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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225386/-i-don-t-want-to-grow-up-i-m-a-gen-x-y-me-kid-increasing-maturity-fears-across-the-decades
#1
April R Smith, Lindsay P Bodell, Jill Holm-Denoma, Thomas E Joiner, Kathryn H Gordon, Marisol Perez, Pamela K Keel
The current studies examined the hypothesis that maturity fears are increasing among undergraduate men and women from the United States over time. Study 1 used a time-lag method to assess generational effects of maturity fears among a large sample (n = 3,291) of undergraduate men and women assessed in 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2012. Results revealed that both men and women reported significantly higher rates of maturity fears across time. Study 2 replicated these findings, and used a more restricted time frame to more closely examine the rate of change...
November 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224189/acute-loss-of-adipose-tissue-derived-adiponectin-triggers-immediate-metabolic-deterioration-in-mice
#2
Jonathan Y Xia, Kai Sun, Chelsea Hepler, Alexandra L Ghaben, Rana K Gupta, Yu A An, William L Holland, Thomas S Morley, Andrew C Adams, Ruth Gordillo, Christine M Kusminski, Philipp E Scherer
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Adiponectin (APN), a circulating hormone secreted by mature adipocytes, has been extensively studied because it has beneficial metabolic effects. While many studies have focused on the congenital loss of APN and its effects on systemic body glucose and lipid metabolism, little is known about the effects triggered by acute loss of APN in the adult mouse. We anticipated that genetically induced acute depletion of APN in adult mice would have a more profound effect on systemic metabolic health than congenital deletion of Adipoq, the gene encoding APN, with its associated potential for adaptive responses that may mask the phenotypes...
December 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217466/influence-of-corticosterone-treatment-on-nestling-begging-in-florida-scrub-jays-aphelocoma-coerulescens
#3
Emily K Elderbrock, Thomas W Small, Stephan J Schoech
Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior...
December 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216353/effects-of-sex-hormone-treatment-on-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-transgender-individuals-focus-on-metabolic-cytokines
#4
Matthias K Auer, Thomas Ebert, Maik Pietzner, Justine Defreyne, Johannes Fuss, Günter K Stalla, Guy T'Sjoen
Context: Hormone treatment (HT) in transgender persons affects many components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Objective: To determine the role of direct hormonal effects, changes in metabolic cytokines and body composition on metabolic outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: 24 transwomen and 45 transmen from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) investigated at baseline and following 12 months of HT...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203660/terminal-attack-trajectories-of-peregrine-falcons-are-described-by-the-proportional-navigation-guidance-law-of-missiles
#5
Caroline H Brighton, Adrian L R Thomas, Graham K Taylor
The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199057/epidemiology-of-hepatic-steatosis-at-a-tertiary-care-center-an-mri-based-analysis
#6
Tyler J Fraum, Daniel R Ludwig, Scott Kilian, William A Curtis, Thomas K Pilgram, Claude B Sirlin, Kathryn J Fowler
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the frequency and risk factors of hepatic steatosis in the tertiary care setting. Such knowledge is essential to clinicians making decisions about testing for this condition. Thus, our aim was to describe the epidemiology of hepatic steatosis, as captured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A near-consecutive cohort of 1006 adult patients underwent standard-of-care liver MRIs...
December 1, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196356/the-rise-of-the-genome-and-personalised-medicine
#7
Helen K Brittain, Richard Scott, Ellen Thomas
Virtually all medical specialties are impacted by genetic disease. Enhanced understanding of the role of genetics in human disease, coupled with rapid advancement in sequencing technology, is transforming the speed of diagnosis for patients and providing increasing opportunities to tailor management. As set out in the Annual report of the Chief Medical Officer 2016: Generation Genome1 and the recent NHS England board paper Creating a genomic medicine service to lay the foundations to deliver personalised interventions and treatments,2 the increasing 'mainstreaming' of genetic testing into routine practice and plans to embed whole genome sequencing in the NHS mean that the profile and importance of genomics is on the rise for many clinicians...
December 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193765/grappa-omeract-consensus-based-recommendations-and-research-agenda-for-use-of-composite-measures-and-treatment-targets-in-psa
#8
Laura C Coates, Oliver FitzGerald, Joseph F Merola, Josef Smolen, Leonieke J J van Mens, Heidi Bertheussen, Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Kristina Callis Duffin, Willemina Campbell, Maarten de Wit, Dafna Gladman, Alice Gottlieb, Jana James, Arthur Kavanaugh, Lars Erik Kristensen, Tore K Kvien, Thomas Luger, Neil McHugh, Philip Mease, Peter Nash, Alexis Ogdie, Cheryl F Rosen, Vibeke Strand, William Tillett, Douglas J Veale, Philip S Helliwell
BACKGROUND: Many composite disease activity measures and targets have been developed for psoriatic arthritis (PsA). This GRAPPA-OMERACT work stream aimed to further the development of consensus among physicians and patients. METHODS: Prior to the meeting, physicians and patients were surveyed on outcome measures. A consensus meeting (26 rheumatologists, dermatologists, and patient representatives) reviewed evidence on composite measures and potential treatment targets, plus survey results...
November 28, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191588/timeliness-of-access-to-lung-cancer-diagnosis-and-treatment-a-scoping-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Margo M Jacobsen, Sophie C Silverstein, Michael Quinn, Leo B Waterston, Christian A Thomas, James C Benneyan, Paul K J Han
The Institute of Medicine recently called for increased understanding of and commitment to timely care. Lung cancer can be difficult to diagnose, resulting in delays that may adversely affect survival; rapid diagnosis and treatment therefore is critical for enabling improved patient outcomes. This scoping review provides an update on timeliness of lung cancer care over the past decade. We searched PubMed for English-language articles published from 2007 to 2016 that report wait time intervals related to diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer...
October 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190158/integrating-interprofessional-education-and-cultural-competency-training-to-address-health-disparities
#10
Pearl Anna McElfish, Ramey Moore, Bill Buron, Jonell Hudson, Christopher R Long, Rachel S Purvis, Thomas K Schulz, Brett Rowland, T Scott Warmack
PROBLEM: Many U.S. medical schools have accreditation requirements for interprofessional education and training in cultural competency, yet few programs have developed programs to meet both of these requirements simultaneously. Furthermore, most training programs to address these requirements are broad in nature and do not focus on addressing health disparities. The lack of integration may reduce the students' ability to apply the knowledge learned. Innovative programs that combine these two learning objectives and focus on disenfranchised communities are needed to train the next generation of health professionals...
November 30, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187797/influence-of-centrifugation-conditions-on-the-results-of-77-routine-clinical-chemistry-analytes-using-standard-vacuum-blood-collection-tubes-and-the-new-bd-barricor-tubes
#11
Janne Cadamuro, Cornelia Mrazek, Alexander B Leichtle, Ulrike Kipman, Thomas K Felder, Helmut Wiedemann, Hannes Oberkofler, Georg M Fiedler, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher
Introduction: Although centrifugation is performed in almost every blood sample, recommendations on duration and g-force are heterogeneous and mostly based on expert opinions. In order to unify this step in a fully automated laboratory, we aimed to evaluate different centrifugation settings and their influence on the results of routine clinical chemistry analytes. Materials and methods: We collected blood from 41 healthy volunteers into BD Vacutainer PST II-heparin-gel- (LiHepGel), BD Vacutainer SST II-serum-, and BD Vacutainer Barricor heparin-tubes with a mechanical separator (LiHepBar)...
February 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176567/plasma-cell-survival-in-the-absence-of-b-cell-memory
#12
Erika Hammarlund, Archana Thomas, Ian J Amanna, Lindsay A Holden, Ov D Slayden, Byung Park, Lina Gao, Mark K Slifka
Pre-existing serum antibodies play an important role in vaccine-mediated protection against infection but the underlying mechanisms of immune memory are unclear. Clinical studies indicate that antigen-specific antibody responses can be maintained for many years, leading to theories that reactivation/differentiation of memory B cells into plasma cells is required to sustain long-term antibody production. Here, we present a decade-long study in which we demonstrate site-specific survival of bone marrow-derived plasma cells and durable antibody responses to multiple virus and vaccine antigens in rhesus macaques for years after sustained memory B cell depletion...
November 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170375/reconciling-grain-growth-and-shear-coupled-grain-boundary-migration
#13
Spencer L Thomas, Kongtao Chen, Jian Han, Prashant K Purohit, David J Srolovitz
Conventional models for grain growth are based on the assumption that grain boundary (GB) velocity is proportional to GB mean curvature. We demonstrate via a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that such a model is inadequate and that many physical phenomena occur during grain boundary migration for which this simple model is silent. We present a series of MD simulations designed to unravel GB migration phenomena and set it in a GB migration context that accounts for competing migration mechanisms, elasticity, temperature, and grain boundary crystallography...
November 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166127/bat-biology-genomes-and-the-bat1k-project-to-generate-chromosome-level-genomes-for-all-living-bat-species
#14
Emma Teeling, Sonja Vernes, Liliana M Davalos, David A Ray, M Thomas P Gilbert, Eugene Myers, Bat K Consortium
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163388/genomic-comparison-of-two-family-level-groups-of-the-uncultivated-nag1-archaeal-lineage-from-chemically-and-geographically-disparate-hot-springs
#15
Eric D Becraft, Jeremy A Dodsworth, Senthil K Murugapiran, Scott C Thomas, J Ingemar Ohlsson, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Brian P Hedlund, Wesley D Swingley
Recent progress based on single-cell genomics and metagenomic investigations of archaea in a variety of extreme environments has led to significant advances in our understanding of the diversity, evolution, and metabolic potential of archaea, yet the vast majority of archaeal diversity remains undersampled. In this work, we coordinated single-cell genomics with metagenomics in order to construct a near-complete genome from a deeply branching uncultivated archaeal lineage sampled from Great Boiling Spring (GBS) in the U...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163119/running-neuroimaging-applications-on-amazon-web-services-how-when-and-at-what-cost
#16
Tara M Madhyastha, Natalie Koh, Trevor K M Day, Moises Hernández-Fernández, Austin Kelley, Daniel J Peterson, Sabreena Rajan, Karl A Woelfer, Jonathan Wolf, Thomas J Grabowski
The contribution of this paper is to identify and describe current best practices for using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to execute neuroimaging workflows "in the cloud." Neuroimaging offers a vast set of techniques by which to interrogate the structure and function of the living brain. However, many of the scientists for whom neuroimaging is an extremely important tool have limited training in parallel computation. At the same time, the field is experiencing a surge in computational demands, driven by a combination of data-sharing efforts, improvements in scanner technology that allow acquisition of images with higher image resolution, and by the desire to use statistical techniques that stress processing requirements...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161511/a-customizable-flow-injection-system-for-automated-high-throughput-and-time-sensitive-ion-mobility-spectrometry-and-mass-spectrometry-measurements
#17
Daniel J Orton, Malak M Tfaily, Ronald J Moore, Brian L LaMarche, Xueyun Zheng, Thomas L Fillmore, Rosalie K Chu, Karl K Weitz, Matthew E Monroe, Ryan T Kelly, Richard D Smith, Erin Shammel Baker
To better understand disease conditions and environmental perturbations, multi-omic studies combining proteomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic analyses are vastly increasing in popularity. In a multi-omic study, a single sample is typically extracted in multiple ways and various analyses are performed using different instruments. Thus, one sample becomes many measurements, making high throughput and reproducible evaluations a necessity. One way to address the numerous samples and varying instrumental conditions is to utilize a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for rapid sample injection...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158068/new-crystal-forms-of-the-integral-membrane-escherichia-coli-quinol-fumarate-reductase-suggest-that-ligands-control-domain-movement
#18
C A Starbird, Thomas M Tomasiak, Prashant K Singh, Victoria Yankovskaya, Elena Maklashina, Michael Eisenbach, Gary Cecchini, T M Iverson
Quinol:fumarate reductase (QFR) is an integral membrane protein and a member of the respiratory Complex II superfamily. Although the structure of Escherichia coli QFR was first reported almost twenty years ago, many open questions of catalysis remain. Here we report two new crystal forms of QFR, one grown from the lipidic cubic phase and one grown from dodecyl maltoside micelles. QFR crystals grown from the lipid cubic phase processed as P1, merged to 7.5 Å resolution, and exhibited crystal packing similar to previous crystal forms...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150937/cgmp-production-and-analysis-of-bg505-sosip-664-an-extensively-glycosylated-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-candidate
#19
Antu K Dey, Albert Cupo, Gabriel Ozorowski, Vaneet K Sharma, Anna-Janina Behrens, Eden P Go, Thomas J Ketas, Anila Yasmeen, Per J Klasse, Eddy Sayeed, Heather Desaire, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Rogier W Sanders, Thomas Hassell, Andrew Ward, John P Moore
We describe the properties of BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) conditions. These proteins are the first of a new generation of native-like trimers that are the basis for many structure-guided immunogen development programs aimed at devising how to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 by vaccination. The successful translation of this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of producing similar immunogens on an appropriate scale and of an acceptable quality for Phase I experimental medicine clinical trials...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146813/structural-basis-of-bacterial-transcription-activation
#20
Bin Liu, Chuan Hong, Rick K Huang, Zhiheng Yu, Thomas A Steitz
In bacteria, the activation of gene transcription at many promoters is simple and only involves a single activator. The cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein (CAP), a classic activator, is able to activate transcription independently through two different mechanisms. Understanding the class I mechanism requires an intact transcription activation complex (TAC) structure at a high resolution. Here we report a high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of an intact Escherichia coli class I TAC containing a CAP dimer, a σ70-RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme, a complete class I CAP-dependent promoter DNA, and a de novo synthesized RNA oligonucleotide...
November 17, 2017: Science
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