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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159811/a-deep-learning-method-for-classifying-mammographic-breast-density-categories
#1
Aly A Mohamed, Wendie A Berg, Hong Peng, Yahong Luo, Rachel C Jankowitz, Shandong Wu
PURPOSE: Mammographic breast density is an established risk marker for breast cancer and is visually assessed by radiologists in routine mammogram image reading, using four qualitative Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories. It is particularly difficult for radiologists to consistently distinguish the two most common and most variably assigned BI-RADS categories, i.e., "scattered density" and "heterogeneously dense". The aim of this work was to investigate a deep learning-based breast density classifier to consistently distinguish these two categories, aiming at providing a potential computerized tool to assist radiologists in assigning a BI-RADS category in current clinical workflow...
November 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155302/repeated-exposure-to-sevoflurane-impairs-the-learning-and-memory-of-older-male-rats
#2
Shanbin Guo, Lidan Liu, Cong Wang, Qian Jiang, Yunxia Dong, Yue Tian
AIMS: Critically ill old patients sometimes require repeated surgical interventions, and thus it is important to determine the influence of repeated exposure to anesthetics on learning and memory. Sevoflurane, a widely used inhalation anesthetic, has few neurological adverse effects and offers a rapid return to consciousness. But the long-term influence of sevoflurane exposure and the effect of repeated sevoflurane exposure on cognition have rarely been reported, and available studies are contradictory...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154367/effects-of-amphetamine-on-sensorimotor-gating-and-neurocognition-in-antipsychotic-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#3
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Daniel M Franz, Erica L Hughes, Brinda K Rana, Gregory A Light
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is being explored both as an indicator of target engagement for, and a biomarker predicting sensitivity to, pro-cognitive effects of drugs. We now report the effects of the pro-attentional drug, d-amphetamine, on PPI and neurocognition in antipsychotic-medicated schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects (HS) who were also tested in a targeted cognitive training (TCT) module. 44 HS and 38 schizophrenia patients completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of a single dose of amphetamine (10 mg po) on PPI and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) performance; TCT results were previously reported from 60 of these subjects...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154302/don-t-abandon-hope-all-ye-who-enter-here-the-protective-role-of-formal-mentoring-and-learning-processes-on-burnout-in-correctional-officers
#4
M L Farnese, B Barbieri, B Bellò, P T Bartone
BACKGROUND: Within a Job Demands-Resources Model framework, formal mentoring can be conceived as a job resource expressing the organization's support for new members, which may prevent their being at risk for burnout. OBJECTIVE: This research aims at understanding the protective role of formal mentoring on burnout, through the effect of increasing learning personal resources. Specifically, we hypothesized that formal mentoring enhances newcomers' learning about job and social domains related to the new work context, thus leading to lower burnout...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152563/integrated-radiomic-framework-for-breast-cancer-and-tumor-biology-using-advanced-machine-learning-and-multiparametric-mri
#5
Vishwa S Parekh, Michael A Jacobs
Radiomics deals with the high throughput extraction of quantitative textural information from radiological images that not visually perceivable by radiologists. However, the biological correlation between radiomic features and different tissues of interest has not been established. To that end, we present the radiomic feature mapping framework to generate radiomic MRI texture image representations called the radiomic feature maps (RFM) and correlate the RFMs with quantitative texture values, breast tissue biology using quantitative MRI and classify benign from malignant tumors...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150595/notch1-signaling-activation-contributes-to-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Ming Tu, Penglei Zhu, Shaobo Hu, Wei Wang, Zhipeng Su, Jiaqing Guan, Chongran Sun, Weiming Zheng
BACKGROUND Neural stem cells are reported to exist in the hippocampus of adult mammals and are important sources of neurons for repair. The Notch1 signaling pathway is considered as one of the important regulators of neural stem cells, but its role in adult brains is unclear. We aimed to describe the role of Notch1 signaling in the adult rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS The model rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: sham, sham-TBI, sham-Ad-TBI, and NICD-Ad-TBI...
November 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148082/insights-into-flood-coping-appraisals-of-protection-motivation-theory-empirical-evidence-from-germany-and-france
#7
Philip Bubeck, W J Wouter Botzen, Jonas Laudan, Jeroen C J H Aerts, Annegret H Thieken
Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144388/hyperspectral-image-enhancement-and-mixture-deep-learning-classification-of-corneal-epithelium-injuries
#8
Siti Salwa Md Noor, Kaleena Michael, Stephen Marshall, Jinchang Ren
In our preliminary study, the reflectance signatures obtained from hyperspectral imaging (HSI) of normal and abnormal corneal epithelium tissues of porcine show similar morphology with subtle differences. Here we present image enhancement algorithms that can be used to improve the interpretability of data into clinically relevant information to facilitate diagnostics. A total of 25 corneal epithelium images without the application of eye staining were used. Three image feature extraction approaches were applied for image classification: (i) image feature classification from histogram using a support vector machine with a Gaussian radial basis function (SVM-GRBF); (ii) physical image feature classification using deep-learning Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) only; and (iii) the combined classification of CNNs and SVM-Linear...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141961/chromatin-accessibility-dynamics-reveal-novel-functional-enhancers-in-c-elegans
#9
Aaron C Daugherty, Robin W Yeo, Jason D Buenrostro, William J Greenleaf, Anshul Kundaje, Anne Brunet
Chromatin accessibility, a crucial component of genome regulation, has primarily been studied in homogeneous and simple systems, such as isolated cell populations or early-development models. Whether chromatin accessibility can be assessed in complex, dynamic systems in vivo with high sensitivity remains largely unexplored. In this study, we use ATAC-seq to identify chromatin accessibility changes in a whole animal, the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, from embryogenesis to adulthood. Chromatin accessibility changes between developmental stages are highly reproducible, recapitulate histone modification changes, and reveal key regulatory aspects of the epigenomic landscape throughout organismal development...
November 15, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141213/cpeb2-activates-grasp1-mrna-translation-and-promotes-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#10
Wen-Hsin Lu, Nai-Hsing Yeh, Yi-Shuian Huang
Activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins is necessary to sustain long-lasting synaptic modifications and consolidate memory. We investigated the role of the translational regulator cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) in learning and memory because regulated mRNA translation contributes to synaptic plasticity. Forebrain-restricted CPEB2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze tests...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139337/do-people-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-benefit-from-making-errors-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-error-based-and-errorless-learning
#11
Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, Robyn Tate, Elizabeth Beadle, Janelle Griffin, Melissa Kendall, Julia Schmidt, Amanda Lane-Brown, Mathilde Chevignard, David H K Shum
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (ELL) and error-based learning (EBL) are commonly used approaches to rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unknown whether making errors is beneficial in the learning process to promote skills generalization after severe TBI. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of ELL and EBL for improving skills generalization, self-awareness, behavioral competency, and psychosocial functioning after severe TBI...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133108/a-role-for-consolidation-in-cross-modal-category-learning
#12
Jennifer E Ashton, Elizabeth Jefferies, M Gareth Gaskell
The ability to categorize objects and events is a fundamental human skill that depends upon the representation of multimodal conceptual knowledge. This study investigated the acquisition and consolidation of categorical information that required participants to integrate information across visual and auditory dimensions. The impact of wake- and sleep-dependent consolidation were investigated using a paradigm in which training and testing were separated by a delay spanning either an evening of sleep or daytime wakefulness, with a paired-associate episodic memory task used as a measure of classic sleep-dependent consolidation...
November 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132630/evaluating-e-consultation-implementations-based-on-use-and-time-line-across-various-specialties
#13
Pratik J Parikh, Corinne Mowrey, Jennie Gallimore, Stephen Harrell, Brian Burke
BACKGROUND: Electronic Consultation (e-consults) can provide improved access, enhance patient and provider satisfaction, and reduce beneficiary travel expenses. We explored how e-consults were implemented across three specialty areas, diabetes (Diab), gastroenterology (GI), and neurosurgery (Neuro), at two Veterans Affairs hospitals in terms of strategies for use and time-lines. METHODS: We conducted observations and electronically shadowed patient e-consultations submitted to a specialty care service by primary care provider(s) at the two sites during a thirteen-month period...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132299/chronic-administration-of-parecoxib-exerts-anxiolytic-like-and-memory-enhancing-effects-and-modulates-synaptophysin-expression-in-mice
#14
Bo Wang, Xin Jin, Xin Kuang, Shaowen Tian
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that cyclooxygenase-2, a key enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is involved in anxiety and cognitive processes, but few studies have investigated the effects of chronic administration of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on anxiety, learning and memory under normal physiological conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of chronic administration of parecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on anxiety behavior and memory performance under normal physiological conditions and to explore the possible neural mechanism underlying parecoxib-mediated effects...
November 13, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128736/optimal-practice-conditions-enhance-the-benefits-of-gradually-increasing-error-opportunities-on-retention-of-a-stepping-sequence-task
#15
Danielle Levac, Kate Driscoll, Jessica Galvez, Kathleen Mercado, Lindsey O'Neil
INTRODUCTION: Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning...
November 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128578/electrical-brain-stimulation-tes-improves-learning-more-than-performance-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Bianca A Simonsmeier, Roland H Grabner, Julia Hein, Ugne Krenz, Michael Schneider
Researchers have recently started evaluating whether stimulating the brain noninvasively with a weak and painless electrical current (transcranial Electrical Stimulation, tES) enhances physiological and cognitive processes. Some studies found that tES has weak but positive effects on brain physiology, cognition, or assessment performance, which have attracted massive public interest. We present the first meta-analytic test of the hypothesis that tES in a learning phase is more effective than tES in an assessment phase...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127077/is-connected-health-contributing-to-a-healthier-population
#17
Carmen G Loiselle, Saima Ahmed
Connected health tools, including mobile phones, incorporate various functions that capture events, direct actions, and make informed decisions based on complex sources of data. Connected health, a term recently proposed by some academics and industry, refers to the development, testing, and integration of smart technology tools into health care. Through these means, connected health creates interconnectivity across various environments, profoundly changing the way we learn, self-regulate, and communicate with one another...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119476/lessons-learned-implementation-of-pilot-universal-postpartum-nurse-home-visiting-program-massachusetts-2013-2016
#18
Katie Stetler, Christine Silva, Susan E Manning, Elizabeth M Harvey, Emma Posner, Becca Walmer, Karin Downs, Milton Kotelchuck
Purpose Home visiting programs for new families in the United States have traditionally served high-risk families. In contrast, universal home visiting models serve all families regardless of income, age, risk or other criteria. They offer an entry point into a system of care for children and families, with the potential to improve population health. This paper describes lessons learned from the first three years of implementing a universal home visiting model. Description Welcome Family is a universal home visiting program in Massachusetts that offers a one-time visit by a nurse to new mothers up to eight weeks postpartum...
November 8, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119222/the-influence-of-an-injury-prevention-program-on-young-road-users-a-german-experience
#19
Thomas Brockamp, Paola Koenen, Michael Caspers, Bertil Bouillon, Michael Köhler, Uli Schmucker
PURPOSE: Trauma remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in youth. The Prevent Alcohol and Risk Related Trauma in Youth (P.A.R.T.Y.) program is an injury prevention program. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence on risk-taking behaviors and risk awareness on young road users by a pre-post-questionnaire. METHODS: A pre-post intervention study was performed using a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire contained three sections with different items (in total 22) to identify differences regarding students' risk behavior and risk awareness...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118103/familiar-but-unexpected-effects-of-sound-context-statistics-on-auditory-responses-in-the-songbird-forebrain
#20
Kai Lu, David S Vicario
Rapid discrimination of salient acoustic signals in the noisy natural environment may depend not only on specific stimulus features, but also on previous experience that generates expectations about upcoming events. We studied the neural correlates of expectation in the songbird forebrain by using natural vocalizations as stimuli and manipulating the category and familiarity of context sounds. In our paradigm, we recorded bilaterally from auditory neurons in awake adult male zebra finches with multiple microelectrodes during repeated playback of a conspecific song, followed by further playback of this test song in different interleaved sequences with other conspecific or heterospecific songs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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