathematically from data of previous in vivo studies. This is the first time that longevity of gametocytes is studied experimentally in vitro. METHODS: The in vitro longevity of P...
August 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797261/evaluation-of-carestart%C3%A2-malaria-hrp2-pldh-pf-pan-combo-test-in-a-malaria-low-transmission-region-of-senegal
#6
Mamadou Alpha Diallo, Khadim Diongue, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Amy Gaye, Awa Deme, Aida S Badiane, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: This study was initiated from the observation that prevalence of malaria obtained with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (CareStart™Malaria HRP2/pLDH Combo Test) was higher than in microscopy in a malaria low transmission area of Senegal. PCR was then performed to evaluate the performance of the RDT compared to microscopy in clinical settings. METHODS: The study included 215 patients suspected of malaria in two peri-urban area of Dakar. Finger-pick blood samples were tested using RDT (CareStart™Malaria HRP2/pLDH Combo Test)...
August 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796820/identification-of-plasmodium-spp-in-neotropical-primates-of-maranhense-amazon-in-northeast-brazil
#7
Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo, Silvia Maria Di Santi, Wilson Gómez Manrique, Marcos Rogério André, Rosangela Zacarias Machado
In the Brazilian Amazon region, malaria caused by Plasmodium malariae is considered to be a zoonosis because of cross-transfer of the parasite between humans and Neotropical primates. To contribute information on this issue, we investigated occurrences of natural infection with Plasmodium sp. among Neotropical primates in the Maranhense Amazon (Amazon region of the state of Maranhão), in the northeastern region of Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 161 Neotropical primates of six species that were caught in an environmental reserve (Sítio Aguahy) and from captive primates (CETAS-Wildlife Screening Center, municipality of São Luís), in Maranhão...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796565/ultrastructural-changes-of-kidney-in-schistosoma-mansoni-infected-mice
#8
Refaat A Eid, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Fahmy El-Sayed, Khaled Radad
Schistosomiasis is the second threatening parasitic disease after malaria and among Schistosoma spp., Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) affects about 100 million people in tropic regions in Africa and South America. The current study was carried out to investigate ultrastructural changes of the kidney in mice infected with cercariae of S. mansoni, in which 20 Swiss albino mice of 60-day-old were assigned into two groups (10 each). Control group received 1 ml normal saline by intraperitoneal route. Model group were intraperitoneally infected with 1 ml normal saline containing 40 cercariae of S...
August 10, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795398/robust-fluorescent-labelling-of-micropipettes-for-use-in-fluorescence-microscopy-application-to-the-observation-of-a-mosquito-borne-parasite-infection
#9
Amanda E Balaban, Keir Neuman, Photini Sinnis, Robert S Balaban
The ability to monitor micropipette injections with a high-resolution fluorescent microscope has utility for a variety of applications. Herein, different approaches were tested for creating broad-band fluorescently labelled glass micropipettes including: UV cured glass glues, baked glass enamel containing fluorescent dyes as well as nanodiamonds attached during pipette formation in the microforge. The most robust and simplest approach was to use labelled baked enamel on the exterior of the pipette. This approach was tested using pipettes designed to mimic a mosquito proboscis for the injection of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium spp...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790371/unraveling-heme-detoxification-in-the-malaria-parasite-by-in-situ-correlative-x-ray-fluorescence-microscopy-and-soft-x-ray-tomography
#10
Sergey Kapishnikov, Daniel Grolimund, Gerd Schneider, Eva Pereiro, James G McNally, Jens Als-Nielsen, Leslie Leiserowitz
A key drug target for malaria has been the detoxification pathway of the iron-containing molecule heme, which is the toxic byproduct of hemoglobin digestion. The cornerstone of heme detoxification is its sequestration into hemozoin crystals, but how this occurs remains uncertain. We report new results of in vivo rate of heme crystallization in the malaria parasite, based on a new technique to measure element-specific concentrations at defined locations in cell ultrastructure. Specifically, a high resolution correlative combination of cryo soft X-ray tomography has been developed to obtain 3D parasite ultrastructure with cryo X-ray fluorescence microscopy to measure heme concentrations...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789682/additional-burden-of-asymptomatic-and-sub-patent-malaria-infections-during-low-transmission-season-in-forested-tribal-villages-in-chhattisgarh-india
#11
Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Kamaraju Raghavendra, Rajendra M Bhatt, Dipak Kumar Swain, Hemraj M Meshram, Jayant K Meshram, Shrity Suman, Vinita Dubey, Gyanendra Singh, Kona Madhavinadha Prasad, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: The burden of sub-patent malaria is difficult to recognize in low endemic areas due to limitation of diagnostic tools, and techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a molecular based technique, is one of the key methods for detection of low parasite density infections. The study objective was to assess the additional burden of asymptomatic and sub-patent malaria infection among tribal populations inhabiting three endemic villages in Keshkal sub-district, Chhattisgarh, India...
August 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789644/hydrophilic-treated-plastic-plates-for-wide-range-analysis-of-giemsa-stained-red-blood-cells-and-automated-plasmodium-infection-rate-counting
#12
Muneaki Hashimoto, Shouki Yatsushiro, Shohei Yamamura, Masato Tanaka, Hirokazu Sakamoto, Yusuke Ido, Kazuaki Kajimoto, Mika Bando, Jun-Ichi Kido, Masatoshi Kataoka
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a red blood cell (RBC) infection caused by Plasmodium parasites. To determine RBC infection rate, which is essential for malaria study and diagnosis, microscopic evaluation of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears on glass slides ('Giemsa microscopy') has been performed as the accepted gold standard for over 100 years. However, only a small area of the blood smear provides a monolayer of RBCs suitable for determination of infection rate, which is one of the major reasons for the low parasite detection rate by Giemsa microscopy...
August 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771615/substantial-asymptomatic-submicroscopic-plasmodium-carriage-during-dry-season-in-low-transmission-areas-in-senegal-implications-for-malaria-control-and-elimination
#13
Makhtar Niang, Laty Gaye Thiam, Rokhaya Sane, Nafissatou Diagne, Cheikh Talla, Souleymane Doucoure, Joseph Faye, Fode Diop, Abdoulaye Badiane, Babacar Diouf, Diogop Camara, Fatoumata Diene-Sarr, Cheikh Sokhna, Vincent Richard, Aissatou Toure-Balde
BACKGROUND: In the progress towards malaria elimination, the accurate diagnosis of low-density asymptomatic infections is critical. Low-density asymptomatic submicroscopic malaria infections may act as silent reservoirs that maintain low-level residual malaria transmission in the community. Light microscopy, the gold standard in malaria diagnosis lacks the sensitivity to detect low-level parasitaemia. In this study, the presence and prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage were investigated to estimate the parasites reservoir among asymptomatic individuals living in low transmission areas in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal during the dry season...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768730/detection-of-plasmodium-spp-infection-by-the-illumigene%C3%A2-malaria-assay-compared-to-reference-microscopy-and-real-time-pcr
#14
Candace Rypien, Barbara Chow, Wilson Chan, Deirdre Church, Dylan R Pillai
Malaria is one of the leading causes of infectious disease in returning travelers from the tropics. Diagnosis of malaria is typically performed by examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin peripheral blood smears, which is time-consuming, labor-intensive and requires high levels of proficiency. Alternatively, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a new molecular method, which is rapid, sensitive, and requires less capital equipment and technological training. We conducted a retrospective study comparing two formats of a commercial LAMP assay (Meridian illumigene® Malaria [M] and Malaria Plus [MP]) versus reference microscopy on archived blood specimens (n=140) obtained from unique returning travelers suspected of having malaria...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764792/deployment-and-use-of-mobile-phone-technology-for-real-time-reporting-of-fever-cases-and-malaria-treatment-failure-in-areas-of-declining-malaria-transmission-in-muheza-district-north-eastern-tanzania
#15
Filbert Francis, Deus S Ishengoma, Bruno P Mmbando, Acleus S M Rutta, Mwelecele N Malecela, Benjamin Mayala, Martha M Lemnge, Edwin Michael
BACKGROUND: Early detection of febrile illnesses at community level is essential for improved malaria case management and control. Currently, mobile phone-based technology has been commonly used to collect and transfer health information and services in different settings. This study assessed the applicability of mobile phone-based technology in real-time reporting of fever cases and management of malaria by village health workers (VHWs) in north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: The community mobile phone-based disease surveillance and treatment for malaria (ComDSTM) platform, combined with mobile phones and web applications, was developed and implemented in three villages and one dispensary in Muheza district from November 2013 to October 2014...
August 1, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760158/comparative-evaluation-of-a-rapid-diagnostic-test-an-antibody-elisa-and-a-pldh-elisa-in-detecting-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitaemia-in-blood-donors-in-buea-cameroon
#16
Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti, Longdoh Anna Njunda, Beltine Tsamul, Shey Dickson Nsagha, Nguedia Jules-Clement Assob, Kukwah Anthony Tufon, Dilonga Henry Meriki, Enow George Orock
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic areas, infected blood donors serve as a source of infection to blood recipients, which may adversely affect their prognosis. This necessitates the proper screening of blood to be used for transfusion in these areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in Buea, Cameroon, and to evaluate the performance of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), a malaria antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) ELISA in the detection of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in the target population...
August 1, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758162/individual-level-factors-associated-with-the-risk-of-acquiring-human-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-in-malaysia-a-case-control-study
#17
Matthew J Grigg, Jonathan Cox, Timothy William, Jenarun Jelip, Kimberly M Fornace, Patrick M Brock, Lorenz von Seidlein, Bridget E Barber, Nicholas M Anstey, Tsin W Yeo, Christopher J Drakeley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk. METHODS: We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia...
June 9, 2017: The Lancet. Planetary health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757774/prevalence-risk-factors-and-antimalarial-resistance-patterns-of-falciparum-plasmodiasis-among-pregnant-women-in-kaduna-metropolis-nigeria
#18
Maryam Muhammad Aliyu, Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Yahaya Abdullahi Umar, Anthony Philip Vanstawa, Jessy Thomas Medugu, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Dele Ohinoyi Amadu
OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women infected with malaria represent a significant obstetric problem, especially in the face of antimalarial resistance. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, associated risk factors as well as the antimalarial resistance pattern of Plasmodium isolates from pregnant women attending four selected secondary health facilities in Kaduna State, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 353 pregnant women attending selected hospitals...
April 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751177/in-vitro-screening-of-the-open-source-pathogen-box-identifies-novel-compounds-with-profound-activities-against-neospora-caninum
#19
Joachim Müller, Adriana Aguado, Benoît Laleu, Vreni Balmer, Dominic Ritler, Andrew Hemphill
Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and represents an important veterinary health problem of great economic significance. The Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Pathogen Box, an open-source collection of 400 compounds with proven anti-infective properties against a wide range of pathogens, was screened against a N. caninum beta-galactosidase reporter strain grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. A primary screening carried out at 1µM yielded 40 compounds that were effective against N. caninum tachyzoites...
July 25, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750669/population-level-estimates-of-the-proportion-of-plasmodium-vivax-blood-stage-infections-attributable-to-relapses-among-febrile-patients-attending-adama-malaria-diagnostic-centre-east-shoa-zone-oromia-ethiopia
#20
Lemu Golassa, Michael T White
BACKGROUND: Malaria is ranked as the leading communicable disease in Ethiopia, where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are co-endemic. The incidence of P. vivax is usually considered to be less seasonal than P. falciparum. Clinical cases of symptomatic P. falciparum exhibit notable seasonal variation, driven by rainfall-dependent variation in the abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes. A similar peak of clinical cases of P. vivax is usually observed during the rainy season. However, the ability of P...
July 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
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