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Panax ginseng

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659255/stimulation-of-innate-immune-function-by-panax-ginseng-after-heat-processing
#1
Myoung-Sook Shin, Ji Hoon Song, Pilju Choi, Jong Hun Lee, Song-Yi Kim, Kwang Soon Shin, Jungyeob Ham, Ki Sung Kang
Panax ginseng Meyer has been used for the treatment of immune diseases and for the strengthening the immune function. In this study, we evaluated the innate immune stimulating functions and action mechanisms of white ginseng (WG) and heat-processed ginseng (HPG) in RAW264.7 cells. According to LC-MS analysis results, WG contained typical ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Rg1, whereas HPG contained Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 as well as typical ginsenosides. HPG, not WG enhanced NF-κB/AP-1 activity, cytokine production (IL-6 and TNF-α), and MHC class I and II expression in RAW264...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657770/structural-characterization-of-alkali-soluble-polysaccharides-from-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#2
Li Ji, Zhenjing Jie, Xin Ying, Qi Yue, Yifa Zhou, Lin Sun
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng) has been widely used as a herb and functional food in the world. Polysaccharides are the main active components of ginseng. In this paper, the polysaccharides were sequentially extracted by 50 mM Na2 CO3 , 1 M KOH and 4 M KOH from ginseng roots treated sequentially with hot water, α-amylase and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid extraction. Na2 CO3 -soluble ginseng polysaccharide (NGP) was fractionated into one neutral and three acidic fractions by anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649979/ginseng-genome-database-an-open-access-platform-for-genomics-of-panax-ginseng
#3
Murukarthick Jayakodi, Beom-Soon Choi, Sang-Choon Lee, Nam-Hoon Kim, Jee Young Park, Woojong Jang, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Shobhana V G Mohan, Dong-Yup Lee, Tae-Jin Yang
BACKGROUND: The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research, molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb...
April 12, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624410/ginseng-as-a-treatment-for-fatigue-a-systematic-review
#4
Noël M Arring, Denise Millstine, Lisa A Marks, Lillian M Nail
BACKGROUND: Millions of people with chronic illness suffer from fatigue. Fatigue is a complex, multidimensional symptom with poorly understood causes, wide variations in severity among individuals, and negative effects on multiple domains of daily life. Many patients with fatigue report the use of herbal remedies. Ginseng is one of the most widely used because it is believed to improve energy, physical and emotional health, and well-being. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the published evidence to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the two types of Panax ginseng (Asian [Panax ginseng] and American [Panax quinquefolius]) as treatments for fatigue...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614961/phylogenomics-and-barcoding-of-panax-toward-the-identification-of-ginseng-species
#5
V Manzanilla, A Kool, L Nguyen Nhat, H Nong Van, H Le Thi Thu, H J de Boer
BACKGROUND: The economic value of ginseng in the global medicinal plant trade is estimated to be in excess of US$2.1 billion. At the same time, the evolutionary placement of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the complex evolutionary history of the genus is poorly understood despite several molecular phylogenetic studies. In this study, we use a full plastome phylogenomic framework to resolve relationships in Panax and to identify molecular markers for species discrimination. RESULTS: We used high-throughput sequencing of MBD2-Fc fractionated Panax DNA to supplement publicly available plastid genomes to create a phylogeny based on fully assembled and annotated plastid genomes from 60 accessions of 8 species...
April 3, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607931/ginsenoside-rg1-protects-against-renal-fibrosis-by-regulating-the-klotho-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-pathway-in-rats-with-obstructive-nephropathy
#6
Sha-Sha Li, Ao-Lin He, Zhi-Yong Deng, Qi-Feng Liu
Ginsenoside-Rg1 (G-Rg1) is an agent isolated from Panax ginseng that exerts anti-fibrotic effects; however, the mechanism is still unclear. Herein, we investigated whether G-Rg1 administration can mitigate or reverse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis by regulating the Klotho/transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad signaling pathway in rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to UUO, and rats in the treatment group were administered G-Rg1 or G-Rg1 plus Klotho short hairpin RNA interference (shRNA), while rats in the control and model groups were administered vehicle for 14 d...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604169/genome-and-evolution-of-the-shade-requiring-medicinal-herb-panax-ginseng
#7
Nam-Hoon Kim, Murukarthick Jayakodi, Sang-Choon Lee, Beom-Soon Choi, Woojong Jang, Junki Lee, Hyun Hee Kim, Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Binh Van Nguyen, Yun Sun Lee, Hyun-Seung Park, Hyun Jo Koo, Jee Young Park, Sampath Perumal, Ho Jun Joh, Hana Lee, Jinkyung Kim, In Seo Kim, Kyunghee Kim, Lokanand Koduru, Kyo Bin Kang, Sang Hyun Sung, Yeisoo Yu, Daniel S Park, Doil Choi, Eunyoung Seo, Seungill Kim, Young-Chang Kim, Dong Yun Hyun, Youn-Il Park, Changsoo Kim, Tae-Ho Lee, Hyun Uk Kim, Moon Soo Soh, Yi Lee, Jun Gyo In, Heui-Soo Kim, Yong-Min Kim, Deok-Chun Yang, Rod A Wing, Dong-Yup Lee, Andrew H Paterson, Tae-Jin Yang
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production, and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59,352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two inter-continental migrations...
March 31, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601980/pharmacological-effect-of-prohibited-combination-pair-panax-ginseng-and-veratrum-nigrum-on-colorectal-metastasis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, Jeong-Geon Mun, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The pharmacological effect derived from herb-herb interaction is important to constitute the prescription especially in traditional oriental medicine. The relationship of two medicinal herbs is called "couplet medicinals" which is used in pair for the purpose of enhancing the therapeutic effect, reducing the toxic effect or the adverse effect. The "Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments" constitute one of the contents in the incompatibility of traditional oriental drugs in a prescription...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588100/systematic-profiling-and-comparison-of-the-lipidomes-from-panax-ginseng-p-quinquefolius-and-p-notoginseng-by-ultrahigh-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-ion-mobility-derived-collision-cross-section-measurement
#9
Xiaojian Shi, Wenzhi Yang, Shi Qiu, Jinjun Hou, Wanying Wu, Dean Guo
Lipidomics currently is still confronted with challenges from chromatographic separation and lipids identification. Here we report a lipidomics platform by integrating ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) and collision cross section (CCS) measurement using ion mobility spectroscopy/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS/QTOF-MS), aiming to enhance the profiling performance and identification reliability of lipids. The lipidomes extracted from three congeneric Panax species (P...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573620/sesquiterpenoids-from-the-root-of-panax-ginseng-protect-ccl-4-induced-acute-liver-injury-by-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidative-capabilities-in-mice
#10
Weidong Wang, Shijie Wang, Jinping Liu, Enbo Cai, Hongyan Zhu, Zhongmei He, Yugang Gao, Pingya Li, Yan Zhao
The oxidative stress and inflammatory response play an important role in carbon tetracholoride (CCl4 )-induced acute liver injury. In this work, sesquiterpenoids from the root of Panax Ginseng (SPG) were prepared, and then the hepatoprotective effects of SPG against CCl4 -induced acute liver injury were investigated and the underlying mechanism was explored in mice. All mice were divided into four groups: the control, CCl4 and SPG (2.5 and 10 mg/kg, dissolved in soybean oil, i.g.) groups. All mice were given continuous administration for 7 days, and injected with CCl4 (0...
March 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573298/anti-ageing-effect-of-red-ginseng-revealed-by-urinary-metabonomics-using-rrlc-q-tof-ms
#11
Jinghui Sun, Chuanxin Jiao, Yue Ma, Jianguang Chen, Wei Wu, Shuying Liu
INTRODUCTION: Red ginseng (RG) is one of the main processed products of the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and is used for anti-ageing. But how metabonomic influences of RG on the progress of ageing are less researched. OBJECTIVE: A metabonomic method was developed to study the characters of the ageing process and the effects of total ginsenosides of red ginseng (TGRG) on the progress of ageing. METHODS: Urine samples from four different ages (4, 12, 18 and 24 months old) of rats and interference after TGRG were analysed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) and multivariate statistical analysis were performed for the pattern recognition and characteristic metabolites identification...
March 24, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567591/protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-splenocytes-and-thymocytes-in-an-aging-rat-model-induced-by-d-galactose
#12
Jiazheng Sun, Liheng Zhang, Jing Zhang, Ruitu Ran, Yue Shao, Jing Li, Daoyong Jia, Yanyan Zhang, Mengsi Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaping Wang
Physiological aging is associated with a range of medical problems. However, the treatment of aging-associated diseases and prolonging human life are vital to our current aging societies. Panax ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to have anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. In the current study, aging rats induced by d-galactose were administered ginsenoside Rg1, then splenocytes and thymocytes were extracted and changes in activity were detected. The results demonstrated that compared with the d-gal group, the level of advanced glycation end products (AGE), the ratio of splenocytes and thymocytes in G0 phase (%), and apoptosis (%) of splenocytes and thymocytes, the ratio (%) of SA-gal positive splenocytes and thymocytes, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), the ratio of glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and senescence-associated protein expression were significantly decreased and the index of the spleen and thymus, the proportion of white pulp in the spleen, the proportion of cortex in the thymus, the content of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the proliferative capacity of splenocytes and thymocytes were increased in the Rg1+ d-gal group...
March 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561220/optimization-of-dynamic-microwave-assisted-enzymatic-hydrolysis-extraction-of-total-ginsenosides-from-stems-and-leaves-of-panax-ginseng-by-response-surface-methodology
#13
Xiao-Yan Wang, Hui Ren
Ginseng stems and leaves (GSAL) are abundant in ginsenosides compounds. For efficient utilization of GSAL and the enhancement of total ginsenosides (TG) compound yields in GSAL, TG from GSAL were extracted, using dynamic-microwave assisted extraction coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (DMAE-EH) method. The extraction process has been simulated and its main influencing factors such as ethanol concentration, microwave temperature, microwave time and pump flow rate have been optimized by response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design(BBD)...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560829/the-mrna-and-mirna-transcriptomic-landscape-of-panax-ginseng-under-the-high-ambient-temperature
#14
Inuk Jung, Hyejin Kang, Jang Uk Kim, Hyeonsook Chang, Sun Kim, Woosuk Jung
BACKGROUND: Ginseng is a popular traditional herbal medicine in north-eastern Asia. It has been used for human health for over thousands of years. With the rise in global temperature, the production of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) in Korea have migrated from mid to northern parts of the Korean peninsula to escape from the various higher temperature related stresses. Under the high ambient temperature, vegetative growth was accelerated, which resulted in early flowering. This precocious phase change led to yield loss...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558718/panax-quinquefolius-saponin-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-and-neurite-injury-and-improves-functional-recovery-in-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#15
Hai-Cheng Dou, Jun-Yu Chen, Tang-Fei Ran, Wei-Min Jiang
The treatment goal in spinal cord injury (SCI) is to repair neurites and suppress cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolius saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of American ginseng and has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic roles in various diseases. However, the potential effect of PQS on the pathological process of acute SCI remains unknown. This work tested the effects of PQS on acute SCI and clarified its potential mechanisms. PQS treatment ameliorated the damage to spinal tissue and improved the functional recovery after SCI...
March 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556318/dammarane-type-triterpene-ginsenoside-rg18-inhibits-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a549-cell-proliferation-via-g-1-phase-arrest
#16
Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Kyung-Tack Kim, Sang Yoon Choi, Myung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Tae Lee
A previous study reported that a novel dammarane-type triterpene saponin, ginsenoside-Rg18, derived from the root of Panax ginseng , displayed hydroxyl radical scavenging, anti-bacterial and cytotoxic activities. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of its anti-proliferative effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells remains unclear. In the present study, it was determined that Rg18 inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 150 µM. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle progression was blocked by Rg18 at G1 phase in A549 cells, which was accompanied by downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin E and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein expression at the protein level...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551647/an-integrated-strategy-for-rapid-discovery-and-identification-of-quality-markers-in-guanxin-kangtai-preparation-using-uhplc-tof-ms-and-multivariate-statistical-analysis
#17
Ting-Bo Chen, Yi-Han Zuo, Geng-Ting Dong, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Guanxin Kangtai preparation (GXKT), consisting of Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Ilex pubescens, is a new proprietary Chinese medicines under development for treating coronary heart disease. Like other Chinese medicines, the components of GXKT were complex and the bioactive compounds remained unclear. PURPOSE: To discover bioactive compounds as quality markers (Q-markers) for better quality control of GXKT. STUDY DESIGN: Chinese medicines was separated into fractions...
March 6, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551643/discovery-of-markers-for-discriminating-the-age-of-cultivated-ginseng-by-using-uhplc-qtof-ms-coupled-with-opls-da
#18
Bao-Ming Huang, Qing-Lin Zha, Ting-Bo Chen, Sheng-Yuan Xiao, Ying Xie, Pei Luo, Ying-Ping Wang, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Ginseng (Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is gaining more publicity in modern society due to its health benefit and huge value in market. In the practice of grading and pricing of ginseng, the age is one of the major factor influencing the price and grade of ginseng. Therefore, the age discrimination is an important task for the quality control of ginseng. However, the traditional morphological methods are too subjective to be reproductive in discrimination...
March 7, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548720/a-novel-and-effective-mode-switching-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometric-approach-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-fifteen-ginsenosides-in-panax-ginseng
#19
Ji Ye, Yanxia Gao, Saisai Tian, Juan Su, Weidong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng (PG) is one of the most valuable and frequently used phytomedicine in Asia. In the current Chinese Pharmacopeia, only three ginsenosides, Rg1, Re and Rb1, were set as standard compounds for the quality evaluation of PG. However, only these three compounds could hardly reflect the quality and therapeutic efficacy of this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PURPOSE: Quantification analysis of quality markers (Q-markers) in PG is meaningful for determining the quality of this herbal medicine...
February 28, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518056/20-s-ginsenoside-rh2-induce-the-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-u937-and-k562-cells
#20
Jianjian Zhuang, Juxin Yin, Chaojian Xu, Ying Mu, Shaowu Lv
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are common leukemia in adults. 20(S)-GRh2 is an important bioactive substance that is present in Panax ginseng. However, there are no investigations that deal with the comparison of apoptosis, the occurrence of autophagy, and the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy after being treated with 20(S)-GRh2 in AML and CML. In this study, we explored the effect of 20(S)-GRh2 on the AML and CML (U937 and K562). Fluorescence microscopy, CCK-8, Quantitative realtime PCR, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and flow cytometric analysis were used to detect the occurrence of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and autophagy...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
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