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Panax ginseng

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207539/comprehensive-profiling-and-quantification-of-ginsenosides-in-the-root-stem-leaf-and-berry-of-panax-ginseng-by-uplc-qtof-ms
#1
Jae Won Lee, Bo-Ram Choi, Young-Chang Kim, Doo Jin Choi, Young-Seob Lee, Geum-Soog Kim, Nam-In Baek, Seung-Yu Kim, Dae Young Lee
The effective production and usage of ginsenosides, given their distinct pharmacological effects, are receiving increasing amounts of attention. As the ginsenosides content differs in different parts of Panax ginseng, we wanted to assess and compare the ginsenosides content in the ginseng roots, leave, stems, and berries. To extract the ginsenosides, 70% (v/v) methanol was used. The optimal ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method was used to profile various ginsenosides from the different parts of P...
December 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207044/ginsenoside-rg1-inhibits-inflammatory-responses-via-modulation-of-the-nuclear-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-inhibition-of-inflammasome-activation-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#2
Jiajun Li, Cheng Yang, Shu Zhang, Shu Liu, Luole Zhao, Huan Luo, Yatang Chen, Wenxiang Huang
Ginsenoside Rg1 (G‑Rg1) is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng, which has previously been reported to attenuate alcohol‑induced hepatic damage; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of G‑Rg1 on alcohol‑induced cell injury in vitro and on a rat model of alcoholic hepatitis in vivo. For the in vitro model, L‑O2 cells were incubated with ethanol in the presence or absence of G‑Rg1. For the in vivo model, rats were administered ethanol by intragastric injection and were treated with G‑Rg1, or dexamethasone as a control...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195948/effects-of-soil-type-and-organic-fertilizers-on-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-e-in-korean-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#3
Ill-Min Chung, Jae-Kwang Kim, Jin-Hee Yang, Ji-Hee Lee, Sung-Kyu Park, Na-Young Son, Seung-Hyun Kim
This study examined the effects of soil type and fertilizer regimes on variations in fatty acids (FAs) and vitamin E (Vit-E) in 6-year-old ginseng roots. We observed significant variation in both FA and Vit-E contents owing to the type and quantity of organic fertilizer used in each soil type during cultivation. Unsaturated FAs were approximately 2.7-fold higher in ginseng than in saturated FAs. Linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the most abundant FAs detected in ginseng roots. Additionally, α-tocopherol was the major Vit-E detected...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192434/-research-on-technology-regulation-of-non-polluted-cultivation-and-strategies-of-panax-ginseng-cultivation-in-farmland
#4
Liang Shen, Xi-Wen Li, Jiang Xu, Lin-Lin Dong, Nai-Wu Zhang, Fujihara Naoli, Shi-Lin Chen
As the limit of the usage of available forest land, cultivated ginseng in the farmland would become the mainly Panax ginseng planting mode, meanwhile the non-polluted production technology would be the mainly development direction in the future. In this study, the non-polluted cultivation technology system of P. ginseng was established based on the research results of field investigation in the cultivated regions. The system includes suitable planting regions selecting, planting method, field management, pest control, harvesting & processing, and quality control...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188056/molecular-cloning-expression-purification-and-functional-characterization-of-an-antifungal-cyclophilin-protein-from-panax-ginseng
#5
Hui Zhang, Jiawen Wang, Shuaijun Li, Siming Wang, Meichen Liu, Weinan Wang, Yu Zhao
Cyclophilins (CyPs), a member of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases), are ubiquitously distributed in organisms such as bacteria, yeast, plants and animals. CyPs have diverse biological functions, with some exhibiting antifungal and antiviral activities. In this study, Panax ginseng cyclophilin (pgCyP), a novel gene encoding an antifungal protein from Panax ginseng, was cloned, and its protein product was expressed in Escherichia coli, and then fractionated by affinity chromatography. The open reading frame of the pgCyP full-length coding sequence was found to encode a single-domain CyP-like protein of 174 amino residues with a calculated molecular weight of 18...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186965/genome-sequence-of-a-distinct-watermelon-mosaic-virus-identified-from-ginseng-panax-ginseng-transcriptome
#6
D Park, H Kim, Y Hahn
Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus, which is the largest genus of plant viruses. WMV is a significant pathogen of crop plants, including Cucurbitaceae species. A WMV strain, designated as WMV-Pg, was identified in transcriptome data collected from ginseng (Panax ginseng) root. WMV-Pg showed 84% nucleotide sequence identity and 91% amino acid sequence identity with its closest related virus, WMV-Fr. A phylogenetic analysis of WMV-Pg with other WMVs and soybean mosaic viruses (SMVs) indicated that WMV-Pg is a distinct subtype of the WMV/SMV group of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184939/consumption-of-plant-food-supplements-in-the-netherlands
#7
Suzanne M F Jeurissen, Elly J M Buurma-Rethans, Marja H Beukers, Martine Jansen-van der Vliet, Caroline T M van Rossum, R Corinne Sprong
The use of food supplements containing herbs or other botanical ingredients (plant food supplements, PFS) is on the rise. In some cases, PFS can contain compounds that are toxic and may pose a health risk. To assess the potential health risks, information on the consumption of PFS is required, however, this was lacking for the Netherlands. In the current study, the consumption of PFS was investigated for several subgroups in the Dutch population, including children. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys were used to get a first impression on the consumption of PFS...
November 29, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180961/ginsenoside-rb1-mediated-anti-angiogenesis-via-regulating-pedf-and-mir-33a-through-the-activation-of-ppar-%C3%AE-pathway
#8
Huixia Lu, Xunian Zhou, Hoi-Hin Kwok, Mei Dong, Zhaoqiang Liu, Po-Ying Poon, Xiaorong Luan, Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature, which is involved in multiple biological processes, including atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and cancer. Ginsenoside-Rb1 (Rb1), the most abundant ginsenoside isolated form Panax ginseng, has been identified as a promising anti-angiogenic agent via the up-regulation of PEDF. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms still unknown. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were selected to perform in vitro assays...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176690/fungal-endophytes-inhabiting-mountain-cultivated-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer-diversity-and-biocontrol-activity-against-ginseng-pathogens
#9
Young-Hwan Park, Yoosam Kim, Ratnesh Chandra Mishra, Hanhong Bae
Fungal endophytes isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG, Panax ginseng Meyer) were explored for their diversity and biocontrol activity against ginseng pathogens (Alternaria panax, Botrytis cinerea, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonia solani). A total of 1,300 isolates were isolated from three tissues (root, stem and leaf) from MCGs grown in 24 different geographic locations in Korea. In total, 129 different fungal isolates were authenticated by molecular identification based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171228/-molecular-cloning-bacterial-expression-analysis-and-functional-characterization-of-pathogenesis-related-pr10-2-gene-in-panax-notoginseng
#10
Dan Yang, Yi Bao, Li-Mei Chen, Xiu-Ming Cui, Kun-Zhi Li
Base on the transcriptome analysis and RT-PCR techniques,a pathogenesis-related protein 10 gene was isolated from Panax notoginseng root and named as PnPR10-2. Bioinformatics and phylogenetic trees analysis revealed that open reading frame (ORF) of PnPR10-2 was 465 bp in length,encoding 154 amino acids,containing one typical conserved domain of pathogenesis related protein Bet v I family, and showed high similarity with that from P. ginseng. The recombinant expressed plasmid pET32a(+)-PnPR10-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169725/ginsenoside-rg3-inhibits-colorectal-tumor-growth-via-down-regulation-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#11
Xiaolai Yang, Jian Zou, Hongyi Cai, Xiaoling Huang, Xiongfei Yang, Dexi Guo, Yongxiao Cao
Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most frequent occurred cancer, is associated with high mortality and extremely poor prognosis. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the pharmacologically active components of traditional Chinese herbal medicine Panax ginseng, exerts antitumor effects against several types of cancer growth, including colorectal cancer. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and particularly the signaling pathways that are decisive in this process are not yet fully elucidated. The present study was carried out to determine the antitumor effects of Rg3 using human colorectal cells in vitro and Xenograft tumor model of human colon cancer in vivo...
November 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169217/complete-biotransformation-of-protopanaxatriol-type-ginsenosides-in-panax-ginseng-leaf-extract-to-aglycon-protopanaxatriol-by-%C3%AE-glycosidases-from-dictyoglomus-turgidum-and-pyrococcus-furiosus
#12
Eun-Joo Yang, Kyung-Chul Shin, Dae Young Lee, Deok-Kun Oh
Aglycon protopanaxatriol (APPT) has valuable pharmacological effects such as memory enhancement and tumor inhibition. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus turgidum (DT-bgl) hydrolyzes the glucose residues linked to APPT, but not other glycoside residues. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Pyrococcus furiosus (PF-bgl) hydrolyzes the outer sugar at C-6 but not the inner glucose at C-6 or the glucose at C-20. Thus, the combined use of DT-bgl and PF-bgl is expected to increase the biotransformation of PPT-type ginsenosides to APPT...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155077/subchronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-korean-red-ginseng-extract-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-a-4-week-recovery-period
#13
Sang-Jin Park, JeongHo Noh, Eun Ju Jeong, Yong-Soon Kim, Byung-Cheol Han, Seung-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Sik Moon
Ginseng is a major herbal remedy used in Asian countries for thousands of years and known to restore and enhance vital energy. Korean red ginseng, which is processed by steaming and drying fresh Panax ginseng, is most popular and contains unique ginsenosides, which have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the repeated oral dose toxicity of Korean red ginseng extract. The test article was administered orally once a day to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks (15 animals/sex/group in the vehicle control and 2000 mg/kg/day groups, and 10 animals/sex/group in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150823/metabolic-dynamics-and-physiological-adaptation-of-panax-ginseng-during-development
#14
Yu-Jin Kim, Sung Chul Joo, Jianxin Shi, Chaoyang Hu, Sheng Quan, Jianping Hu, Johan Sukweenadhi, Padmanaban Mohanan, Deok-Chun Yang, Dabing Zhang
The dynamics of metabolites from leaves to roots of Panax ginseng during development has revealed the tissue-specific and year-specific metabolic networks. Being an essential Oriental medicinal plant, ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a slow-growing perennial herb-accumulating pharmaceutically active metabolites such as ginsenosides in roots during growth. However, little is known about how ginseng plants survive in the harsh environments such as winter cold and summer heat for a longer period and accumulates those active metabolites as the plant grows...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147958/ginsenoside-rg1-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-down-regulates-akt-mtor-signalling-to-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-and-senescence-of-neural-stem-cells-induced-by-d-galactose
#15
Linbo Chen, Hui Yao, Xiongbin Chen, Ziling Wang, Yue Xiang, Jieyu Xia, Ying Liu, Yaping Wang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. The suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by an increase of oxidative stress is closely related to cognitive impairment. Neural stem cells which persist in the adult vertebrate brain keep up the production of neurons over the lifespan. The balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants is important for function and surviving of neural stem cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most active components of Panax ginseng, and many studies suggest that ginsenosides have antioxidant properties...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147103/antibacterial-effects-against-various-foodborne-pathogens-and-sensory-properties-of-yogurt-supplemented-with-panax-ginseng-marc-extract
#16
Su Jin Eom, Ji Eun Hwang, Kee-Tae Kim, Hyun-Dong Paik
Panax ginseng marc is produced from fresh ginseng roots during processing and is generally treated as industrial waste. The primary aim of this study was to improve its utilization in the dairy industry as a potential high-value resource. Yogurt was prepared from 11% skim milk powder, 0.1% pectin, 10% sucrose, and ginseng marc ethanol extract (GME, 0.5% and 1.0%) in milk, and was inoculated with a 0.02% yogurt culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus). After fermentation at 40°C for 6-8 h, the physicochemical properties of samples were analyzed by the AOAC, Kjeldahl, and Soxhlet methods...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147097/characterization-of-paenibacillus-sp-mbt213-isolated-from-raw-milk-and-its-ability-to-convert-ginsenoside-rb1-into-ginsenoside-rd-from-panax-ginseng
#17
Gereltuya Renchinkhand, Soo Hyun Cho, Magsar Urgamal, Young W Park, Joong Hyeon Nam, Hyung Churl Bae, Gyu Yong Song, Myoung Soo Nam
This study was conducted to isolate and characterize Paenibacillus sp. MBT213 possessing β-glucosidase activity from raw milk, and examine the enzymatic capacity on the hydrolysis of a major ginsenoside (Rb1). Strain MBT213 was found to have a high hydrolytic ability on ginsenoside Rb1 by Esculin Iron Agar test. 16S rDNA analysis revealed that MBT213 was Paenibacillu sp. Crude enzyme of MBT213 strain exhibited high conversion capacity on ginsenoside Rb1 into ginsenoside Rd proven by TLC and HPLC analyses. The API ZYM kit confirmed that Paenibacillu sp...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145145/alleviation-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-hematopoietic-homeostasis-defects-caused-by-lead-acetate
#18
Shi-Zhong Cai, Yue Zhou, Jun Liu, Cheng-Peng Li, Dao-Yong Jia, Meng-Si Zhang, Ya-Ping Wang
The hematopoietic system is one of the potential targets of lead intoxication. Recognition of the lead-related deleterious outcomes promotes us to explore the potential therapeutic intervention. Here, we show that ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), extracted from the Chinese herb Panax ginseng, remarkably ameliorates the lead acetate-caused hematological index distortion as well as advanced hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) aging and aging associated inflammation response. Specifically, Rg1 administration alleviated the increment of aging associated p53-p21-Rb signaling in aged HSCs induced by lead acetate...
November 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136765/panax-quinquefolium-saponin-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-apoptosis-and-the-associated-inflammatory-response-in-chondrocytes-and-attenuates-the-progression-of-osteoarthritis-in-rat
#19
Jun-Jun Xie, Jian Chen, Shi-Kun Guo, Yun-Tao Gu, Ying-Zhao Yan, Wei-Jun Guo, Cheng-Lun Yao, Meng-Yun Jin, Cheng-Long Xie, Xiang Wang, Xiang-Yang Wang, Long Chen
Treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) seek to restore chondrocyte function and inhibit cell apoptosis. Panax quinquefolium saponin (PQS) is the major active ingredient of Radix panacis quinquefolii (American ginseng), and has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in various diseases. However, any potential effect of PQS on the pathological process of OA remains unclear. This work aimed to explore the role of PQS in chondrocytes and to clarify its potential mechanisms. We showed that PQS treatment could protect chondrocytes against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and associated apoptosis induced by interleukin (IL)-1β...
November 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107141/immunoadjuvant-activity-in-mice-of-polysaccharides-isolated-from-the-leaves-of-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#20
Su-Hyun Hwang, Myoung-Sook Shin, Taek Joon Yoon, Kwang-Soon Shin
Our previous study showed polysaccharide (GS-P) isolated from the leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer possessed anti-tumor metastatic activity in mouse model. In this study, we evaluated the immunoadjuvant effect of GS-P on the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. When mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA admixed with or without GS-P, the OVA+GS-P group showed significantly higher antibody production than the group immunized with OVA alone. This suggests that GS-P has the ability to enhance the adaptive immune response...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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