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Panax ginseng

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457805/urinary-metabolomic-study-of-the-antagonistic-effect-of-p-ginseng-in-rats-with-estrogen-decline-using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#1
He Lin, Zhongying Liu, Zifeng Pi, Lihui Men, Weijia Chen, Zhiqiang Liu
Estrogens are biologically active steroid hormones mainly released from the ovary by ovarian secretion of estrogen into the circulating blood to regulate or function at the distal target. Estrogens play an important role in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system, especially for post-menopausal women. Panax ginseng Mayer has been reported to relieve women's menopausal symptoms and affect estrogen activities. However, the mechanism of its estrogen regulation has not yet been clearly investigated...
February 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455730/enhancement-of-oral-bioavailability-and-immune-response-of-ginsenoside-rh2-by-co-administration-with-piperine
#2
Zhao-Hui Jin, Wen Qiu, Hui Liu, Xue-Hua Jiang, Ling Wang
Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is one of the major bioactive ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. However, the oral bioavailability of Rh2 is low, with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 being reported to be the main factors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the enhancing effect of piperine on the oral bioavailability as well as bioactivity of Rh2. The inhibitory effect of piperine on P-gp and CYP3A4 was determined using a Caco-2 monolayer model and a recombinant CYP3A4 metabolic system, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of oral Rh2 (10 mg·kg-1 ) administered alone or in combination with piperine (10 and 20 mg·kg-1 ) was performed in rats...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434811/regulatory-effects-of-four-ginsenoside-monomers-in-humoral-immunity-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#3
Xin Yu, Na Zhang, Wanfu Lin, Chen Wang, Wei Gu, Changquan Ling, Yinglu Feng, Yonghua Su
Ginsenosides Rb1, Rh1, Rg1 and Rg3 are known as the main active components extracted from the roots of the Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, and were reported to have immunoregulatory effects. Disruption of B-cell immune regulation during the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may lead to the production of large amounts of antibodies. The present study investigated the effects of the four ginsenoside monomers on B-cell immune regulation and observed that they inhibited the proliferation and secretion of B cells induced by LPS, caused an upregulation of the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins Fas/Fas ligand and caspase-3, the expression of FcγRIIB (CD32) as well as the proportion of inactive B cells (CD19+CD27-)...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431441/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-20-ginsenosides-rh4-20e-rh3-rg6-and-rk1-a-general-approach-to-access-dehydrated-ginsenosides
#4
Renzeng Shen, Stephane Laval, Xin Cao, Biao Yu
Four representative Δ20-ginsenosides, namely ginsenosides Rh4 (1), (20E)-Rh3 (2), Rg6 (3) and Rk1 (4) from Panax Ginseng were chemically synthesized for the first time. Dehydration of the naturally occurring 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol provided all type of Δ20-sapogenins, which were separated due to a judicious choice of protecting groups. The Δ20-sapogenins were then directly glycosylated with glycosyl ortho-alkynylbenzoate donors under the catalysis of Ph3PAuNTf2 as key steps. The neutral conditions of the glycosylations were crucial to prevent the acid-labileΔ20,21 double bond from isomerization...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425748/ginsenoside-rb2-promotes-glucose-metabolism-and-attenuates-fat-accumulation-via-akt-dependent-mechanisms
#5
Shanshan Dai, Yilian Hong, Jing Xu, Yi Lin, Qiya Si, Xuejiang Gu
Ginsenosides, the major active constituents of ginseng, have been demonstrated possess anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Ginsenoside Rb2 (Rb2) is the most abundant saponin in Panax ginseng, this study investigates the role of Rb2 in the anti-hyperglycemic mechanism of insulin-sensitive cell lines 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as high fat diet-induced obesity mice. Glucose uptake of 3T3-L1 adipocytes was measured. The insulin signaling cascade, including insulin AKT, insulin receptor (IR) beta-subunit, IR substrate (IRS) -1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) were also examined...
February 6, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425645/repeated-administration-of-sailuotong-a-fixed-combination-of-panax-ginseng-ginkgo-biloba-and-crocus-sativus-extracts-for-vascular-dementia-alters-cyp450-activities-in-rats
#6
Ying Zhang, Lan Miao, Li Lin, Chang-Ying Ren, Jian-Xun Liu, Yi-Min Cui
BACKGROUND: Sailuotong (SLT) is a standard Chinese preparation made from extracts of Panax ginseng (ginseng), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), and Crocus sativus (saffron). Preliminary clinical trials and animal experiments have demonstrated that SLT could improve cognition of vascular dementia (VD). PURPOSE: To avoid incident drug-drug interaction which is easily encountered in patients of VD, the potential influence of SLT on main drug-metabolic cytochromes P450 enzymes (CYP450) was investigated...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421582/ginseng-phytochemicals-as-therapeutics-in-oncology-recent-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Fatima Majeed, Fozia Zahur Malik, Zaheer Ahmed, Asma Afreen, Muhammad Naveed Afzal, Nauman Khalid
During the last few decades, cancer has mushroomed as a major health issue; and almost all drugs used for its therapy are very toxic with lethal side effects. Complementary and alternative medicines gain popularity among health professionals in recent era owing to its preventive mechanism against side effect chemotherapeutic drugs. Efforts are focused by scientists to isolate compounds from medicinal plant that have chemotherapeutic attributes; and ability to neutralize the side effects of chemotherapy. Ginseng is an oriental medicinal recipe from Araliceae family and Panax species...
February 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417476/qi-fu-yin-a-ming-dynasty-prescription-for-the-treatment-of-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Wei-Yi Ong, Ya-Jun Wu, Tahira Farooqui, Akhlaq A Farooqui
The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory that "kidneys give rise to marrow, and the brain is the sea of marrow" has been a guide for the clinical application of kidney, qi and blood tonics for prevention and treatment of dementia and improvement in memory. As low resistance end-organs, both the brain and the kidneys are subjected to blood flow of high volumes throughout the cardiac cycle. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two common causes of dementia, and it is increasingly recognized that many older adults with dementia have both AD and vascular pathologies...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416826/role-of-ginsenosides-in-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-anticancer-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Islam M D Sodrul, Chenying Wang, Xiangfeng Chen, Jing Du, Hongxiang Sun
Cancer is still a global public health problem, which is the leading cause of death in most countries. Ginseng has been used for centuries all over the world as a panacea that promotes longevity. As the king of herb plants, ginseng holds great promise as a new treatment option which is used either by itself or in combination with other medicinal ingredients that is widely accepted as complementary and alternative medicine in cancer therapy. Ginsenosides, the major pharmacologically active ingredients of ginseng, have been shown to have multiple medicinal effects including prominent anticancer activity...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408615/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-neuroprotective-effects-of-panax-ginseng-glycoproteins
#10
Haoming Luo, Jingting Hu, Ying Wang, Yinghong Chen, Difu Zhu, Ruizhi Jiang, Zhidong Qiu
The root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (Araliaceae) has medicinal value in complex system of Traditional Chinese medicines for its use in improving cognitive function. A glycoproteins named PGL-1 was extracted from ginseng which subjected to through a macroporous resin, hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and dialyzed. The glycoproteins has a molecular weight in the range from 0.4 to 4.4 kDa, with an average molecular mass of 1.6 kDa. HPLC analysis revealed that the compositions of glycoproteins included fucose, mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galacturonic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403626/a-review-of-effective-herbal-medicines-in-controlling-menopausal-symptoms
#11
REVIEW
Rahele Kargozar, Hoda Azizi, Roshanak Salari
Background: Acute menopausal syndrome especially hot flashes, is one of the most common gynecological problems during menopause. Due to the side effects of hormone therapy, herbal and complementary medicines are always of immense interest to people in the treatment and management of the symptoms and complications of menopause. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and effects of medicinal plants employed in the treatment of menopausal symptoms...
November 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399088/protective-effects-of-new-wenshen-shengjing-decoction-on-cyclosporine-induced-impairment-of-testosterone-synthesis-and-spermatogenic-apoptosis
#12
Xiaoyan Pan, Xiyan Wang, Xuenan Wang, Wansheng Zhang, Zhanxuan Sun, Xuanxuan Liang, Xue Zhang, Wenjun Li, Zhixin Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effects of new Wenshen Shengjing Decoction (new WSSJD; including Cornu Cervi Nippon Parvum, Panax ginseng, Cynomorium songaricum, Cistanche deserticola, Radix Astragali, Epimedium brevicornum and Angelica sinensis) on cyclosporine-induced impairment of testosterone synthesis and spermatogenic apoptosis in mice. A total of 90 adult male Kunming mice were divided into the following 6 groups: Control (no intervention), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; received only DMSO), cyclosporine A (CsA), clomifene citrate (CC; CsA + CC, 15 mg/kg/day), WSSJD (CsA + WSSJD, crude drug 12 g/kg/day) and new WSSJD (CsA + new WSSJD, crude drug 12 g/kg/day)...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382138/isolation-and-quantification-of-ginsenoside-rh23-a-new-anti-melanogenic-compound-from-the-leaves-of-panax-ginseng
#13
Dae Young Lee, Hyoung-Geun Kim, Yeong-Geun Lee, Jin Hee Kim, Jae Won Lee, Bo-Ram Choi, In-Bae Jang, Geum-Soog Kim, Nam-In Baek
A new ginsenoside, named ginsenoside Rh23 (1), and 20-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β,6α,12β,20β,25-pentahydroxydammar-23-ene (2) were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. Compounds were isolated by various column chromatography and their structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including high resolution quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (HR-QTOF/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. To determine anti-melanogenic activity, the change in the melanin content in melan-a cells treated with identified compounds was tested...
January 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379359/effects-of-panax-ginseng-on-the-nerve-growth-factor-expression-in-testosterone-induced-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#14
Su Kang Kim, Il GyuKo, Hae Jeong Park, Joo-Ho Chung, Kyu Bong Cho, Oh Young Kwon, Kyeong Hun Park, Young Sub Ahn, Chun Geon Park, Young Ock Kim
The prostatic hyperplasia in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) leads to obstructive micturition symptoms. Previous studies showed that pontine micturition center (PMC), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and medial preopticnucleus (MPA) regions in the brain have been known to regulate the urinary bladder function. The present study shows the influences of Panax ginseng on nerve growth factor (NGF) expressions in PMC, vlPAG, and MPA regions in the brain. Wistar rats were used for the present study. The rats split into four groups; 4 groups (n = 6) in control group, BPH-induced group, BPH-induced and P...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369521/brief-challenges-on-medicinal-plants-an-eye-opening-look-at-ageing-related-disorders
#15
Geir Bjørklund, Maryam Dadar, Natália Martins, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Bey Hing Goh, Kateryna Smetanina, Roman Lysiuk
Several studies have reported that nature-derived antioxidants may prevent free radicals over-production and therefore control the onset and prevent the exacerbation of different kinds of diseases caused by oxidative stress and redox-derived stressors, including ageing, fundamentally by suppressing the oxidative byproducts-mediated degradation. Naturally derived antioxidants exert their anti-ageing action via a panoply of signalling systems, many of which engaging reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species scavenging, with the Nrf2/Keap1-ARE system and improving the many survival genes and functions (such as the pathway mTOR/Foxo/SIRT1) able to slow cellular senescence...
January 25, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368130/complete-conversion-of-all-typical-glycosylated-protopanaxatriol-ginsenosides-to-aglycon-protopanaxatriol-by-combined-bacterial-%C3%AE-glycosidases
#16
Eun-Joo Yang, Tae-Hun Kim, Kyung-Chul Shin, Deok-Kun Oh
Aglycon protopanaxatriol (APPT) has valuable pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-stress activities. However, the complete conversion of all typical glycosylated protopanaxatriol ginsenosides to APPT has not been achieved to date. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus turgidum (DT-bgl) hydrolyzes the glucose residues at C-6 and the inner glucose at C-20 in protopanaxatriol (PPT), but not the outer rhamnose residues at C-6. In contrast, β-glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Pyrococcus furiosus (PF-bgl) hydrolyzes the outer rhamnose residue at C-6 but not the inner glucose residues at C-6 and C-20 in PPT...
January 24, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356175/radioprotective-effects-of-dammarane-sapogenins-against-60-co-induced-myelosuppression-in-mice
#17
Liming Dong, Yanyan Yang, Yan Lu, Cong Lu, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Qiuxia Xu, Yue Gao, Qi Chang, Xinmin Liu
Radiotherapy frequently induces failure of hematopoietic system and leads to myelosuppression. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of dammarane sapogenins (DS), the hydrolysed product of the constituent ginsenosides of Panax ginseng, which are produced by gut metabolism, on radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Mice were exposed to 3.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays of total body radiation at a dose rate of 1.60 Gy per minute and treated with DS or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor immediately after radiation...
January 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349493/biotic-elicitation-of-ginsenoside-metabolism-of-mutant-adventitious-root-culture-in-panax-ginseng
#18
Kim-Cuong Le, Wan-Taek Im, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
Biotic elicitation is an important biotechnological strategy for triggering the accumulation of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. These biotic elicitors can be obtained from safe, economically important strains of bacteria found in the rhizosphere and fermented foods. Here, we assayed the effects of filtered cultures of five nitrogen-fixing bacteria and four types of fermentation bacteria on mutant adventitious Panax ginseng root cultures induced in a previous study by colchicine treatment...
January 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348729/panax-ginseng-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-by-suppressing-neuroinflammatory-response-and-upregulating-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-signaling-in-the-amygdala
#19
Jong Hee Choi, Min Jung Lee, Minhee Jang, Hak-Jae Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Sang Won Lee, Young Ock Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho
Background: Depression is one of the most commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric diseases, but the underlying mechanism and medicine are not well-known. Although Panax ginseng has been reported to exert protective effects in various neurological studies, little information is available regarding its antidepressant effects. Methods: Here, we examined the antidepressant effect and underlying mechanism of P. ginseng extract (PGE) in a chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression model in mice...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348728/systems-level-mechanisms-of-action-of-panax-ginseng-a-network-pharmacological-approach
#20
REVIEW
Sa-Yoon Park, Ji-Hun Park, Hyo-Su Kim, Choong-Yeol Lee, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Chang-Eop Kim
Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng, it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
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