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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053721/xx-disorder-of-sex-development-is-associated-with-an-insertion-on-chromosome-9-and-downregulation-of-rspo1-in-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris
#1
Vicki N Meyers-Wallen, Adam R Boyko, Charles G Danko, Jennifer K Grenier, Jason G Mezey, Jessica J Hayward, Laura M Shannon, Chuan Gao, Afrah Shafquat, Edward J Rice, Shashikant Pujar, Stefanie Eggers, Thomas Ohnesorg, Andrew H Sinclair
Remarkable progress has been achieved in understanding the mechanisms controlling sex determination, yet the cause for many Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) remains unknown. Of particular interest is a rare XX DSD subtype in which individuals are negative for SRY, the testis determining factor on the Y chromosome, yet develop testes or ovotestes, and both of these phenotypes occur in the same family. This is a naturally occurring disorder in humans (Homo sapiens) and dogs (C. familiaris). Phenotypes in the canine XX DSD model are strikingly similar to those of the human XX DSD subtype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045592/impact-of-public-safety-policies-on-hiv-transmission-dynamics-in-tijuana-mexico
#2
Sanjay R Mehta, Antoine Chaillon, Tommi L Gaines, Patricia E Gonzalez-Zuniga, Jamila K Stockman, Horatio Almanza-Reyes, Jose Roman Chavez, Alicia Vera, Karla D Wagner, Thomas L Patterson, Brianna Scott, Davey M Smith, Steffanie A Strathdee
Background: North Tijuana, Mexico, along the US border, is home to many individuals at high-risk for transmitting and acquiring HIV. Recently, policy shifts by local government impacted how these individuals were handled by authorities. Here we examined how this affected regional HIV transmission dynamics. Methods: HIV pol sequences and associated demographic information were collected from eight research studies enrolling persons in Tijuana, and were used to infer viral transmission patterns and transmission clusters...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041914/analysis-of-the-genome-of-the-new-zealand-giant-collembolan-holacanthella-duospinosa-sheds-light-on-hexapod-evolution
#3
Chen Wu, Melissa D Jordan, Richard D Newcomb, Neil J Gemmell, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Peter K Dearden, Elizabeth J Duncan, Sefanie Grosser, Kim Rutherford, Paul P Gardner, Ross N Crowhurst, Bernd Steinwender, Leah K Tooman, Mark I Stevens, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand collembolan genus Holacanthella contains the largest species of springtails (Collembola) in the world. Using Illumina technology we have sequenced and assembled a draft genome and transcriptome from Holacanthella duospinosa (Salmon). We have used this annotated assembly to investigate the genetic basis of a range of traits critical to the evolution of the Hexapoda, the phylogenetic position of H. duospinosa and potential horizontal gene transfer events. RESULTS: Our genome assembly was ~375 Mbp in size with a scaffold N50 of ~230 Kbp and sequencing coverage of ~180×...
October 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028412/the-bacteroid-periplasm-in-soybean-nodules-is-an-interkingdom-symbiotic-space
#4
Kent N Strodtman, Severin E Stevenson, James K Waters, Thomas P Mawhinney, Jay J Thelen, Joseph C Polacco, David W Emerich
The functional role of the periplasm of nitrogen-fixing bacteroids has not been determined. Proteins were isolated from the periplasm and cytoplasm of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens bacteroids and were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proteomics. Identification of bacteroid periplasmic proteins was aided by periplasm prediction programs. Approximately 40% of all the proteins identified as periplasmic in the B. diazoefficiens genome were found expressed in the bacteroid form of the bacteria, indicating the periplasm is a metabolically active symbiotic space...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023785/cns-synapses-are-stabilized-trans-synaptically-by-laminins-and-laminin-interacting-proteins
#5
Dale D Hunter, Mary K Manglapus, Galina Bachay, Thomas Claudepierre, Michael W Dolan, Kelly-Ann Gesuelli, William J Brunken
The retina expresses several laminins in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), where they may provide an extracellular scaffold for synapse stabilization. Mice with a targeted deletion of the laminin β2 gene (Lamb2) exhibit retinal disruptions: photoreceptor synapses in the OPL are disorganized and the retinal physiological response is attenuated. We hypothesize that laminins are required for proper trans-synaptic alignment. To test this, we compared the distribution, expression, association and modification of several pre- and post-synaptic elements in wild-type and Lamb2-null retinae...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988699/disruption-of-ankyrin-b-and-caveolin-1-interaction-sites-alters-na-k-atpase-membrane-diffusion
#6
Cornelia Junghans, Vladana Vukojević, Neslihan N Tavraz, Eugene G Maksimov, Werner Zuschratter, Franz-Josef Schmitt, Thomas Friedrich
The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is a plasma membrane ion transporter of high physiological importance for ion homeostasis and cellular excitability in electrically active tissues. Mutations in the genes coding for Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α-subunit isoforms lead to severe human pathologies including Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 2, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood, Rapid-onset Dystonia Parkinsonism, or epilepsy. Many of the reported mutations lead to change- or loss-of-function effects, whereas others do not alter the functional properties, but lead to, e...
October 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981377/detection-of-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-serovar-cubana-from-naturally-contaminated-chick-feed
#7
Faiza Benahmed, Hua Wang, Junia Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Gopal R Gopinath, Chorng-Ming Cheng, Darcy E Hanes, Thomas S Hammack, Mark Rasmussen, Maureen K Davidson
Because some significant outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced to contaminated animal feed, the rapid and efficient detection of Salmonella in feed is essential. However, the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method that uses lactose broth as a preenrichment medium has not reliably supported the results of real-time PCR assays for certain foods. We evaluated the BAM culture method and a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using two preenrichment media, modified buffered peptone water and lactose broth, to detect Salmonella enterica subsp...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978509/development-of-an-extended-specificity-multiplex-immunoassay-for-detection-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-specific-antigen-in-urine-using-human-monoclonal-antibodies
#8
Seyi D Eletu, Carmen L Sheppard, Elizabeth Thomas, Kenneth Smith, Priya Daniel, David J Litt, Wei Shen Lim, Norman K Fry
Current pneumococcal vaccines cover the most common 10 to 23 serotypes of the 92 presently described. However, with the increased usage of pneumococcal serotype-based vaccines the risk of serotype-replacement and an increase in disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes remains. Serotype surveillance of pneumococcal infection relies heavily on culture techniques, which are known to be insensitive, particularly in non-invasive disease.Pneumococcal serotype-specific urine assays offer an alternative method of serotyping both invasive and non-invasive disease...
October 4, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971346/combined-pet-mri-global-warming-summary-report-of-the-6th-international-workshop-on-pet-mri-march-27-29-2017-t%C3%A3-bingen-germany
#9
REVIEW
D L Bailey, B J Pichler, B Gückel, G Antoch, H Barthel, Z M Bhujwalla, S Biskup, S Biswal, M Bitzer, R Boellaard, R F Braren, C Brendle, K Brindle, A Chiti, C la Fougère, R Gillies, V Goh, M Goyen, M Hacker, L Heukamp, G M Knudsen, A M Krackhardt, I Law, J C Morris, K Nikolaou, J Nuyts, A A Ordonez, K Pantel, H H Quick, K Riklund, O Sabri, B Sattler, E G C Troost, M Zaiss, L Zender, Thomas Beyer
The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how best to characterise the tumour microenvironment, optimise the complementary information available from PET and MRI, and how advanced data mining and bioinformatics, as well as information from liquid biomarkers (circulating tumour cells and nucleic acids) and pathology, can be integrated to give a more complete characterisation of disease phenotype...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969890/lactobacillus-reuteri-for-infants-with-colic-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Nicole Y Fatheree, Yuying Liu, Christopher M Taylor, Thomas K Hoang, Chunyan Cai, Mohammad H Rahbar, Manouchehr Hessabi, Michael Ferris, Valarie McMurtry, Christine Wong, Ta Vu, Theresa Dancsak, Ting Wang, Wallace Gleason, Vinay Bandla, Fernando Navarro, Dat Q Tran, J Marc Rhoads
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen (DSM) 17938 with daily administration to healthy infants with colic and to determine the effect of L reuteri strain DSM 17938 on crying, fussing, inflammatory, immune, and microbiome variables. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a controlled, double-blinded, phase 1 safety and tolerability trial in healthy breast-fed infants with colic, aged 3 weeks to 3 months, randomly assigned to L reuteri strain DSM 17938 (5 × 10(8) colony-forming units daily) or placebo for 42 days and followed for 134 days...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968762/patric-as-a-unique-resource-for-studying-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
Dionysios A Antonopoulos, Rida Assaf, Ramy Karam Aziz, Thomas Brettin, Christopher Bun, Neal Conrad, James J Davis, Emily M Dietrich, Terry Disz, Svetlana Gerdes, Ronald W Kenyon, Dustin Machi, Chunhong Mao, Daniel E Murphy-Olson, Eric K Nordberg, Gary J Olsen, Robert Olson, Ross Overbeek, Bruce Parrello, Gordon D Pusch, John Santerre, Maulik Shukla, Rick L Stevens, Margo VanOeffelen, Veronika Vonstein, Andrew S Warren, Alice R Wattam, Fangfang Xia, Hyunseung Yoo
The Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, www.patricbrc.org) is designed to provide researchers with the tools and services that they need to perform genomic and other 'omic' data analyses. In response to mounting concern over antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the PATRIC team has been developing new tools that help researchers understand AMR and its genetic determinants. To support comparative analyses, we have added AMR phenotype data to over 15 000 genomes in the PATRIC database, often assembling genomes from reads in public archives and collecting their associated AMR panel data from the literature to augment the collection...
July 31, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967259/solid-state-nanopore-analysis-of-diverse-dna-base-modifications-using-a-modular-enzymatic-labeling-process
#12
Fanny Wang, Osama K Zahid, Brandi Swain, Derek Parsonage, Thomas Hollis, Scott Harvey, Dr Fred Perrino, Rahul M Kohli, Ethan W Taylor, Adam R Hall
Many regulated epigenetic elements and base lesions found in genomic DNA can both directly impact gene expression and play a role in disease processes. However, due to their non-canonical nature, they are challenging to assess with conventional technologies. Here, we present a new approach for the targeted detection of diverse modified bases in DNA. We first use enzymatic components of the DNA base excision repair pathway to install an individual affinity label at each location of a selected modified base with high yield...
October 2, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955965/abundance-of-rnase4-and-rnase5-mrna-and-protein-in-host-defence-related-tissues-and-secretions-in-cattle
#13
Sandeep K Gupta, Brendan J Haigh, Thomas T Wheeler
Members of the RNaseA family are present in various tissues and secretions but their function is not well understood. Some of the RNases are proposed to participate in host defence. RNase4 and RNase5 are present in cows' milk and have antimicrobial activity. However, their presence in many tissues and secretions has not been characterised. We hypothesised that these two RNases are present in a range of tissues and secretions where they could contribute to host defence. We therefore, determined the relative abundance of RNase4 and RNase5 mRNA as well as protein levels in a range of host defence related and other tissues as well as a range of secretions in cattle, using real time PCR and western blotting...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942965/biallelic-c1qbp-mutations-cause-severe-neonatal-childhood-or-later-onset-cardiomyopathy-associated-with-combined-respiratory-chain-deficiencies
#14
René G Feichtinger, Monika Oláhová, Yoshihito Kishita, Caterina Garone, Laura S Kremer, Mikako Yagi, Takeshi Uchiumi, Alexis A Jourdain, Kyle Thompson, Aaron R D'Souza, Robert Kopajtich, Charlotte L Alston, Johannes Koch, Wolfgang Sperl, Elisa Mastantuono, Tim M Strom, Saskia B Wortmann, Thomas Meitinger, Germaine Pierre, Patrick F Chinnery, Zofia M Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Robert N Lightowlers, Salvatore DiMauro, Sarah E Calvo, Vamsi K Mootha, Maurizio Moggio, Monica Sciacco, Giacomo P Comi, Dario Ronchi, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Pedro Rebelo-Guiomar, Masakazu Kohda, Dongchon Kang, Johannes A Mayr, Robert W Taylor, Yasushi Okazaki, Michal Minczuk, Holger Prokisch
Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein (C1QBP; also known as p32) is a multi-compartmental protein whose precise function remains unknown. It is an evolutionary conserved multifunctional protein localized primarily in the mitochondrial matrix and has roles in inflammation and infection processes, mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and nuclear transcription. It has an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide that is proteolytically processed after import into the mitochondrial matrix, where it forms a homotrimeric complex organized in a doughnut-shaped structure...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939525/encapsulation-of-zidovudine-in-pf-68-coated-alginate-conjugate-nanoparticles-for-anti-hiv-drug-delivery
#15
K S Joshy, M Alex Susan, S Snigdha, Kalarikkal Nandakumar, A Pothen Laly, Thomas Sabu
Retroviral drug delivery faces many challenges due to its low bioavailability, short half life and hydrophobicity. In this study, the anti viral drug zidovudine (AZT) was encapsulated inside the amide functionalised alginate nanoparticles (AZT-GAAD NPs) using emulsion solvent evaporation method. The amide derivative of alginate was prepared by coupling reaction with d,l glutamic acid using carbodiimide activation chemistry. The stabilizer, PF-68 was integrated during the preparation of nanoparticles. The alginate nanoparticles were prepared via chemical cross linking...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937992/efficient-generation-of-mutations-mediated-by-crispr-cas9-in-the-hairy-root-transformation-system-of-brassica-carinata
#16
Thomas W Kirchner, Markus Niehaus, Thomas Debener, Manfred K Schenk, Marco Herde
A protocol for the induction of site-directed deletions and insertions in the genome of Brassica carinata with CRISPR is described. The construct containing the Cas9 nuclease and the guide RNA (gRNA) was delivered by the hairy root transformation technique, and a successful transformation was monitored by GFP fluorescence. PAGE analysis of an amplified region, presumably containing the deletions and insertions, demonstrated up to seven different indels in one transgenic root and in all analyzed roots a wildtype allele of the modified gene was not detectable...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931684/zika-virus-encoding-non-glycosylated-envelope-protein-is-attenuated-and-defective-in-neuroinvasion
#17
Arun S Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R Sahoo, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, David Steffen, Hiep L X Vu, Gustavo Delhon, Fernando A Osorio, Thomas M Petro, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K Pattnaik
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, responsible for sporadic outbreaks of mild and febrile illness in Africa and Asia, re-emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases including microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that genetic evolution may have led to enhanced virulence of ZIKV, experimental evidence supporting the role of specific genetic changes in virulence is currently outstanding. One sequence motif, VNDT, containing an N-linked glycosylation site in the envelope (E) protein, is polymorphic, being absent in many of the African isolates while present in all isolates from the recent outbreaks...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918054/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-breast-cancer-cells-in-patient-blood-with-nuclease-activated-probe-technology
#18
Sven Kruspe, David D Dickey, Kevin T Urak, Giselle N Blanco, Matthew J Miller, Karen C Clark, Elliot Burghardt, Wade R Gutierrez, Sneha D Phadke, Sukriti Kamboj, Timothy Ginader, Brian J Smith, Sarah K Grimm, James Schappet, Howard Ozer, Alexandra Thomas, James O McNamara, Carlos H Chan, Paloma H Giangrande
A challenge for circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based diagnostics is the development of simple and inexpensive methods that reliably detect the diverse cells that make up CTCs. CTC-derived nucleases are one category of proteins that could be exploited to meet this challenge. Advantages of nucleases as CTC biomarkers include: (1) their elevated expression in many cancer cells, including cells implicated in metastasis that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; and (2) their enzymatic activity, which can be exploited for signal amplification in detection methods...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915003/the-evolution-of-dna-templated-synthesis-as-a-tool-for-materials-discovery
#19
Rachel K O'Reilly, Andrew J Turberfield, Thomas R Wilks
Precise control over reactivity and molecular structure is a fundamental goal of the chemical sciences. Billions of years of evolution by natural selection have resulted in chemical systems capable of information storage, self-replication, catalysis, capture and production of light, and even cognition. In all these cases, control over molecular structure is required to achieve a particular function: without structural control, function may be impaired, unpredictable, or impossible. The search for molecules with a desired function is often achieved by synthesizing a combinatorial library, which contains many or all possible combinations of a set of chemical building blocks (BBs), and then screening this library to identify "successful" structures...
October 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904225/endothelial-aplnr-regulates-tissue-fatty-acid-uptake-and-is-essential-for-apelin-s-glucose-lowering-effects
#20
Cheol Hwangbo, Jingxia Wu, Irinna Papangeli, Takaomi Adachi, Bikram Sharma, Saejeong Park, Lina Zhao, Hyekyung Ju, Gwang-Woong Go, Guoliang Cui, Mohammed Inayathullah, Judith K Job, Jayakumar Rajadas, Stephanie L Kwei, Ming O Li, Alan R Morrison, Thomas Quertermous, Arya Mani, Kristy Red-Horse, Hyung J Chun
Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to pose an important clinical challenge, with most existing therapies lacking demonstrable ability to improve cardiovascular outcomes. The atheroprotective peptide apelin (APLN) enhances glucose utilization and improves insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanism of these effects remains poorly defined. We demonstrate that the expression of APLNR (APJ/AGTRL1), the only known receptor for apelin, is predominantly restricted to the endothelial cells (ECs) of multiple adult metabolic organs, including skeletal muscle and adipose tissue...
September 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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