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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092587/learning-domain-invariant-subspace-using-domain-features-and-independence-maximization
#1
Ke Yan, Lu Kou, David Zhang
Domain adaptation algorithms are useful when the distributions of the training and the test data are different. In this paper, we focus on the problem of instrumental variation and time-varying drift in the field of sensors and measurement, which can be viewed as discrete and continuous distributional change in the feature space. We propose maximum independence domain adaptation (MIDA) and semi-supervised MIDA to address this problem. Domain features are first defined to describe the background information of a sample, such as the device label and acquisition time...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091572/a-computational-psychiatry-approach-identifies-how-alpha-2a-noradrenergic-agonist-guanfacine-affects-feature-based-reinforcement-learning-in-the-macaque
#2
S A Hassani, M Oemisch, M Balcarras, S Westendorff, S Ardid, M A van der Meer, P Tiesinga, T Womelsdorf
Noradrenaline is believed to support cognitive flexibility through the alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor (a2A-NAR) acting in prefrontal cortex. Enhanced flexibility has been inferred from improved working memory with the a2A-NA agonist Guanfacine. But it has been unclear whether Guanfacine improves specific attention and learning mechanisms beyond working memory, and whether the drug effects can be formalized computationally to allow single subject predictions. We tested and confirmed these suggestions in a case study with a healthy nonhuman primate performing a feature-based reversal learning task evaluating performance using Bayesian and Reinforcement learning models...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090102/virtual-patient-case-sharing-across-two-schools-of-pharmacy
#3
Michael A Smith, Laura A Siemianowski, Neal Benedict
Objective. To expand the use of virtual patients at 2 schools of pharmacy through virtual patient case sharing. Design. Faculty members at two schools of pharmacy collaborated to expand the use of virtual patients. Two simulation programs, vpSim and DecisionSim (Decision Simulation, LLC, Chadsford, PA), were used to create interactive patient cases for a required course and an elective course at the different schools. Each school developed cases for their own use and then shared the cases with the other school...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080119/the-role-of-episodic-context-in-retrieval-practice-effects
#4
Joshua W Whiffen, Jeffrey D Karpicke
The episodic context account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances subsequent retention because people must think back to and reinstate a prior learning context. Three experiments directly tested this central assumption of the context account. Subjects studied word lists and then either restudied the words under intentional learning conditions or made list discrimination judgments by indicating which list each word had occurred in originally. Subjects in both conditions experienced all items for the same amount of time, but subjects in the list discrimination condition were required to retrieve details about the original episodic context in which the words had occurred...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079060/intranasal-lactoferrin-enhances-%C3%AE-secretase-dependent-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-via-the-erk1-2-creb-and-hif-1%C3%AE-pathways-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#5
Chuang Guo, Zhao-Hui Yang, Shuai Zhang, Rui Chai, Han Xue, Yan-Hui Zhang, Jia-Yi Li, Zhan-You Wang
Growing evidence suggests that lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic functional nutrient. Additionally, Lf was recently implicated as a neuroprotective agent. These properties make Lf a valuable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms regulating the physiological roles of Lf in the pathologic condition of AD remain unknown. In the present study, an APPswe/PS1DE9 transgenic mouse model of AD was used. We explored whether intranasal human Lf (hLf) administration could reduce β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ameliorate cognitive decline in this AD model...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078250/effects-of-mimosa-pudica-l-leaves-extract-on-anxiety-depression-and-memory
#6
Ganesh Patro, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Bijay Kumar Mohanty
OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to investigate the neuropharmacological activities of ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica (EAMP) leaves on anxiety, depression and memory in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-anxiety potential of EAMP was evaluated by elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB) and social interaction (SI) tests in mice.Anti-depressant potential of EAMP was evaluated by forced swimming (FST), tail suspension (TST), and open field tests (OFT)...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#7
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072410/pre-trauma-methylphenidate-in-rats-reduces-ptsd-like-reactions-one-month-later
#8
G Ritov, G Richter-Levin
In basic research, the etiology of fear-related pathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is conceptualized using fear-conditioning protocols that pair environmental stimuli (that is, a conditioned stimulus-CS) with an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit an assessable conditioned fear response. Although pathophysiological models agree that regulatory dysfunctions in this associative process may instigate fear-related pathology, current opinions differ in regard to the nature of these dysfunctions...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071689/haploinsufficiency-of-ehmt1-improves-pattern-separation-and-increases-hippocampal-cell-proliferation
#9
Marco Benevento, Charlotte A Oomen, Alexa E Horner, Houshang Amiri, Tessa Jacobs, Charlotte Pauwels, Monica Frega, Tjitske Kleefstra, Maksym V Kopanitsa, Seth G N Grant, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida, Catharina E E M Van der Zee, Hans van Bokhoven, Jeffrey C Glennon, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions of the human Euchromatin Histone Methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene are the main causes of Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired memory, autistic features and mostly severe intellectual disability. Previously, Ehmt1(+/-) heterozygous knockout mice were found to exhibit cranial abnormalities and decreased sociability, phenotypes similar to those observed in Kleefstra syndrome patients. In addition, Ehmt1(+/-) knockout mice were impaired at fear extinction and novel- and spatial object recognition...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069458/loganin-enhances-long-term-potentiation-and-recovers-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairments
#10
Eun-Sang Hwang, Hyun-Bum Kim, Seok Lee, Min-Ji Kim, Sung-Ok Lee, Seung-Moo Han, Sungho Maeng, Ji-Ho Park
Although the incidence rate of dementia is rapidly growing in the aged population, therapeutic and preventive reagents are still suboptimal. Various model systems are used for the development of such reagents in which scopolamine is one of the favorable pharmacological tools widely applied. Loganin is a major iridoid glycoside obtained from Corni fructus (Cornusofficinaliset Zucc) and demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and osteoporosis prevention effects. It has also been found to attenuate Aβ-induced inflammatory reactions and ameliorate memory deficits induced by scopolamine...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069437/indispensable-role-of-the-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-the-procognitive-effects-of-angiotensin-iv
#11
Jan Józef Braszko
BACKGROUND: Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a major role in brain functioning, including that of cognition-related structures such as cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory enhancing effect of the neuropeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV) have been linked to VGCCs but only in respect of its long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing effect. OBJECTIVE: To assess behaviorally effects of L- and T-type VGCCs blocking drugs in low, behaviorally inactive, doses on Ang IV facilitation of recall of aversively (foot-shock) and appetitively (curiosity for novelty) motivated behaviors...
January 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068401/advantages-of-synthetic-noise-and-machine-learning-for-analyzing-radioecological-data-sets
#12
Igor Shuryak
The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066141/dehydroevodiamine%C3%A2-hcl-enhances-cognitive-function-in-memory-impaired-rat-models
#13
Ki Young Shin, Ka Young Kim, Yoo-Hun Suh
Progressive memory impairment such as that associated with depression, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) can interfere with daily life. In particular, AD, which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, prominently features a memory and learning impairment that is related to changes in acetylcholine and abnormal β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dehydroevodiamine·HCl (DHED) on cognitive improvement and the related mechanism in memory-impaired rat models, namely, a scopolamine-induced amnesia model and a Aβ1-42-infused model...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066108/neuroprotective-effect-of-celastrus-paniculatus-on-chronic-stress-induced-cognitive-impairment
#14
V Bhagya, Thomas Christofer, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Several studies report that chronic stress results in impaired spatial learning and working memory and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. However, not many studies have looked into the possible ways of reversing stress-induced deficits. Celastrus paniculatus (CP), a traditional ayurvedic herbal medicine, was used to treat cognitive deficits in mentally retarded children. CP oil has been reported to have neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. However, the effects of CP oil on chronic stress-induced cognitive deficits are unclear...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062255/differential-effects-of-bihemispheric-and-unihemispheric-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-young-and-elderly-adults-in-verbal-learning
#15
Valentina Fiori, Michael Nitsche, Luigi Iasevoli, Gabriella Cucuzza, Carlo Caltagirone, Paola Marangolo
For the past few years, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of several pathologies has been investigated. In the language domain, several studies, in healthy and brain-damaged populations, have already shown that tDCS is effective in enhancing naming, repetition and semantic word generation. In those studies, different tDCS electrode configurations have been tested, however, a direct comparison between different montages in verbal learning has never been conducted...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060950/comparing-different-suicide-prevention-measures-at-bridges-and-buildings-lessons-we-have-learned-from-a-national-survey-in-switzerland
#16
Alexander Hemmer, Philipp Meier, Thomas Reisch
The goal of the study was to compare the effectiveness of different suicide prevention measures implemented on bridges and other high structures in Switzerland. A national survey identified all jumping hotspots that have been secured in Switzerland; of the 15 that could be included in this study, 11 were secured by vertical barriers and 4 were secured by low-hanging horizontal safety nets. The study made an overall and individual pre-post analysis by using Mantel-Haenszel Tests, regression methods and calculating rate ratios...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058580/dcf1-triggers-dendritic-spine-formation-and-facilitates-memory-acquisition
#17
Qiang Liu, Ruili Feng, Yu Chen, Guanghong Luo, Huang Yan, Ling Chen, Rongfei Lin, Yuqiang Ding, Tieqiao Wen
Dendritic spines, a special kind of structure in nerve cells, play a key role in performing cellular function. Structural abnormalities of the dendritic spine may contribute to synaptic dysfunction and have been implicated in memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that trigger dendritic spine loss remain unclear. Here, we show that the absence of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) appeared dendritic spines dysplasia, which in turn leads to the damage of learning and memory; in contrast, enhancing Dcf1 expression rescues dendritic spines morphology and function, indicating a pivotal role of Dcf1 in cellular function...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057696/using-a-smartphone-based-ecological-momentary-assessment-protocol-with-community-dwelling-older-african-americans
#18
Heather Fritz, Wassim Tarraf, Dan J Saleh, Malcolm P Cutchin
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the feasibility of smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) approaches to collect psychosocial data from older populations, especially disadvantaged older populations. In response to this gap, this report provides evidence of the feasibility and utility of a smartphone-based EMA approach for real-time assessment with older African Americans. In addition, we share lessons learned about how to improve utility. METHODS: Ninety-seven older African Americans ages 55 and older (range: 55-95 years) used an Android smartphone loaded with an EMA application to provide data about their everyday activities and stress four times per day for seven consecutive days...
January 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057528/role-of-d2-dopamine-receptors-of-the-ventral-pallidum-in-inhibitory-avoidance-learning
#19
László Lénárd, Tamás Ollmann, Kristóf László, Anita Kovács, Rita Gálosi, Veronika Kállai, Tóth Attila, Erika Kertes, Olga Zagoracz, Zoltán Karádi, László Péczely
In our present experiments, the role of D2 dopamine (DA) receptors of the ventral pallidum (VP) was investigated in one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance paradigm. Animals were shocked 3 times in the conditioning trial, with 0.5mA current for 1s. Subsequently bilateral microinjection of the D2 DA receptor agonist quinpirole was administered into the VP in three doses (0.1μg, 1.0μg or 5.0μg in 0.4μl saline). We also applied the D2 DA receptor antagonist sulpiride (0.4μg in 0.4μl saline) alone or 15min prior to the agonist treatment to elucidate whether the agonist effect was specific for the D2 DA receptors...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056637/triple-play-additive-contributions-of-enhanced-expectancies-autonomy-support-and-external-attentional-focus-to-motor-learning
#20
Gabriele Wulf, Rebecca Lewthwaite, Priscila Cardozo, Suzete Chiviacowsky
In the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning (Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016), 3 factors are postulated to facilitate learning: Enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance, autonomy support (AS), and an external focus (EF) of attention. Enhancing learners' expectancies for future performance (e. g., through positive feedback) benefits learning. Further, supporting learners' need for autonomy (e.g., by giving them choices) has been found to promote learning. Finally, directing learners' attention to the intended movement effect (external focus) has beneficial effects for learning...
January 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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