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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332224/monitoring-and-regulation-of-learning-in-medical-education-the-need-for-predictive-cues
#1
Anique B H de Bruin, John Dunlosky, Rodrigo B Cavalcanti
CONTEXT: Being able to accurately monitor learning activities is a key element in self-regulated learning in all settings, including medical schools. Yet students' ability to monitor their progress is often limited, leading to inefficient use of study time. Interventions that improve the accuracy of students' monitoring can optimise self-regulated learning, leading to higher achievement. This paper reviews findings from cognitive psychology and explores potential applications in medical education, as well as areas for future research...
March 23, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330163/probing-an-optimal-class-distribution-for-enhancing-prediction-and-feature-characterization-of-plant-virus-encoded-rna-silencing-suppressors
#2
Abhigyan Nath, Karthikeyan Subbiah
To counter the host RNA silencing defense mechanism, many plant viruses encode RNA silencing suppressor proteins. These groups of proteins share very low sequence and structural similarities among them, which consequently hamper their annotation using sequence similarity-based search methods. Alternatively the machine learning-based methods can become a suitable choice, but the optimal performance through machine learning-based methods is being affected by various factors such as class imbalance, incomplete learning, selection of inappropriate features, etc...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329896/characterizing-literacy-and-cognitive-function-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#3
Lynn M Yee, Leslie A Kamel, Zara Quader, Priya V Rajan, Shaneah M Taylor, Rachel O'Conor, Michael S Wolf, Melissa A Simon
Objective The objective of this study was to characterize health literacy and cognitive function in a diverse cohort of pregnant women. Methods Pregnant and postpartum women underwent in-depth assessments of health literacy/numeracy and the cognitive domains of verbal ability, working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, and inductive reasoning. Differences by demographic characteristics and gestational age were assessed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results In this cohort of pregnant (N = 77) or postpartum (N = 24) women, 41...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324109/sex-specific-life-course-changes-in-the-neuro-metabolic-phenotype-of-glut3-null-heterozygous-mice-ketogenic-diet-ameliorates-electroencephalographic-seizures-and-improves-sociability
#4
Yun Dai, Yuanzi Zhao, Masatoshi Tomi, Bo-Chul Shin, Shanthie Thamotharan, Andrey Mazarati, Raman Sankar, Elizabeth A Wang, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Jingjing Zhang, Andrew Frew, Jeffry R Alger, Peter Clark, Monica Sondhi, Sudatip Kositamongkol, Leah Leibovitch, Sherin U Devaskar
We tested the hypothesis that exposure of glut3+/- mice to a ketogenic diet ameliorates autism-like features which includes aberrant behavior and electrographic seizures. We first investigated the life course sex-specific changes in basal plasma-CSF-brain metabolic profile, brain glucose transport/uptake, glucose and monocarboxylate transporter proteins, and ATP in the presence or absence of systemic insulin administration. Glut3+/- male but not female mice (5m of age) displayed reduced CSF glucose/lactate concentrations with no change in brain Glut1, Mct2, glucose uptake or ATP...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318319/medical-student-perceptions-of-the-learning-environment-in-medical-school-change-as-students-transition-to-clinical-training-in-undergraduate-medical-school
#5
Lisette Dunham, Michael Dekhtyar, Gregory Gruener, Eileen CichoskiKelly, Jennifer Deitz, Donna Elliott, Margaret L Stuber, Susan E Skochelak
Phenomenon: The learning environment is the physical, social, and psychological context in which a student learns. A supportive learning environment contributes to student well-being and enhances student empathy, professionalism, and academic success, whereas an unsupportive learning environment may lead to burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism. Student perceptions of the medical school learning environment may change over time and be associated with students' year of training and may differ significantly depending on the student's gender or race/ethnicity...
March 20, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315756/interleukin-4-is-a-participant-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behavior
#6
Simone Wachholz, Alexandra Knorr, Leonie Mengert, Jennifer Plümper, Rainer Sommer, Georg Juckel, Astrid Friebe
Inflammatory immune activation has been frequently associated with the development of major depression. Microglia might serve as an important interface in this immune system-to-brain communication. Interleukin-4, the major Th2 type cytokine, might be protective against depression due to its ability to counter-regulate inflammation and to inhibit serotonin transporter activity. By using an Interferon-α mouse model, we show that a decreased IL-4 responsiveness of microglia was specifically related to the development of depressive-like behavior...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302116/portals-design-of-an-innovative-approach-to-anticoagulation-management-through-ehealth
#7
E P W A Talboom-Kamp, N A Verdijk, I J S H Talboom, L M Harmans, M E Numans, N H Chavannes
BACKGROUND: For the monitoring of International Normalized Ratio (INR) values, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and atrial fibrillation (AF) patients can visit anticoagulation clinics, laboratories, or physicians for venous puncture. Point-of-care testing (POCT) made it possible for patients to monitor INR themselves (self-monitoring) and even self-adjust their medication dosage (self-dosage). Both skills are accepted as forms of self-management. eHealth applications can improve this self-management, resulting in better clinical outcomes...
March 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301203/time-for-considering-the-possibility-that-sleep-plays-no-unique-role-in-motor-memory-consolidation-reply-to-adi-japha-and-karni-2016
#8
Timothy C Rickard, Steven C Pan
The hypothesis that sleep makes a unique contribution to motor memory consolidation has been debated in recent years. In the target article (Pan & Rickard, 2015), we reported results of a comprehensive meta-analysis of the explicit motor sequence learning literature in which evidence was evaluated for both enhanced performance after sleep and stabilization after sleep. After accounting for confounding variables, we found no compelling evidence for either empirical phenomenon, and hence no compelling evidence for sleep-specific consolidation...
April 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301075/clinical-performance-of-high-resolution-late-gadolinium-enhancement-imaging-with-compressed-sensing
#9
Tamer A Basha, Mehmet Akçakaya, Charlene Liew, Connie W Tsao, Francesca N Delling, Gifty Addae, Long Ngo, Warren J Manning, Reza Nezafat
PURPOSE: To evaluate diagnostic image quality of 3D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with high isotropic spatial resolution (∼1.4 mm(3) ) images reconstructed from randomly undersampled k-space using LOw-dimensional-structure Self-learning and Thresholding (LOST). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 270 patients (181 men; 55 ± 14 years) referred for myocardial viability assessment. 3D LGE with isotropic spatial resolution of 1.4 ± 0.1 mm(3) was acquired at 1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297591/estrogen-replacement-improves-verbal-memory-and-executive-control-in-oligomenorrheic-amenorrheic-athletes-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Charumathi Baskaran, Brooke Cunningham, Franziska Plessow, Vibha Singhal, Ryan Woolley, Kathryn E Ackerman, Meghan Slattery, Hang Lee, Elizabeth A Lawson, Kamryn Eddy, Madhusmita Misra
OBJECTIVE: Both estrogen and exercise may have cognition enhancing benefits; however, young oligomenorrheic/amenorrheic athletes (OA) with estrogen deficiency have not been evaluated for cognitive deficits. Our objective was to determine whether 6 months of estrogen replacement will impact cognitive domains in OA. We hypothesized that estrogen replacement would improve verbal memory and executive control in OA. METHODS: We performed cognitive assessments at baseline and after 6 months in 48 OA (14-25 years) randomized to estrogen (EST+) (oral 30 µg ethinyl estradiol [n = 16] or transdermal 100 µg 17-β-estradiol patch [n = 13]) or no estrogen (EST-) (n = 19) in an ongoing clinical trial...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294340/neuroprotective-effects-of-artemisinin-against-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-impairments-and-neuronal-cell-death-involve-jnk-erk1-2-signalling-and-improved-hippocampal-histone-acetylation-in-neonatal-rats
#11
Guang Xu, Yun-Li Huang, Ping-le Li, Hai-Ming Guo, Xue-Ping Han
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the effect of artemisinin against isoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Artemisinin (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg b.wt/day; oral gavage) was administered to separate groups of neonatal rats starting from postnatal day 3 (P3) to postnatal day 21 (P21). On postnatal day 7 (P7), animals were exposed to inhalation anaesthetic isoflurane (0.75%) for 6 h. KEY FINDINGS: Neuronal apoptosis following anaesthetic exposure was significantly reduced by artemisinin...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293263/saikosaponin-a-alleviates-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-through-downregulation-of-dat-and-enhancing-bdnf-expression-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#12
Sun Jichao, Han Xinmin, Ren Xianguo, Yin Dongqi, Zhou Rongyi, Lei Shuang, You Yue, Song Yuchen, Ying Jingnan
The disturbed dopamine availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are due in part to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutical effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) isolated from Bupleurum Chinese DC, against spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Methylphenidate and SSa were orally administered for 3 weeks. Activity was assessed by open-field test and Morris water maze test. Dopamine (DA) and BDNF were determined in specific brain regions...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287984/learning-a-no-reference-quality-assessment-model-of-enhanced-images-with-big-data
#13
Ke Gu, Dacheng Tao, Jun-Fei Qiao, Weisi Lin
In this paper, we investigate into the problem of image quality assessment (IQA) and enhancement via machine learning. This issue has long attracted a wide range of attention in computational intelligence and image processing communities, since, for many practical applications, e.g., object detection and recognition, raw images are usually needed to be appropriately enhanced to raise the visual quality (e.g., visibility and contrast). In fact, proper enhancement can noticeably improve the quality of input images, even better than originally captured images, which are generally thought to be of the best quality...
March 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286470/screening-the-molecular-framework-underlying-local-dendritic-mrna-translation
#14
REVIEW
Sanjeev V Namjoshi, Kimberly F Raab-Graham
In the last decade, bioinformatic analyses of high-throughput proteomics and transcriptomics data have enabled researchers to gain insight into the molecular networks that may underlie lasting changes in synaptic efficacy. Development and utilization of these techniques have advanced the field of learning and memory significantly. It is now possible to move from the study of activity-dependent changes of a single protein to modeling entire network changes that require local protein synthesis. This data revolution has necessitated the development of alternative computational and statistical techniques to analyze and understand the patterns contained within...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286265/vicarious-extinction-learning-during-reconsolidation-neutralizes-fear-memory
#15
Armita Golkar, Cathelijn Tjaden, Merel Kindt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that fear memories can be updated when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Given the beneficial effects of model-based safety learning (i.e. vicarious extinction) in preventing the recovery of short-term fear memory, we examined whether consolidated long-term fear memories could be updated with safety learning accomplished through vicarious extinction learning initiated within the reconsolidation time-window. We assessed this in a final sample of 19 participants that underwent a three-day within-subject fear-conditioning design, using fear-potentiated startle as our primary index of fear learning...
February 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286213/carbonic-anhydrase-activation-enhances-object-recognition-memory-in-mice-through-phosphorylation-of-the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-in-the-cortex-and-the-hippocampus
#16
Lucas Canto de Souza, Gustavo Provensi, Daniela Vullo, Fabrizio Carta, Andrea Scozzafava, Alessia Costa, Scheila Daiane Schmidt, Maria Beatrice Passani, Claudiu T Supuran, Patrizio Blandina
Rats injected with by d-phenylalanine, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) activator, enhanced spatial learning, whereas rats given acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, exhibited impairments of fear memory consolidation. However, the related mechanisms are unclear. We investigated if CAs are involved in a non-spatial recognition memory task assessed using the object recognition test (ORT). Systemic administration of acetazolamide to male CD1 mice caused amnesia in the ORT and reduced CA activity in brain homogenates, while treatment with d-phenylalanine enhanced memory and increased CA activity...
March 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284205/usage-of-3d-models-of-tetralogy-of-fallot-for-medical-education-impact-on-learning-congenital-heart-disease
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yue-Hin Loke, Ashraf S Harahsheh, Axel Krieger, Laura J Olivieri
BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common human birth defect, and clinicians need to understand the anatomy to effectively care for patients with CHD. However, standard two-dimensional (2D) display methods do not adequately carry the critical spatial information to reflect CHD anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) models may be useful in improving the understanding of CHD, without requiring a mastery of cardiac imaging. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of 3D models on how pediatric residents understand and learn about tetralogy of Fallot following a teaching session...
March 11, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283788/follow-up-of-oral-and-oropharyngeal-cancer-using-narrow-band-imaging-and-high-definition-television-with-rigid-endoscope-to-obtain-an-early-diagnosis-of-second-primary-tumors-a-prospective-study
#18
Giancarlo Tirelli, Marco Piovesana, Pierluigi Bonini, Annalisa Gatto, Giuseppe Azzarello, Francesca Boscolo Nata
Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an optical technique enhancing mucosal vasculature. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of rigid NBI endoscopy in the early detection of second primaries or local recurrences after treatment for oral (OSCC) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), its advantage over standard white-light (WL) endoscopy, and the influence of previous radiotherapy, the learning curve, and lesion site. Between January 2013 and June 2015, 195 patients treated for OSCC or OPSCC with surgery alone (group A) or radiotherapy with or without surgery and/or chemotherapy (group B) underwent additional follow-up assessments using NBI...
March 10, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283412/silver-nanoparticles-alter-learning-and-memory-formation-in-an-aquatic-organism-lymnaea-stagnalis
#19
Austin Young, Amy Protheroe, Ken Lukowiak
We tested the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the ability of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, to learn and form long-term memory (LTM) following operant conditioning of aerial respiration. We hypothesized that the AgNPs would act as a stressor and prevent learning and LTM formation. We tested snails exposed for either 72 h or only during training and testing for memory (i.e. 0.5 h) and found no difference between those treatments. We found that at a low concentration of AgNPs (5 μg/L) neither learning and nor memory formation were altered...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282777/comparing-the-effect-of-e-learning-and-educational-booklet-on-the-childbirth-self-efficacy-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Parastoo Abbasi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Mojgan Mirghafourvand
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the effect of e-learning and educational booklet on the childbirth self-efficacy (CBSE). METHODS: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 153 pregnant women referred to health centers in the city of Miandoab, Iran in 2015-2016. Participants were assigned into two intervention groups (e-learning and educational booklet) and the control group. A single face-to-face session was held for intervention groups about the management of labor pain in 30-34 weeks of pregnancy and the booklet and software were provided...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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