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Test-enhanced learning

Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elena Plante, Alexander Tucci, Katrina Nicholas, Genesis D Arizmendi, Rebecca Vance
Purpose: Modeling of grammatical forms has been used in conjunction with conversational recast treatment in various forms. This study tests the relative effect of providing bombardment prior to or after recast treatment. Method: Twenty-eight children with developmental language disorder participated in daily conversational recast treatment for morpheme errors. This treatment was either preceded or followed by a brief period of intensive auditory bombardment. Generalization to untreated lexical contexts was measured throughout the treatment period to assess the degree of learning and how quickly the onset of measurable learning occurred...
March 15, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Εvgenia Dandi, Aikaterini Kalamari, Olga Touloumi, Rosa Lagoudaki, Evangelia Nousiopoulou, Constantina Simeonidou, Evangelia Spandou, Despina Α Tata
Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Worapan Kusakunniran, Qiang Wu, Panrasee Ritthipravat, Jian Zhang
(Background and Objective): The occurrence of hard exudates is one of the early signs of diabetic retinopathy which is one of the leading causes of the blindness. Many patients with diabetic retinopathy lose their vision because of the late detection of the disease. Thus, this paper is to propose a novel method of hard exudates segmentation in retinal images in an automatic way. (Methods): The existing methods are based on either supervised or unsupervised learning techniques. In addition, the learned segmentation models may often cause miss-detection and/or fault-detection of hard exudates, due to the lack of rich characteristics, the intra-variations, and the similarity with other components in the retinal image...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Che-Wei Lin, Elizabeth H Chang, Daniel L Clinciu, Yun-Ting Peng, Wen-Chen Huang, Chien-Chih Wu, Jen-Chieh Wu, Yu-Chuan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been used in many areas of healthcare training over the years. However, it constantly needs to be upgraded and enhanced due to technological and teaching changes. We aim at implementing an integrative OSCE method which employs informatics via the virtual patient within the pharmacy education curriculum at Taipei Medical University to enhance the pharmacy students' competence for using and disseminating information and to also improve critical thinking and clinical reasoning...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Kristina Jakob, Hanna Ehrentreich, Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Patrick T Reeves, Matthew A Borgman, Nicole W Caldwell, Leela Patel, James Aden, John P Duggan, Maria L Serio-Melvin, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas
OBJECTIVE: The Advanced Burn Life Support (ABLS) program is a burn-education curriculum nearly 30 years in the making, focusing on the unique challenges of the first 24h of care after burn injury. Our team applied high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) to the established ABLS curriculum. Our hypothesis was that HFHPS would be a feasible, easily replicable, and valuable adjunct to the current curriculum that would enhance learner experience. METHODS: This prospective, evidenced-based practice project was conducted in a single simulation center employing the American Burn Association's ABLS curriculum using HFHPS...
March 10, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Saima Rathore, Hamed Akbari, Jimit Doshi, Gaurav Shukla, Martin Rozycki, Michel Bilello, Robert Lustig, Christos Davatzikos
Standard surgical resection of glioblastoma, mainly guided by the enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), disregards infiltrating tumor within the peritumoral edema region (ED). Subsequent radiotherapy typically delivers uniform radiation to peritumoral FLAIR-hyperintense regions, without attempting to target areas likely to be infiltrated more heavily. Noninvasive in vivo delineation of the areas of tumor infiltration and prediction of early recurrence in peritumoral ED could assist in targeted intensification of local therapies, thereby potentially delaying recurrence and prolonging survival...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Nandkishor R Kotagale, Mir Touseef Ali, Chandrabhan T Chopde, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Nicotine abstinence following chronic exposure is associated with impairments in memory and variety of cognitive functions. Daily nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc, four times daily) administration for 14 days and its abrupt withdrawal significantly impaired avoidance learning in inhibitory avoidance task as indicated by a significant decrease in the step through latency. Animals injected with agmatine (10-40 μg/rat, icv) from day 7 to 14 before the first daily dose of nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc) showed increased step through latencies during retrieval test...
March 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Dominic B Dwyer, Carlos Cabral, Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Rachele Sanfelici, Joseph Kambeitz, Vince Calhoun, Peter Falkai, Christos Pantelis, Eva Meisenzahl, Nikolaos Koutsouleris
Identifying distinctive subtypes of schizophrenia could ultimately enhance diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. We aimed to uncover neuroanatomical subtypes of chronic schizophrenia patients to test whether stratification can enhance computer-aided discrimination of patients from control subjects. Unsupervised, data-driven clustering of structural MRI (sMRI) data was used to identify 2 subtypes of schizophrenia patients drawn from a US-based open science repository (n = 71) and we quantified classification improvements compared to controls (n = 74) using supervised machine learning...
February 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Fuqiang Qiao, Fenfen Sun, Fengying Li, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Lin Li, Xiuyan Guo, Zoltan Dienes
Fluency influences grammaticality judgments of visually presented strings in artificial grammar learning (AGL). Of many potential sources that engender fluency, symmetry is considered to be an important factor. However, symmetry may function differently for visual and auditory stimuli, which present computationally different problems. Thus, the current study aimed to examine whether objectively manipulating fluency by speeding up perception (i.e., manipulating the inter-stimulus interval, ISI, between each syllable of a string) influenced judgments of tonal strings; and thus how symmetry-based fluency might influence judgments...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jacqueline A Palmer, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combining repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain and enhance motor learning in neurologically-intact individuals. However, the extent to which PAS is an effective technique for inducing associative plasticity and improving motor function in individuals post-stroke is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of a single session of PAS to modulate corticomotor excitability and motor skill performance in individuals post-stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Lauren M Dinour, Jacalyn Szaro, Renata Blumberg, Mousumi Bose
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a community-engaged assignment on graduate student learning in the nutritional sciences. DESIGN: Convergent mixed-methods design with parallel data collection and terminal merging of data. Data were composed of grant proposals, reflection papers, and informal course evaluations from 2 semesters of the same course. Fall students wrote proposals on behalf of a community partner whereas spring students wrote fictitious grants to improve nutrition on their campus...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Xiaofeng Xie, Zhu Liang Yu, Zhenghui Gu, Jun Zhang, Ling Cen, Yuanqing Li
In off-line training of motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), to enhance the generalization performance of the learned classifier, the local information contained in test data could be used to improve the performance of motor imagery as well. Further considering that the covariance matrices of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal lie on Riemannian manifold, in this paper, we construct a Riemannian graph to incorporate the information of training and test data into processing. The adjacency and weight in Riemannian graph are determined by the geodesic distance of Riemannian manifold...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Kerry Wilbur, Alaa Elmubark, Sara Shabana
INTRODUCTION: The standardized patient (SP) has assumed a fundamental role in undergraduate medical education since first conceived over 50 years ago. While widely used in student training and assessment of communication and clinical examination across health disciplines, little is known how SPs enhance knowledge or skill development among professionals. We conducted a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of SPs in continuing medical education (CME) programs. METHODS: Authors independently searched for studies published between 1966 and 2016, describing CME initiatives using SP encounters as practice for participants compared with those which did not...
January 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Margot Fortin, Mathilde Valenchon, Frédéric Lévy, Ludovic Calandreau, Cécile Arnould, Léa Lansade
Emotions are recognized as strong modulators of cognitive capacities. However, studies have mainly focused on the effect of negative emotions, with few investigating positive emotions. Recent studies suggest that traits of personality can modulate the effects of emotion on cognitive performance. This study aimed to assess whether emotional states differing according to their valence influenced the ability to achieve instrumental conditioning and learning flexibility and to determine the influence of personality...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Katsuo Sekiguchi, Tomokazu Ushitani, Kosuke Sawa
Landmark-based goal-searching tasks that were similar to those for pigeons (Ushitani & Jitsumori, 2011) were provided to human participants to investigate whether they could learn and use multiple sources of spatial information that redundantly indicate the position of a hidden target in both an open field (Experiment 1) and on a computer screen (Experiments 2 and 3). During the training in each experiment, participants learned to locate a target in 1 of 25 objects arranged in a 5 × 5 grid, using two differently colored, arrow-shaped (Experiments 1 and 2) or asymmetrically shaped (Experiment 3) landmarks placed adjacent to the goal and pointing to the goal location...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Ahmed S Kamel, Noha F Abdelkader, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman, Marwan Emara, Hala F Zaki, Mahmoud M Khattab
Overactivation of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin 2/angiotensin receptor-1 (ACE/Ang2/AT1) axis provokes amyloid-β-induced apoptosis and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, activation of AT1 impairs the survival pathway phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt). Interestingly, the coupling between ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor (MasR) axis and PI3K/Akt activation opposes AT1-induced apoptosis. However, the effect of in vivo stimulation of MasR against AD and its correlation to PI3K/Akt is not yet elucidated...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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