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Christopher I McHugh, Jawana M Lawhorn-Crews, Dipenkumar Modi, Kirk A Douglas, Steven K Jones, Thomas J Mangner, Jerry M Collins, Anthony F Shields
BACKGROUND: A principal goal for the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology is for real-time evaluation of tumor response to chemotherapy. Given that many contemporary anti-neoplastic agents function by impairing cellular proliferation, it is of interest to develop imaging modalities to monitor these pathways. Here we examined the effect of capecitabine on the uptake of thymidine analogs used with PET: 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) thymidine ((18)F-FMAU), and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil ((18)F-FAU) in patients with advanced cancer...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Thomas Westergard, Brigid K Jensen, Xinmei Wen, Jingli Cai, Elizabeth Kropf, Lorraine Iacovitti, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti
Aberrant hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic change underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). RNA transcripts containing these expansions undergo repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN-T) to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs). DPRs are found as aggregates throughout the CNS of C9orf72-ALS/FTD patients, and some cause degeneration when expressed in vitro in neuronal cultures and in vivo in animal models. The spread of characteristic disease-related proteins drives the progression of pathology in many neurodegenerative diseases...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
D R Lapen, P J Schmidt, J L Thomas, T A Edge, C Flemming, J Keithlin, N Neumann, F Pollari, N Ruecker, A Simhon, E Topp, G Wilkes, K D M Pintar
Many Cryptosporidium species/genotypes are not considered infectious to humans, and more realistic estimations of seasonal infection risks could be made using human infectious species/genotype information to inform quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA). Cryptosporidium oocyst concentration and species/genotype data were collected from three surface water surveillance programs in two river basins [South Nation River, SN (2004-09) and Grand River, GR (2005-13)] in Ontario, Canada to evaluate seasonal infection risks...
August 13, 2016: Water Research
Moses M Muraya, Jianting Chu, Yusheng Zhao, Astrid Junker, Christian Klukas, Jochen C Reif, Thomas Altmann
Hitherto, most quantitative trait loci (QTL) of maize growth and biomass yield have been identified for a single time point, usually the final harvest stage. Through this approach cumulative effects are detected, without considering genetic factors causing phase-specific differences in growth rates. To assess the genetics of growth dynamics, we employed automated non-invasive phenotyping to monitor the plant sizes of 252 diverse maize inbred lines at eleven different developmental time points. 50 k SNP array genotype data were used for genome wide association mapping and genomic selection...
October 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kersten Döring, Björn A Grüning, Kiran K Telukunta, Philippe Thomas, Stefan Günther
Information extraction from biomedical literature is continuously growing in scope and importance. Many tools exist that perform named entity recognition, e.g. of proteins, chemical compounds, and diseases. Furthermore, several approaches deal with the extraction of relations between identified entities. The BioCreative community supports these developments with yearly open challenges, which led to a standardised XML text annotation format called BioC. PubMed provides access to the largest open biomedical literature repository, but there is no unified way of connecting its data to natural language processing tools...
2016: PloS One
Christopher I Amos, Joe Dennis, Zhaoming Wang, Jinyoung Byun, Fredrick R Schumacher, Simon A Gayther, Graham Casey, David J Hunter, Thomas A Sellers, Stephen B Gruber, Alison M Dunning, Kyriaki Michailidou, Laura Fachal, Kimberly Doheny, Amanda B Spurdle, Yafang Li, Xiangjun Xiao, Jane Romm, Elizabeth Pugh, Gerhard A Coetzee, Dennis J Hazelett, Stig E Bojesen, Charlisse Caga-Anan, Christopher A Haiman, Ahsan Kamal, Craig Luccarini, Daniel Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, David J Van Den Berg, Stefanie Nelson, Stephen Demetriades, David E Goldgar, Fergus J Couch, Judith L Forman, Graham G Giles, David V Conti, Heike Bickeböller, Angela Risch, Melanie Waldenberger, Irene Brüske-Hohlfeld, Belynda D Hicks, Hua Ling, Lesley McGuffog, Andrew Lee, Karoline Kuchenbaecker, Penny Soucy, Judith Manz, Julie M Cunningham, Katja Butterbach, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Peter Kraft, Liesel FitzGerald, Sara Lindstrom, Marcia Adams, James D McKay, Catherine M Phelan, Sara Benlloch, Linda E Kelemen, Paul Brennan, Marjorie Riggan, Tracy A O'Mara, Hongbing Shen, Yong-Yong Shi, Deborah J Thompson, Marc T Goodman, Sune F Nielsen, Andrew Berchuck, Sylvie Laboissiere, Stephanie L Schmit, Tameka Shelford, Christopher K Edlund, Jack A Taylor, John Kirkpatrick Field, Sue K Park, Kenneth Offit, Mads Thomassen, Rita Schmutzler, Laura Ottini, Rayjean J Hung, Jonathan Marchini, Ali Amin Al Olama, Ulrike Peters, Rosalind A Eeles, Michael F Seldin, Elizabeth Gillanders, Daniela Seminara, Antonis C Antoniou, Paul D P Pharoah, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Stephen J Chanock, Jacques Simard, Douglas F Easton
BACKGROUND: Common cancers develop through a multistep process often including inherited susceptibility. Collaboration among multiple institutions, and funding from multiple sources, has allowed the development of an inexpensive genotyping microarray, the OncoArray. The array includes a genome-wide backbone, comprising 230,000 SNPs tagging most common genetic variants, together with dense mapping of known susceptibility regions, rare variants from sequencing experiments, pharmacogenetic markers and cancer related traits...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Thomas J Greshock, Keith P Moore, Ray T McClain, Ana Bellomo, Cheol K Chung, Spencer D Dreher, Peter S Kutchukian, Zhengwei Peng, Ian W Davies, Petr Vachal, Mario Ellwart, Sophia M Manolikakes, Paul Knochel, Philippe G Nantermet
The reactivity of a representative set of 17 organozinc pivalates with 18 polyfunctional druglike electrophiles (informers) in Negishi cross-coupling reactions was evaluated by high-throughput experimentation protocols. The high-fidelity scaleup of successful reactions in parallel enabled the isolation of sufficient material for biological testing, thus demonstrating the high value of these new solid zinc reagents in a drug-discovery setting and potentially for many other applications in chemistry. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly defined the independent roles of the zincates and the informers toward druggable-space coverage...
September 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Thomas E Schulte, Ellen K Roberts, Kristina Birch, Steven J Lisco
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the workflow interruptions on an anesthesiology clinical director (CD). By assessing the interruptions on the CD, we hypothesize that these frequent interruptions would prohibit the CD from medical direction of residents or certified nurse anesthetists in operating rooms. DESIGN: Cellular phone data were obtained from Verizon Wireless statements over 10 months, August 2012 through May 2013. These data were from a single cellular phone carried by the anesthesia CD and subsequent overnight anesthesiologist 24 hours a day...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Hesamoddin Jahanian, Thomas Christen, Michael E Moseley, Nicholas M Pajewski, Clinton B Wright, Manjula K Tamura, Greg Zaharchuk
Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. However, following the proper commands for a breath-holding experiment may be difficult or impossible for many patients. In this study, we evaluated two approaches for obtaining vascular reactivity information using blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data: physiological fluctuation regression and coefficient of variation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Aleena M Notary, Matthew J Westacott, Thomas H Hraha, Marina Pozzoli, Richard K P Benninger
Diabetes is caused by dysfunction to β-cells in the islets of Langerhans, disrupting insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Gap junction-mediated electrical coupling between β-cells in the islet plays a major role in coordinating a pulsatile secretory response at elevated glucose and suppressing insulin secretion at basal glucose. Previously, we demonstrated that a critical number of inexcitable cells can rapidly suppress the overall islet response, as a result of gap junction coupling. This was demonstrated in a murine model of Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (NDM) involving expression of ATP-insensitive KATP channels, and by a multi-cellular computational model of islet electrical activity...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Haibo Wang, Prakash Dharmalingam, Velmarini Vasquez, Joy Mitra, Istvan Boldogh, K S Rao, Thomas A Kent, Sankar Mitra, Muralidhar L Hegde
A foremost challenge for the neurons, which are among the most oxygenated cells, is the genome damage caused by chronic exposure to endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), formed as cellular respiratory byproducts. Strong metabolic activity associated with high transcriptional levels in these long lived post-mitotic cells render them vulnerable to oxidative genome damage, including DNA strand breaks and mutagenic base lesions. There is growing evidence for the accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) during accelerated aging and progressive neurodegeneration...
September 20, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Taylor S Howard, Brian T Kalish, Daniel Wigmore, Meena Nathan, Thomas J Kulik, Aditya K Kaza, Kathryn Williams, Ravi R Thiagarajan
OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, adequacy of surgical repair, and timing of intervention for residual structural lesions in neonates cannulated to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery. Our goal was to determine how these factors were associated with survival. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Cardiovascular ICU. SUBJECTS: Neonates (≤ 28 d old) with congenital heart disease cannulated to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after cardiac surgery during 2006-2013...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Andrew J Barnes, Yaniv Hanoch, Thomas Rice, Sharon K Long
Health insurance is among the most important financial and health-related decisions that people make. Choosing a health insurance plan that offers sufficient risk protection is difficult, in part because total expected health care costs are not transparent. This study examines the effect of providing total costs estimates on health insurance decisions using a series of hypothetical choice experiments given to 7,648 individuals responding to the fall 2015 Health Reform Monitoring Survey. Participants were given two health scenarios presented in random order asking which of three insurance plans would best meet their needs...
September 12, 2016: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
Laura L Donahoe, Elsie T Nguyen, Tae-Bong Chung, Lan-Chau Kha, Marcelo Cypel, Gail E Darling, Marc de Perrot, Shaf Keshavjee, Andrew F Pierre, Thomas K Waddell, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is standard of care for small lung resections at many centres. Computed tomography (CT)-guided insertion of microcoils can aid surgeons in performing VATS resections for non-palpable lung nodules deep to the lung surface. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of CT-guided microcoil insertions prior to VATS lung resection at a single institution from October 2008 to January 2014. RESULTS: A total of 63 patients were included (37% male, mean age 61...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Nicolas Fray, Anaïs Bardyn, Hervé Cottin, Kathrin Altwegg, Donia Baklouti, Christelle Briois, Luigi Colangeli, Cécile Engrand, Henning Fischer, Albrecht Glasmachers, Eberhard Grün, Gerhard Haerendel, Hartmut Henkel, Herwig Höfner, Klaus Hornung, Elmar K Jessberger, Andreas Koch, Harald Krüger, Yves Langevin, Harry Lehto, Kirsi Lehto, Léna Le Roy, Sihane Merouane, Paola Modica, François-Régis Orthous-Daunay, John Paquette, François Raulin, Jouni Rynö, Rita Schulz, Johan Silén, Sandra Siljeström, Wolfgang Steiger, Oliver Stenzel, Thomas Stephan, Laurent Thirkell, Roger Thomas, Klaus Torkar, Kurt Varmuza, Karl-Peter Wanczek, Boris Zaprudin, Jochen Kissel, Martin Hilchenbach
The presence of solid carbonaceous matter in cometary dust was established by the detection of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in particles from comet 1P/Halley. Such matter is generally thought to have originated in the interstellar medium, but it might have formed in the solar nebula-the cloud of gas and dust that was left over after the Sun formed. This solid carbonaceous material cannot be observed from Earth, so it has eluded unambiguous characterization. Many gaseous organic molecules, however, have been observed; they come mostly from the sublimation of ices at the surface or in the subsurface of cometary nuclei...
September 7, 2016: Nature
Uciane K Scarlett, Dennis C Chang, Thomas J Murtagh, Keith T Flaherty
Combination therapies are essential to address the genetic complexity, plasticity, and heterogeneity of tumors and to overcome resistance mechanisms that confound single-agent approaches, and are a paradigm that became well established in the era of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapies. Today, we are well equipped to address many of the scientific, clinical, and collaboration challenges that have existed historically; however, the pace of testing rational combinations is modest. Our analysis shows that the volume of clinical trials testing multiple investigational pipeline agents ("novel-novel" combinations) is dismally low, as out of approximately 1,500 phase I to III investigational combination trials initiated in 2014-2015, only 80 were for novel-novel combinations, and only 9 of those involved more than one company...
September 2016: Cancer Discovery
David Kadosh, Laura K Najvar, Rosie Bocanegra, Marcos Olivo, William R Kirkpatrick, Nathan P Wiederhold, Thomas F Patterson
Candida albicans, normally found as a commensal in the gut, is a major human fungal pathogen responsible for both mucosal and systemic infections in a wide variety of immunocompromised individuals, including cancer patients and organ transplant recipients. The gastrointestinal tract represents a major portal of entry for the establishment of disseminated candidiasis in many of these individuals. Here we report the development of a diet-based mouse model for disseminated candidiasis acquired via the gastrointestinal tract...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Thomas A Schlacher, Lucy K Carracher, Nicholas Porch, Rod M Connolly, Andrew D Olds, Ben L Gilby, Kasun B Ekanayake, Brooke Maslo, Michael A Weston
Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer M Duff, Hans K Ghayee, Michelle Weber, Ryan M Thomas
Many reports exist on hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after bariatric surgery, which can result in persistence of the metabolic syndrome in patients who have undergone these procedures. While the noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome, or nesidioblastosis, has garnered increased attention in these patients, its presentation is similar to patients with an insulinoma and this entity must therefore be evaluated and ruled out. Herein, we present a patient who developed symptoms of hypoglycemia 7 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Javier Barallobre-Barreiro, Shashi K Gupta, Anna Zoccarato, Rika Kitazume-Taneike, Marika Fava, Xiaoke Yin, Tessa Werner, Marc N Hirt, Anna Zampetaki, Alessandro Viviano, Mei Chong, Marshall Bern, Antonios Kourliouros, Nieves Domenech, Peter Willeit, Ajay M Shah, Marjan Jahangiri, Liliana Schaefer, Jens W Fischer, Renato V Iozzo, Rosa Viner, Thomas Thum, Joerg Heineke, Antoine Kichler, Kinya Otsu, Manuel Mayr
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a feature of many cardiac diseases. We used proteomics to profile glycoproteins in the human cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM). METHODS: Atrial specimens were analyzed by mass spectrometry after extraction of ECM proteins and enrichment for glycoproteins or glycopeptides. RESULTS: ECM-related glycoproteins were identified in left and right atrial appendages from the same patients. Several known glycosylation sites were confirmed...
September 13, 2016: Circulation
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